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url i body Title summary date 0 Good morning. It is a great honour to address this yeara€™s opening session of the ECOSOC High-Level Segment. I am particularly pleased that the focus of this meeting is gender equality and the role of women in development, peace and security. This is an issue that we in the United Kingdom consider to be particularly important.  I hope that, over the next few days, the ideas we share and the commitments we make will stimulate a renewed international effort to support the opportunities, rights, health and status of women and girls around the world. As I said in my speech at the Carnegie Institute on Friday, the place of women and girls in development generally is impossible to overstate. Promoting gender equality is vital for meeting the MDGs and for creating a prosperous, safe and peaceful world. Where women have better access to health services, to education and to economic growth their children are healthier and better educated. As a result, economies flourish and societies are more peaceful. By contrast, where women and girls are treated as inferior to men and boys, a vicious circle of limited education, poor employment opportunities, ill-health, forced marriage and, all too frequently, violence and exploitation can be established and perpetuated. Focussing more support on girls offers an opportunity to replace that vicious cycle with a virtuous one that puts women at the heart of their families and their communities.  As a result women are able to bring in money to their families, get involved with local enterprises and make sure their children are educated. These are all vital agents of change. The United Nations has an important leadership role on gender equality. It is good to see that it has recognised and reflected the need to do more. However, may I beg to suggest more needs to be done. The High Level Plenary Meeting on the MDGs in September is an important opportunity to put investment in women and girls at the very centre of an action agenda to meet the MDGs by 2015. October will mark the tenth anniversary of the historic Security Council Resolution 1325 on women, peace and security to which the Secretary General referred. This resolution recognised the vital role played by women in preventing and resolving conflict. I think, for example, of the brave Liberian women who, in 2003, stood in their capital city dressed in white and refusing to move until peace was reached. While women have a role in combating violence they are also disproportionately affected by it, especially sexual violence in driving conflict.  In February, the UN recognised the urgency of the situation by appointing its first Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, I applaud the UNa€™s work in this area and call on the international community to continue its work to protect women and to give them a greater role in creating peace. The UN must also maintain and strengthen its support for all women. It must show leadership by mainstreaming and prioritising gender equality in all its work. It must ensure that its efforts are as coherent and effective as possible in support of womena€™s empowerment, and in the promotion and protection of womena€™s rights and security. I understand negotiations to establish a single, composite UN body to lead this crucial agenda may a€“ at last a€“ be near a conclusion. I urge all member states to finish this process quickly so that the new entity can start work as soon as possible. This requires flexibility. And it requires a practical approach a€“ putting aside ideology and politics in favour of common sense and determination to make a real difference to real women in real time in the real world. To that end, the new entity must be established and managed in a way which will command the confidence of the financial contributors whose support it needs. I look forward to the appointment of a strong and committed leader with the skills and enthusiasm to ensure the new entity lives up to our expectations. I urge all of you here today to instruct your teams to go the final distance to make this happen. There are now just five years remaining before we reach the target dates set for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. It is clear that we will only achieve those goals by putting a renewed focus on gender equality and womena€™s empowerment. I hope that through our discussions this week we can shine a spotlight on the rights and opportunities of women throughout the world. In doing so, we must pay particular attention to the issues of reproductive and maternal health. Maternal health is the most off-track of all the MDGs. Nowhere is this more evident than in fragile and conflict-affected settings. People living in these countries account for around one fifth of the population of the developing world, but disproportionately, for around three-quarters of the total number of infant and under five deaths. They also represent some three-quarters of births that take place unsupported by medical attendance. Despite signs of recent progress, more than a third of a million women die due to complications in pregnancy or child birth each and every year. The majority of those deaths occur in low and middle income countries, with young women particularly vulnerable. Girls between the ages of fifteen and nineteen are twice as likely to die as those in their twenties. It doesna€™t have to be like this. As Melinda Gates said earlier this month, a€œita€™s not that we dona€™t know what to do or that we cana€™t do it. Ita€™s that we havena€™t chosen to.a€ We have within our grasp a golden opportunity, a perfect moment when we have the technology and the political will, if not to eradicate maternal mortality then to reduce it significantly. Tackling this MDG is therefore a major priority of the UKa€™s new coalition government shown by our commitment to reach 0.7% by 2013 and enshrine this into law. Last Friday, our Prime Minister David Cameron called on the G8 to agree a strong package of support for maternal health focussed around good quality care and stronger health systems. The UN can increase its impact on important issues such as maternal mortality by using its resources and skills more strategically and adopting innovative approaches such as Delivering as One. The Delivering as One approach allows the efforts of UN agencies in country to be coordinated, targeted and more responsive to the needs of country government, leading to more effective - and efficient - results on the ground. Innovative changes of this kind in the UN system are essential if it is to do more to improve the lives of women and girls worldwide, and to support wider development issues. I applaud and wholeheartedly support the leadership shown by the UN Secretary General in launching a Global Effort to advance progress on Womena€™s and Childrena€™s Health and support the SGa€™s words on this today.  This provides a historic opportunity to deliver for women and children. Only through concerted international effort will we finally put an end to the travesty that is mothers dying on the very day that should be one of the happiest of their lives.  Donors must play their part, partner countries too, but now is the time for the private sector to step up and contribute, alongside civil society and philanthropists.  Together we can achieve this goal and ensure a better future for the world's poorest women and children. The UK will play its part in supporting this effort and I encourage other member states to do so as well.  Maternal health is not just about giving birth. It is about giving women choice about whether and when they have children.  A quarter of all women in Sub-Saharan Africa want to delay or avoid their next pregnancy. These women want more for their children, not more children. Globally, more than 215 million women who want to delay, space or stop having children, do not have access to modern methods of family planning. This unmet demand has real consequences for peoplea€™s lives. As indeed, does  the 75 million unintended pregnancies that each year result in some 20 million unsafe abortions and nearly 70,000 maternal deaths. Improving reproductive and maternal health is the linchpin of poverty eradication and it is only through giving women greater choice and access to family planning and safer births that we will lift communities from desperate poverty. Over the coming months and years I shall ensure Britain embeds making progress on this in all our bilateral programmes, working closely with UN Agencies where there are opportunities to take this valid agenda forward. Ladies and Gentlemen, the evidence shows overwhelmingly that we will not be able to solve many of the problems facing our world today without an increased and sustained focus on girls and women. My hope is that this yeara€™s Economic and Social Council will draw international attention to this pressing issue and will secure broad support for reforms and innovations that enable the UN to contribute more effectively to gender equality. In that way we can take advantage of this historic opportunity to empower women and girls and accelerate progress towards the MDGs. Thank you. Andrew Mitchell speech to UN Economic and Social Council Statement delivered by Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell to the ECOSOC 2010 High-Level Segment 2010-06-28 1 Good morning. In making this speech I am delighted to be sharing a platform with two such climate and development luminaries as Nick and Simon.   Nick is surely one of the UKa€™s best-known and most respected authorities on these issues and I am extremely grateful to him for making time in his busy day to be with us here today. And of course, I must also pay tribute to Simon who, in his imitable and ever-opportunistic manner has been encouraging me to give this speech almost since the day I became Secretary of State for International Development. We are lucky to have someone of your intellect a€“ and enthusiasm - chairing the Climate Development Knowledge Network and I am grateful for all that you do to further our understanding of this subject. The more observant of you may have spotted that by dint of careful planning we find ourselves in the Prince of Wales Suite. His Royal Highness has supported the cause of forests and we should acknowledge his contribution today. And on the subject of our location, I must also thank the British Council for hosting this event a€“ I know that climate change is high on their agenda. Ladies and Gentlemen, I want this morning to lay before you three arguments: * First, that while climate change is undoubtedly a massive threat to poor countries it also presents real opportunities * Second, that in climate change, the world has a real chance to take a new approach to solving global problems and seizing global opportunities * Third, and most importantly, that we must get on with it. Whilst we work tirelessly towards a global deal we must not be paralysed into inaction on the ground.  Helping developing countries adapt to the impacts of climate change a€“ and to grow in a low-carbon way - will not only save lives but will also build the very confidence that can make a deal a reality. ### Consensus on the Case I dona€™t intend this morning to dwell on the science behind climate change. Those arguments have already been well-made by the Royal Society and many others. Despite these arguments there will always be those who remain un-persuaded of the science. Not least, because this is an issue of probability and risk. But I dona€™t believe ita€™s the job of politicians or policy makers to second-guess scientists. As others before me have said, if 99 out of a 100 doctors tell you your child has measles, you dona€™t wait for the hundredth to change their mind before doing something about it. The private sector certainly isna€™t waiting around. Decisions are being made every day on where to locate, on investments and on insurance premiums. These decisions are based on the business reality of climate change. HSBC, in launching its Climate Change Fund said that it saw climate change as one of the biggest investment themes for the foreseeable future. The sad truth, well-known to this audience, is that the poorest people in the poorest countries are already suffering from climate change a€“ and are suffering the most. Tragically, they will suffer even more in the future. Left unchecked, climate change will cruelly impede our progress towards meeting the Millennium Development Goals a€“ disproportionately so in the case of women - and will jeopardise our existing gains. Add to this, massive population shifts, severely depleted resources and the consequent tensions and grievances that can so easily lead to unrest a€“ and the picture is not a bright one. At a time when this Coalition Government has proudly led the world in being the first G20 country to live up to its commitment to spend 0.7 per cent of GNI as aid from 2013, we are in danger of turning on the tap with one hand while removing the plug with the other. Yet, there is a solution. It is possible to tackle climate change while also addressing development. Ita€™s just that ita€™s a different sort of development, one that marries good development outcomes with low-carbon, climate-resilient growth. ### Climate change as an opportunity for developing countries This brings me to my first argument. We should in no way underestimate the havoc and destruction that can come from climate change. But I think the time has come to recognise first that if we act now we can manage, or even avoid, the most severe impacts. And second that tackling climate change now is not only cheaper than dealing with its impacts, but actually opens up huge opportunities. Yes, the challenge is great. Current projections show that without action, the population will grow to 9 billion by 2050. To avoid catastrophic climate change we need to reduce average emissions to less than 2 tonnes per head. Thata€™s less than a tenth of what some rich countries emit today. But there are things we can do now that will make a real difference and do not cost the earth. We could cut carbon emissions by 2020 by as much as a third simply by avoiding unnecessary deforestation. And more than 70 per cent of the energy-related emissions savings we need to make in the next ten years could come from using energy more efficiently a€“ saving money in the process. Admittedly, achieving substantial cuts in other areas will be tougher, but the technologies exist to help us deal with it a€“ provided we work together. Of course, we have to face facts. The carbon that is already in the atmosphere means that adaptation presents a far tougher challenge, bigger than any wea€™ve seen before. And there are some areas where no amount of action on our part will save us from the deepest impacts. The risk to small islands, for example, is immense. Waiting around to tackle climate change, however, will be both expensive and painful. On Nicka€™s figures, action today will cost us 2 per cent of global GDP a year. Now, no-one is suggesting that this isna€™t a huge sum but contrast it with the 20% of GDP that our inaction could cost us in years to come.  And Nick has said that the Stern Review may even have under-estimated those costs.  We must summon the political will to act now rather than leaving our children and grandchildren to pick up the bill a€“ a much bigger bill a€“ later. The challenge we face in international development is this. Can countries continue to grow and prosper in a way which uses energy and resources in a different way? Can energy be used more sparingly? Can cleaner ways be found to generate it? Can agricultural techniques, building designs, social support systems, insurance packages - be developed to help the worlda€™s poorest people cope with more extreme weather and natural disasters? Can governments develop the incentives that could unleash the transformative power of the private sector? This should be the most inspiring, exciting and overwhelming series of challenges to todaya€™s generation of bright, young people. As well as to wise, experienced, older hands. We are at the threshold of nothing less than a new industrial, agricultural and technological revolution. We know from previous industrial revolutions, that investment flows to where the leadership is. Whichever country seizes the opportunity presented by low-carbon growth, will reap the economic reward. The same is no less true of companies and citizens. Our Coalition Government has been alive to this from day one. Our spending review was the greenest ever. We are positioning the UK to be a world leader in off-shore wind. And, together with Norway, the United States, Australia and China, we are investing in carbon capture and storage. On the global stage, the UK has led the way by committing to cut emissions by 80 per cent by 2050.   But crucially, therea€™s a massive opportunity here for developing countries too, an opportunity that will help them to pull in low-carbon investment, placing them firmly on the front foot. Some are already acting. Costa Rica has led the world in making forests worth more alive than dead. Brazil is now attempting to do this on a massive scale, using satellite technology to track progress. Ethiopia has pledged zero net carbon emissions by 2025. The Maldives aims to be carbon-neutral by the end of the decade. Then therea€™s the immense potential of natural resources a€“ sun, wind, rivers, tides - that developing countries often possess in abundance. By exploiting these resources, they can sell carbon credits and develop exciting new technologies. Imagine North African countries exporting solar power to Europe. Or those with significant hydropower - from Nepal to Mozambique - exporting to neighbouring countries such as India and South Africa. Or take adaptation, where early action is not only cheaper but also opens up yet more opportunities. Let me give you a couple of examples. Vietnam saved over £4 million a year on maintaining its dykes simply by planting 12,000 hectares of mangrove forest. The cost? Less than a £1 million. Some developing countries are currently replanting their mangroves to protect themselves from tsunamis a€“ and in so doing are supporting biodiversity and fish nurseries. In Bangladesh, poor farmers are using a€œscuba ricea€ which can survive underwater for up to two weeks. In Sub-Saharan Africa, some countries are developing new agricultural techniques, including drip irrigation and low-till planting, to save water and reduce emissions. Of course, just because opportunities exist, it doesna€™t automatically follow that developing countries will be able to exploit them.  I will return to this theme later by suggesting ways in which richer countries can help them to do so. ### Tackling climate change presents a chance to work in a new way globally I come now to my second argument: that this vision of a new revolution will not a€“ cannot - be achieved without global leadership and co-operation. Companies and citizens can only do so much on their own. Ultimately, they need a stronger, more long-term signal from their government. In turn, governments find it hard to show that vision, unless they see other governments making matching commitments. I wona€™t dwell here on the fact that we need an ambitious, fair and effective global deal. Or on what we expect from Cancun.  Chris Huhne, my colleague, spoke on this eloquently, only yesterday. I must however, take a moment to highlight those elements of that deal which will make it truly fair for developing countries. It is a blatant injustice that those who have contributed the least to climate change will be affected the most. A deal must be ambitious enough to keep the worlda€™s temperature below a 2 degree rise, with effort fairly shared out. Those who are historically the highest emitters must do the most and the newly-high emitters the next most. A deal should build trust by including commitments to be transparent. We need to be able to hold each other to account, not only for emissions reductions, but also for the finance we provide. The UK is leading the way on transparency and has promised to report openly on our Fast Start commitments. In common with other EU states we have already provided the latest information online.  The Governmenta€™s UK Aid Transparency Guarantee was a testament to our determination to be open and transparent about how we spend taxpayersa€™ money and we are abiding by that promise. A deal must include sufficient finance to support developing countries on a low-carbon and climate-resilient development path. Through the Copenhagen Accord, richer countries committed to securing 100 billion dollars a year from 2020, from public and private sources. Now the Advisory Group on Climate Finance has shown that this target, while challenging, is achievable.  Indeed, it suggests that developed countries could collectively mobilise some 50 billion dollars a€“ or even more a€“ from new public sources. It goes on to say that private finance could take us considerably beyond this sum. And let me make clear that I hope we can make progress at Cancun towards establishing the Green Fund that was called for in the Copenhagen Accord. Carbon markets are a key piece of the financing jigsaw and another area where leadership is needed. To create viable markets, we first need developed countries to sign up to ambitious emissions reductions targets. The UK is pushing for the higher cut in EU-wide emissions of 30 per cent by 2020. Tough targets will help set a carbon price that is sufficiently high and stable - the AGF talks about 20 to 25 US dollars per tonne -  to create incentives for innovators and investors to develop low-carbon solutions. But, ladies and gentlemen, we want carbon markets to be really effective. We need to reform the way the market works. In particular, this must include improving access for poorer, developing countries so that it is not just the more advanced countries that are able to benefit from carbon market finance. If we are to achieve a fair global deal, if we are to succeed in opening up the carbon markets, indeed, if we are to make any real progress on climate change a€“ we have to accept that the old style of bargaining wona€™t work any more. The days of the zero-sum game must come to an end. Ita€™s simply not good enough for countries to talk to each other only when the spotlight of the worlda€™s press is on them. We need the quiet diplomacy as well, the diplomacy that builds relationships rather than tests them. And we need new relationships, with new partners as well as old friends. We also need a more even playing field. Michael Howard called for this some years ago in the context of trade negotiations. I think we should do the same for climate change. So today, I would like to announce our support for a Climate Advocacy Fund.  The Fund will provide access to legal, technical and logistical support to the poorest and most vulnerable countries a€“ countries whose full participation is essential if we are to achieve an equitable deal. I hope this will provide valuable help to those countries that have previously suffered such an unfair disadvantage.  We will also strengthen our relationships with emerging economies. Under the Foreign Secretarya€™s leadership, Coalition Cabinet colleagues will develop a more strategic approach to these partnerships. Within DFID, I intend to set up a Partnership Secretariat that can build common cause with key emerging economies on global justice issues, including climate change. Ita€™s worth remembering, that leadership needna€™t come from the richest countries. China long ago recognised the potential of green growth and is now showing others the way. Then therea€™s the wide range of progressive and vulnerable countries from the Maldives to Mexico and Malaysia, from Bangladesh to Brazil and Burkina Faso. Yes, we may have to find new ways of working a€“ we have no template - but we will find an approach that works. And in this new era, that approach will include networks of civil society, alliances working across borders, the private sector not just governments. And let me say here and now - we will use the tremendous network that is the Commonwealth. We all have a mutual interest in securing an ambitious, fair and effective deal. If we do all this, if we embrace new ways of working together in order to solve this most global of global problems a€“ then we will be in a good place to tackle food security, water security or whatever other shared challenges may lie ahead. ### Action on the ground I come now to my third and final point. Ita€™s essentially a very practical point about action on the ground. It is here that we need to roll up our sleeves in three key areas: adaptation, low-carbon development and forests. By building confidence in our ability to respond to these difficult issues, we will also help to lay the foundations for a deal on climate change. Making sure that development is climate-resilient and that developing countries are equipped to adapt to the inevitable consequences of climate change is central to everything we do. After all, adaptation is simply development in a harsher context. Thata€™s why Chris Huhne and I believe that a substantial amount of climate finance should be spent on adaptation. Therea€™s absolutely no reason why we cana€™t make progress on adaptation before a global deal is done. Wea€™re already discovering what works and what doesna€™t. In Malawi, we are helping farmers to withstand extreme climatic events by investing in drought-resistant crops. In Bangladesh we have made it possible for some 90,000 homes to be raised on earth platforms in order to protect half a million families and their livestock from seasonal Monsoon floods. We will need to strengthen our support for Disaster Risk Reduction, an approach which we know delivers results and value for money. Getting on with the job also means being prepared to learn and to take risks. Thata€™s why ita€™s so important that we develop a strong evaluation framework to measure the success of our investment. On low-carbon development, we will give greater emphasis to partnering developing countries to help them attract private investment, a subject upon which I touched in my wealth creation speech at the London School of Economics last month. We will pioneer innovative approaches, working with the City, the multilateral development banks and with individual companies. But we should never ask developing countries to sacrifice short-term growth in the interests of making that growth green. Instead, we will support the investments that deliver green growth for those who need it. We want to stimulate investment in the renewable technologies that can be life-changers for the worlda€™s poorest people. We have had some small-scale successes in the past. The Lighting Africa programme has helped six private companies and social entrepreneurs to develop solar-powered LED lighting products for the African market. These sell for as little as £15 each and could be sold even more cheaply if carbon finance were available. We want to build on examples like the Lighting Africa programme to promote the kind of creativity that public money is uniquely-placed to stimulate. As I speak, there are one and a half billion people across our world who lack any means of accessing energy. We can make it possible for them to get new forms of energy in new ways, freeing them from dependence on governments and on monopolies.  We will also explore how innovation prizes might be used to reward fresh thinking on inclusive technologies, working alongside the X-Prize Foundation and others with experience in this field. We will support Climate Innovation Centres in countries such as India and Kenya, so that local entrepreneurs can turn ideas and technologies into viable businesses. I want CDC, the UK-owned development finance corporation, to start investing more of its assets in innovative projects, taking risks and delivering real and sustainable benefits for the worlda€™s poorest people. We are currently consulting on how this might be achieved and I dona€™t think ita€™s unreasonable to assume that climate-related initiatives could feature in its portfolio. I will also urge the Multilateral Development Banks to do even more to support a shift to climate-smart investment and lending. Alongside this I will expect the substantial resources we have provided through the Climate Investment Funds to deliver transformational change. These promise impressive results. Wea€™re also working on two new public-private partnerships that will target low-carbon and adaptation investments in Asia and large-scale renewable energy in Africa. They will use public money to leverage private finance and direct it to where it is most needed, securing up to £9 of private investment for every £1 of public money spent. If successful, the Asian initiative could, over 25 years, create up to 5 gigawatts of new renewable energy, generating massive opportunities, including 60,000 jobs, and removing 150 millions tonnes of CO2. In Africa, we are exploring a cash-on-delivery mechanism with a view to delivering enough electricity for over 4 million rural households, avoiding emissions of up to 900,000 tonnes a year. We hope to launch these partnerships next year. Meanwhile, the Governmenta€™s Capital Markets Climate Initiative is bringing key players from the City of London together with financiers and policy-makers from across the world. And where better to site a global hub for green finance than in the Square Mile, a centre of global trade since Roman times? There are massive opportunities here for British businesses to show the entrepreneurial flair of which we are so justly proud. The Coalition Government is committed to ensuring that UK Trade and Investment and the Export Credits Guarantee Department become champions for British companies that develop and export innovative green technologies around the world, instead of supporting investment in dirty fossil-fuel energy production. Finally, I want to say something about forests. Time and again, I have been struck by how much potential there is here. In Nepal, British aid is helping more than half a million households to make a living from the local forests. In just five years, this has contributed to an increase in the average household income of some 60 per cent as well as helping  to save an estimated 1.2 million tonnes of carbon a year. As the Environment Secretary said when she helped to secure a deal at Nagoya, reducing deforestation can also increase biodiversity, protecting fragile habitats and endangered species. It is also a large and relatively low-cost part of the solution to climate change, representing 17 per cent of emissions but, at around four dollars per tonne, the low-hanging fruit in terms of the difference we can make. We want to agree urgent on-the-ground action here too. 1.2 billion people depend on forests for their livelihoods. We already have a good model emerging, in the REDD+ Partnership which is currently being pioneered in Brazil and in some other Rainforest Nations. Through REDD+ a€“ REDD stands for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degredation a€“ you can see why we use the acronym a€“ through REDD+ we help countries to lay the foundation for a system that rewards forest-managers for keeping trees standing. The action we want to agree might focus on helping developing countries to reach agreement on land rights or to improve controls over illegal logging. Or it might be about the development of crucial monitoring systems. Once these blocks are in place, public funding can leverage the private finance that enables countries to offer a set price for every tonne of avoided deforestation. At the same time, we are therefore helping to facilitate the longer-term entry of forests into the carbon market. Last but not least, the Coalition Government has an important job ahead of it, in giving force to the new EU Legislation a€“ which came into being very recently a€“ and which seeks to prevent the import of illegally-logged timber. By working with the private sector and with those governments that play by the rules a€“ in other words those paying taxes on legal timber a€“ wea€™ll be able to weed out those employing dodgy and damaging practices. It also means that we can help cash-starved developing country exchequers to collect the taxes that are due to them. Over the last ten years alone, our efforts have brought in some 6.5 billion US dollars.  We will ensure that the UK is in the vanguard of this effort. We will press others to follow our lead and we will explore how we can extend this approach to palm oil and agricultural techniques. ### Looking Ahead Viewed from the perspective of poor countries, the distinction between adaptation and low carbon development interventions is ultimately meaningless. As we look ahead, our role a€“ in partnership with developing countries - must be to find a solution that tackles the challenge of climate change, while meeting development goals and facilitating long-term growth. CDKN calls this climate-compatible development. We saw this inter-relationship neatly captured in the Nepal example where one really good plan managed to cut emissions, give people a living and promote long-term economic growth. We need more of these solutions, solutions that work today but that will last beyond tomorrow. Ita€™s not beyond our wit to do this and I firmly believe that the UK, with its very public commitment to development and climate change, is well-placed to lead the way.  To achieve those solutions we will need to demonstrate strong leadership at a global level while also taking a climate-smart approach to development.    We have already shown the strongest of leadership on finance. The Coalitiona€™s commitment, even in the face of great financial hardship, to spend 0.7% of national income as ODA from 2013, has enabled us to create an unprecedented £2.9 billion International Climate Fund that will not only meet our Fast Start pledge but will enable us to ramp up our funding up to 2015. This position gives us the credibility to: press other donors to meet their own 0.7% commitments; to press them to make more resources available for tackling climate change; to press the multilateral development banks to continue increasing and strengthening their climate lending; and to press for that vital agreement on new and innovative sources of finance, as set out by the Advisory Group on Climate Finance. Our focus will, above all else, be on results.  We will also provide leadership through the sharing of expertise. The UK has a vast reservoir of knowledge and skills and we will continue to make this available where it is wanted. We will invest more in building that knowledge so that we can have a better understanding of how countries can adapt to the consequences of climate change, scale-up their access to clean energy and protect forests and water-resources. CDKN will play a key role here, and on this point, let me say how pleased I was to learn that the Dutch government has now joined the UK in funding the CDKN. Finally, we must show leadership in terms of the UKa€™s own low-carbon and climate-resilient development. I outlined earlier some of the ways in which the Coalition Government might do this and indeed, Chris Huhne spoke on this very theme yesterday. In doing this, we will not forget about the day-job, where we can be leaders on the ground. We will build up our own experience of which interventions work best and where, and we will apply our increased aid budget in a way that is consistently climate-smart. So that when we lay a road, when we build a school, when we plan a programme a€“ we will take climate change into consideration. That is why in DFIDa€™s new business plan, I have asked every country office to carry out a strategic review of its entire portfolio so that climate change is taken into account in everything it does. And I want to see all the multilateral agencies that DFID supports making sure that their operations are climate-smart too. We will use the UKa€™s leverage on their boards to achieve this. ### Conclusion Ladies and Gentlemen, if we fail to act today then we will pay the price tomorrow not just in pounds and dollars but in human life. As in so many other areas of international development, the moral case is a clear, overwhelming and compelling one. But a€“ and again this theme runs through so much of our work a€“ action is very much in Britaina€™s interests too. We cannot have food-security, water-security, energy-security a€“ or any form of national security without climate security. Ita€™s for these powerful reasons that this government must, and will, play a progressive role in pursuing the global deal we so badly need. History has shown us that whenever therea€™s an industrial revolution, it is always those who are prepared to embrace change who win through. Ita€™s time that all of us a€“ governments, civil society, private sector and individuals put our shoulders to the wheel and got on with the job. Only then can we secure a future for this planet and a better, safer and more prosperous life for all who live on it. Thank you. Climate change Speech by Andrew Mitchell, International Development Secretary, at a Climate and Development Knowledge Network event at British Council on 18 November 2010. 2010-11-18 2 **Introduction** Thank you Chair for allowing me to come to the floor again to speak on behalf of the UK Government.  And my thanks again to the Government of Vietnam [and the Prime Minister of Vietnam] for the invitation to this important conference. Let me start with a clear statement.  My government supports Delivering as One.  To me it seems the obvious thing to do.  If programme countries say this is how you want the UN to work in your country a€“ then we will support you.  If Delivering as One enables the UN to respond to your priorities, we will support you.  Quite simply if you want Delivering as One to succeed and shape the way the UN works in your countries, we will support you. **The broader context of the MDGs** You might have noticed that the UK has a new government.  Unusually for us this is a coalition, where two political parties have agreed the governmenta€™s programme.  But I can say that, in the case of international development, the negotiations were straightforward.  Both parties are committed to addressing poverty and injustice in the world. Where nine million children die before the age of five each year, half a million women die at childbirth, and seventy two million children do not go to school, we must play our full part.  The UK is firmly committed to the Millennium Development Goals.  And we support the UN for the contribution it can make to those goals. **New world reality** The last 18 months has seen the worlda€™s worst economic crisis since the 1930s.  This affects both developed and developing countries. Our new government in the UK has inherited a huge budget deficit.  Some argue that aid should be a casualty as we look for savings in public spending.  I am pleased to say that our new government does not take that view.  We remain firmly committed to increasing UK development assistance so that it reaches 0.7% by 2013.  Furthermore we aim to enshrine this commitment in UK law. **Need to show results and impact of every £ spent** With this commitment comes far more scrutiny.  Our taxpayers will be watching more closely how every pound is spent.  So ita€™s no longer about what we spend.  What matters is results.  The number of children educated, people with access to safe water, mothers that have a safe birth.  Thata€™s what matters.  The new UK government will be much tougher in ensuring our aid delivers value-for-money.  This is as important for those we seek to help in other countries as it is for taxpayers in our country. We will look hard at the partnerships we use for our aid.  If we cannot see that our funding is well used we will stop it.  And we will put it through another partner that can make a bigger difference for the poor. **UK Review of multilateral aid** That is why, as part of our new governmenta€™s commitment to results, we are reviewing our funding through multilateral organisations such as the World Bank and the United Nations.  This multilateral aid review will inform decisions on the levels of core funding for individual organisations. **The unique role of the United Nations** This conference is about one of our partners: the United Nations.  The United Nations has a unique mandate and is uniquely placed to help where others cannot.  If the UN were not there we would create it.  But Ia€™m not sure we would create it with thirty or more separate bits all working on development. The UN has a fundamental role as a peacekeeper, a peace builder, in delivering humanitarian aid, helping countries out of crisis and upholding global standards.  It helps reduce maternal mortality, build democratic governance and promote gender equality. I was in Nepal recently, where the UN is playing a key role, not only in development, but also in supporting the peace process. Yes the UN remains relevant today. However, is the way it works at country level fit for purpose? Too often the UN is seen as bureaucratic, fragmented and inefficient, with too many agencies trying to do too many things. In Bangladesh, for example, there are ten UN agencies, employing around fourteen hundred people, spending two hundred and sixty million dollars a year.  The UN in Bangladesh achieves results, such as improved food security and nutrition, decent sanitation and clean drinking water, better policing, and increased resilience to climate change.  But the impact is much less than it could be.  Why?  Because the Resident Coordinator does not have real authority.  And we have the absurdity of a well-crafted UN Development Assistance Framework, that sets out what and how the UN can "Deliver as One", undermined because each agency has to abide by its own country strategy.  So they dona€™t work as one, they work as ten. So yes, the UK will increase its development spending.  But for the sake of people in poverty the money we provide through the UN must deliver results.  This is what I mean when I say value for money. **Delivering as One can and is helping... but needs to go further, faster...** In the UK we have an initiative at the local government level called a€˜Total Placea€™.  This is an important experiment that responds to the multiplicity of local service providers to identify overlap, duplication and gaps and improve service provision.  Sounds familiar?  The issues behind Delivering as One are very similar. Delivering as One responds to fragmentation and duplication, bureaucracy and inefficiency.  The aim is not to benefit donors, but to benefit programme countries and the poor in those countries.  Just as we would invent the UN if it did not exist, if Delivering as One did not exist I believe we would definitely want to invent it. It is positive to see that beyond the eight pilots there are another 10, maybe 20, countries taking forward Delivering as One.  More countries I am sure will follow once they see improved UN delivery in your countries. But as we have all said we need to move up a gear.  Delivering as One must bring a step change to how the UN works in a country. In my speech on behalf of donors I mentioned three areas that are fundamental to the success of Delivering as One: leadership, sustainability and results.  I believe we need to go further and faster on these. The UN needs empowered country leaders with the right skills for their difficult roles.  I call on all members of the UN Development Group to ensure that Resident Co-ordinators are empowered to lead their UN country team.  And they must have the authority to prioritise the UNa€™s limited resources in country, so the UN does a few things well rather than spreading itself too thinly. Second, sustainability requires support from programme countries, from donors and, as the country-led evaluations have shown, from UN headquarters.  I call on agencies to simplify and harmonise procedures, so that efficiencies can be made at country level.  I call on UN headquarters and Executive Boards to reduce bureaucracy such as multiple reporting for countries that deliver as one.  And I call on agency headquarters to send a clear message to country teams about supporting one leader, one plan and one budget. Third, sustainability can only be ensured if we can show results.  As the country-led evaluations have shown, unless we define our objectives it will be impossible to explain what we have achieved.  So, for each country, we need to set out what results we want to see.  Results in terms of efficiency gains, division of labour, alignment with government plans.  And, most importantly, results in terms of its impact on the lives of the poor. Looking forward, the UN should take the principles of Delivering as One and make them relevant to post-crisis or emergency situations as well as stable development contexts.  But success in these situations will require real progress in reducing transaction costs. We hope soon to see the creation of a new UN gender agency.  Reassuringly this will combine four existing bodies.  This is a great opportunity.  But success will require the UN truly to Deliver as One.  We want to see one gender plan, with a practical division of labour, with resources going to the highest priorities, and with strong UN leadership on the whole issue of gender equality. **Conclusion** Back in the UK I need to be able to tell my voters that every pound spent on development is a pound well spent.  Delivering as One a€“ if we can show that it makes a real difference to the lives of the poor a€“ can help make the case for the UNa€™s role. So my message is that yes the UN is unique.  But it is too often seen as bureaucratic and resistant to change.  Delivering as One and the bravery of a few countries and a few leaders have shown that the UN can change.  We now need to take this to the next level.  The pace needs to speed up.  Taxpayers dona€™t want to hear about mandates or governance in New York.  UN politics must not be allowed to prevent change that will benefit programme countries.  So I urge all of us here to speak with one voice.  We must champion Delivering as One for the difference it can make to the UN.  We must champion Delivering as One for the difference it can make for programme countries.  And, above all, we must champion Delivering as One for the difference it can make for the people we are working to get out of poverty. Delivering as One: UK speech from Minister of State Minister of State Alan Duncan's speech at the UN Delivering as One conference in Hanoi, Vietnam on 16 June 2010. 2010-06-16 3 ### Speech by Nick Clegg, Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Secretary General President of the General Assembly Excellencies Distinguished delegates Ladies and Gentlemen ### Introduction It is an honour for me to address the General Assembly today for the first time as Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. And it is a privilege to be here with you to discuss how together we can reach the Millennium Development Goals; To make the necessary commitments towards eradicating the problems that blight the world we share: Poverty, hunger, disease, and the degradation of our natural environment. This week we are reviewing progress, assessing obstacles, and agreeing a framework for action to meet our targets. These are the technocratic terms in which governments must necessarily trade. But let us be clear: behind the officialese of summits lies our single, common purpose: To uphold the dignity and security that is the right of every person in every part of the world.  Development is, in the end, about freedom. It is about freedom from hunger and disease; freedom from ignorance; freedom from poverty. Development means ensuring that every person has the freedom to take their own life into their own hands and determine their own fate. The last decade has seen some important progress. That progress has, however, been uneven, and, on a number of our goals we remain significantly off track. ### Britaina€™s commitment So my message to you today, from the UK government, is this - we will keep our promises; and we expect the rest of the international community to do the same.  For our part, the new coalition government has committed to reaching 0.7% of GNI in aid from 2013 a€“ a pledge we will enshrine in law. That aid will be targeted in the ways we know will make the biggest difference. And I am pleased to announce today that the UK will be stepping up our efforts to combat malaria. In Africa, a child dies from this disease a€“ this easily preventable disease a€“ every 45 seconds. So we will make more money available, and ensure that we get more for our money, with the aim of halving malaria-related deaths in ten of the worst affected countries. The UK government is also proud to be boosting our contribution to the international drive on maternal and infant health. Our new commitments will save the lives of 50,000 mothers and quarter of a million babies by 2015. ### The case for development The UK makes these commitments at a time of significant difficulty time in our domestic economy. The new government has inherited a £156bn budget deficit, so increasing our international aid budget is not an uncontroversial decision. Some critics have questioned that decision, asking why, at a time when people at home are making sacrifices in their pay and their pensions, are we increasing aid for people in other countries? But we make this choice because we recognise that the promises the UK has made hold in the bad times as well as the good a€“ that they are even more important now than they were then. Because we understand that, while we are experiencing hardship on our own shores, it does not compare to the abject pain and destitution of others. Because we take seriously the fact that the new coalition government is now the last UK government able to deliver on our countrya€™s promises in time for the 2015 MDG deadline. And because we know that doing so is in our own, enlightened self-interest. When the world is more prosperous, the UK will be more prosperous. Growth in the developing world means new partners with which to trade and new sources of global growth. And, equally, when the world is less secure, the UK is less secure within it. Climate change does not somehow stop at our borders. When pandemics occur, we are not immune. And when poverty and poor education fuel the growth of global terrorism, our society bears the scars too. Twenty two of the thirty four countries furthest from reaching the MDGs are in the midst of or emerging from violent conflict. Fragile spaces a€“ like Afghanistan a€“ where hate can proliferate and terrorist attacks can be planned, where organised criminals can harvest the drugs that ravage our streets, where families are persecuted, displaced, pushed to seek refuge with us. So we do not see the Millennium Development Goals just as optimistic targets for far away lands; they are not simply charity, nor are they pure altruism. They are also the key to lasting safety and future prosperity for the people of the United Kingdom, and of course, for people right across the globe. ### On what we expect of others We welcome the General Assemblya€™s agreement to annually review progress made against the commitments agreed at this Summit. The UK will stand up to that test. Today I call on others to show equal resolve. The Millennium Development Goals must be a priority for each and every nation present in this room. Developed nations must honour their commitments. And developing nations must understand that they will not receive a blank cheque. Developing countries and donors must work together a€“ as equal partners a€“ towards securing our common interest. They will be expected to administer aid in ways that are accountable, transparent, and responsible - creating the conditions for economic growth and job creation. Prioritising national budgets on health, infrastructure, education and basic services. Managing natural resources, particularly biodiversity, in an environmentally sustainable way. Improving the lives of women and girls: empowering them; educating them; ensuring healthy mothers can raise strong children. There can be no doubt that women and girls hold the key to greater prosperity: for their families, for their communities, and for their nations too. ### Conclusion If we each step up, we can meet the Millennium Development Goals. We can liberate millions of people from daily suffering, and give them the resources to take control of their lives, and their destinies. So let future generations look back and say that they inherited a better world because a€“ at this critical moment, at this difficult moment a€“ we did not shrink from our responsibilities. Let them say that we rose to the challenge, that we kept our promise. Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg's speech to the UN General Assembly United Nations Millennium Development Goals Summit 2010-09-22 4 Thank you Admiral Style. It is a real pleasure to speak at the Royal College of Defence Studies and to engage the class of 2011 in debate. Countless statesmen from the four corners of the world have walked these corridors and I am sure that among this yeara€™s intake there are many future leaders.  It is therefore a great privilege to be able to speak to you today. ### Introduction Today, I want to talk about the causes and the cost of conflict, about the new security challenges that threaten Britain and trap millions in poverty, disease and injustice overseas. I will argue that as part of the governmenta€™s Strategic Defence Security Review (SDSR) we must reassess our response to overseas conflict - putting development at the heart of an integrated approach that supports the worlda€™s most vulnerable people and protects Britain from external threats. As you know, the SDSR is still work in progress. I therefore cannot lay out the detail of our plans. But I will set the stage by suggesting that our policy must first and foremost be based on an integrated approach that involves the Foreign Office, DFID and the MoD; that it must look a€œupstreama€ to prevent conflicts as much as a€œdownstreama€ to help countries after war; and that it must be informed by a rigorous assessment of lessons from past interventions. Three things distinguishes this SDSR from recent reviews: first, that it is a cross-departmental exercise where DFID is for the first time fully involved; secondly, that it is being undertaken by a coalition government; and thirdly, and most importantly, that it is being conducted during a major military operation. As I speak, courageous and committed men and women of our Armed Forces are risking their lives in Afghanistan. Their dedication, alongside that of civilian staff, places a special responsibility on us here in London a€“ in the Cabinet and across Whitehall a€“ to do everything within our power to shape and support an integrated effort. ### Cost of conflict for the UK There are those who suggest that giving aid to countries in conflict is pointless. They want money to be spent only on those developing countries that have a stable government and a well-established rule of law. Then there are those who deride the idea of stabilisation, of conflict- prevention - call it what you will a€“ as busy-bodied do-gooderism.  They want the military to quell threats, but see no hope to affect the future of other peoplea€™s societies and to mitigate conflicts. More than most, this audience knows the folly of these arguments. You know that the direct and indirect consequences of conflict in the developing world spread far and wide. You have seen with your own eyes how conflict impacts on the most vulnerable people overseas, making long-term development impossible. The Coalition Government is proud of its commitment to spend 0.7% of gross national income in development aid from 2013. Helping to address conflicts in the developing world, fighting poverty among those caught in wars and violence, must be central to our aid policy if we are to help end global poverty.  I will say more about this shortly but let me begin by looking at the impact closer to home. Because conflict abroad also threatens our security and well-being here in Britain.  Conflict can create under-governed spaces overseas where terrorists are able to recruit and to plan attacks in the UK or on UK targets abroad. Terrorists can be based anywhere, including here in Britain, but they seek -- and benefit from -- turmoil and chaos overseas.  The fact that weak and under-developed states are often powerless to prevent organised crime from flourishing may seem irrelevant to British interests. But only at first glance. Many countries in West Africa and the Western Balkans, for example, act as hubs for illicit trade. Drugs and guns pass through these countries and end up on British streets. Conflict in the developing world also generates population change. Increasingly, those escaping persecution and violence in their own country, turn to protection elsewhere. And for many, the UK is the preferred destination. More than 80 per cent of asylum seekers in the UK come from conflict-affected countries. Those choosing to stay closer to their homes may still flee in their thousands internally or to neighbouring states a€“ creating new conflicts over limited resources or between different groups of peoples. Finally, conflict overseas poses a threat to Britaina€™s future prosperity and potential for long-term growth. To take just one example: chaos in Somalia created the conditions for the piracy that preys on global shipping routes through the Red Sea, routes upon which the UK economy relies. In short, when it comes to conflict in the developing world, a philosophy of a€œout of sight out of minda€ is simply naive. The indirect consequences of overseas conflict represent a real and present danger, a danger that cannot be dealt with exclusively by counter-terrorist means. A danger that we cannot hope to address by staying at home, bolting the door and drawing down the shutters. ### Cost of conflict for development Tackling conflict overseas is therefore very much in our national interests - even in a time of financial consolidation. But it is also in the interests of the worlda€™s poor. In too many parts of the developing world prosperity will remain a distant dream unless and until we succeed in tackling many of the conflicts that block development. It is surely no coincidence that no fragile country has yet achieved a single Millennium Development Goal, the UN-agreed lodestars for UK development assistance. Nor is it a coincidence that 22 of the 34 countries furthest from reaching the MDGs are in the midst of a€“ or emerging from a€“ violent conflict. The challenges faced by these countries are immense: * On average, one in three people living in fragile states is undernourished; this proportion is twice as high as in other developing countries * Child mortality is five times that of middle income countries, and almost twice that of low income countries I spoke earlier about migration and its impact on Britain. But this is not only a global and regional problem; it is a developmental one. For when those migrants include the brightest and the best a€“ as they often do a€“ what hope is there for those they leave behind?  Their flight, from conflict-affected countries, which already lack human capital, to more developed countries, is one of the biggest barriers to development. Take Zimbabwe where, in recent times, only around a fifth of university graduates took up employment in their own country. In other words, conflicts are driving away the very people who can advance the cause of peace and promote development Non-governmental organisations such as Oxfam, Saferworld, International Alert, War Child and Save the Children have long known that the Millennium Development Goals cannot be met until we deal with overseas conflict. In its submission to the SDSR, Oxfam argued for using, and I quote, a€œdevelopment resources where there is a real threat of escalating violencea€, recognising that the a€œUKa€™s long-term interest depends on supporting stability in many parts of the world.a€ This line of argument also has solid academic foundations. Paul Collier, the renowned Professor of Economics at Oxford University, put it well when he described war as a€œdevelopment in reversea€. He based his reasoning on the fact that, a civil war is estimated to cost a low income country an average of about 64 billion US dollars. In other words, the cost of a single conflict is more than half of the value of annual development aid worldwide. Turn it around, and the same picture emerges: the higher a countrya€™s GDP per capita, the lower the risk of internal war.  A typical post-conflict country with no economic growth has a 42% risk of returning to conflict within ten years. But with 10% growth, the risk declines to 29%. So, each additional percentage point of growth reduces the risk of conflict. Of course there are exceptions a€“ rich countries can fall apart too -- but development clearly begets peace. And let us remember too, that poor people living in dysfunctional states lose out twice over. Once because they are poor and once because of the insecurity and conflict that define their every waking moment. I have talked about the cost of conflict both for the UK and for the worlda€™s poor. But I have left out one key argument; the moral one. In the post-Iraq context, it is commonplace to hear people reject any form of interventionism. Nevertheless, Britain has a proud tradition of standing up for a more equal world where people live in dignity and where they are protected from those who would harm them. As the Foreign Secretary said some time ago:  "it is not in our character to have a foreign policy without a conscience: to be idle or uninterested while others starve or murder each other in their millions is not for usa€. He developed that argument yesterday, saying:  a€œOur foreign policy should always have consistent support for human rights and poverty reduction at its irreducible core.a€ I totally agree. We have to live up to that tradition and to be proud of our values, by supporting and protecting the most vulnerable. Future interventions - should they become necessary - will have to be what past ones were not - carefully considered, well-planned and properly resourced. But our commitment to help the vulnerable and persecuted endures.  This leads to the more difficult question a€“ how do we help those countries ravaged by warfare, where governments are not legitimate or where they neglect rather than serve their citizens?  ### Five lessons for the future Working in these countries is incredibly difficult, not least because it is often so dangerous. Many of you will know this better than I. When I served as a very junior UN peacekeeper in Cyprus in the 1970s, the situation and tasks we had to tackle were very different from those being faced today. So, as we look to the future, I believe the SDSR must be informed by five lessons: **First**, if we are to reap the ultimate reward, the reward of preventing wars before they start, we need to be better at identifying the potential for conflict. Our a€˜upstreama€™ offer on conflict prevention must be as good as the one we have honed for a€˜downstreama€™ during and in the aftermath of war. Spotting problems and knowing when to act on them is, of course, a notoriously difficult business. Even when warning signs have been clear, the international community has too often marshalled its resources and tools only after widespread violence has broken out a€“ as in Kenya, Georgia and, earlier, in Rwanda, Kosovo and Bosnia. The answer lies in making sure that warnings, however faint, are brought to the attention of senior officials and ministers. It means that instead of taking the easy option of sticking with outdated plans or preconceived notions, the SDSR must create cross-government systems and cultures that will compel us to re-examine our policies and programmes, when needed. Systems that help us to understand the often complex causes of conflicts.  By ensuring that -- through the SDSR -- we create such systems, we will hopefully learn the lessons that previous governments failed to heed. Working upstream does not, of course, mean treating every conflict the same. Not all conflicts have equal resonance for the UK, nor do we  have the resources, historical ties or the ability to prevent them all.  So it is important that when we in the National Security Council look at the many conflicts that may arise, we concentrate on those countries and regions that are at greatest risk; those that are of greatest interest to us; and those where the UK as a whole is likely to have the greatest impact. The **second** important lesson is that we must be willing to question important assumptions both in the military and in the development community. Take, for example, the commonly-held assumption that strengthening states is an end in itself. Now, I accept that no country has achieved lasting peace and development without a basic functioning state a€“ that is, without a system to guarantee property rights, resolve disputes, and address inequalities. However, in some countries the state may well be part of the problem - especially where those in power show no interest in being held to account by their citizens or in delivering basic services like healthcare or clean water, not to mention security and justice. The formal trappings of statehood can often benefit a small, self-serving elite, but do little for the poorest people. I think particularly of Burma in this connection.  Building an accountable state means putting the development of inclusive politics at the very heart of our response. In this new politics, the poor and marginalised are not just a€œvote blocksa€ for powerful land-owners or local warlords.  They are present a€“ as elected representatives, as ministers, and even as officials a€“ in the corridors of power.  In Nepal, for example, where many challenges still remain, there has been huge progress in increasing representation of marginalised groups in the Constitutional Assembly. I am not advocating old-style, externally-driven democracy promotion.  As the Foreign Secretary said in his speech yesterday, a€œelections alone do not create a free and democratic societya€.  No, I am talking about the sensitive promotion of a political system that supports society and empowers citizens to hold their own leaders to account.  A political system that means citizensa€™ basic needs are met, a system that gives the poorest a stake in the way their country is run, and a say in their own development. This leads me to my **third** lesson: we must be realistic about the role that we, as outsiders, former colonial powers, even as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council, can achieve. To an international audience like yourselves, international cooperation is logical, but it bears underlining that no single donor or international player can hope to rebuild a country or address a long-simmering conflict. One supremely powerful nation or a small group acting in concert can win a war. But winning the peace takes many nations, working with international agencies, NGOs and others. In Kenya, we saw the unique pressure that regional organisations can bring to bear when former United Nationsa€™ Secretary General, Kofi Annan a€“ working on behalf of the African Union a€“ successfully brokered a cessation to the post-election violence.  So, tackling conflict in todaya€™s world means working harder with old partners and reaching out to new ones. The Foreign Secretary has talked about a "networked world" and about the foreign policy tools that will influence states which will come to dominate our times. Development policy must be similarly networked. We must engage multilateral and bilateral donors not only through established mechanisms but through innovative collaborations with new partners - like India and China, Indonesia, South Africa,  Turkey, Mexico and Brazil a€“ partners whose reach is crucial if we are to tackle conflict and promote development. I will say more on this subject later this year; it is an important area and one where I want to see DFID charting new territory. My **fourth** lesson is that addressing the conflicts that mar the development process is no easy or quick feat. Building things up takes much longer than pulling them down. That is true not just of buildings, of homes, of bridges, of power stations but of the institutions of state a€“police forces, independent judiciaries,  bureaucracies, legislatures, free broadcasters and so on. But changing attitudes takes perhaps the longest time.  So, in Northern Uganda, DFIDa€™s investment in youth today will yield dividends in generations to come.  In military-speak, this means that we need to show a€œstrategic patiencea€ if we are to see a return on our policy. By educating a generation of girls in Pakistan, we will be making a significant contribution to that countrya€™s development in the years ahead.  But leta€™s be clear that this is a very long-term vision and it will take time for the results to show. The **fifth and final** lesson is that we must look for fresh ways of drawing together all the development, diplomatic and defence tools at the UKa€™s disposal. The wars of the future will not be the wars of the past. But some things we have learnt from past and ongoing wars will remain valid a€“ the need for greater MoD, DFID and FCO cooperation is one of them. In Sierra Leone, for example, we saw the benefits of close civilian- military cooperation. Here, peace depended not only on establishing     basic security (in part, through military force) but also on addressing the underlying causes of conflict, such as corruption, youth unemployment and the exclusion of key social groups.  DFIDa€™s ability to understand, and support the provision of security and justice from the perspective of the poor and vulnerable has been crucial in this success. I want to see DFID working even more closely with the MoD and the FCO, focused on preventing warfare and tipping the scales from conflict to peace in the worlda€™s hotspots. I want to see not just a a€œcomprehensive approacha€, but what I think could be the next logical step, an a€œintegrated approacha€ that brings the FCO, DFID and MoD together from the beginning to the end, from planning and execution through to the evaluation of our interventions. Of course, the level of policy and resource investment from different departments will vary widely in individual countries. The DRC is not Helmand. But it is surely right that wherever different departments have an interest, they work in a fully cooperative and integrated manner. Here, I hope we can use the SDSR to flesh out further details.  But let me be clear: this is not a case of DFID being coerced to use its aid programme to meet othersa€™ objectives. Nor is it a case of DFID officials simply handing over cash willy-nilly. Some of the stories that are currently doing the rounds in some newspapers are as absurd as they are ill-informed. Our aid will stick to development principles and to the OECD/DAC definition of what constitutes aid. We want the best possible outcomes for those living in fragile or conflict countries. Just as the military has doctrine a€“ policy distilled through years of experience a€“ so the development community has the DAC guidelines. In these guidelines, we have codified what works and, like the military uses doctrine, we use our guidelines to make sure our developmental efforts are as effective as they can possibly be.  But to get those best outcomes DFID must make sure that the development case is part of the Whitehall mix when decisions are being made so that we can do what is right for our national security and right for those who are suffering the direct consequences of conflict. And leta€™s be realistic about this: taxpayers expect us to be able to do both. ### Looking ahead My visit to Afghanistan in July a€“ alongside the Foreign Secretary and the Defence Secretary - reaffirmed my view that well-spent aid is in our national interest.  Whilst the military is there to bring much-needed security, lasting peace will only be achieved through political progress backed by development. I therefore decided to expand our aid programme in Afghanistan by 40 per cent specifically to allow the UK to intensify its development work, improving outcomes and results on the ground, and accelerating progress to a more stable country. I have also taken great pains to underline my commitment to closer DFID-MoD cooperation * In Afghanistan, Iraq, Yemen and in other countries, hundreds of DFID staff have gained first-hand experience of fragile states * No fewer than 17 have also been honoured by Her Majesty The Queen for their work in dangerous environments * During the recent Pakistan floods, DFID worked closely with MoD to ensure equipment was ferried to those most in need and;  * It is, of course, no accident that I chose to make this speech here at the RCDS today Indeed, we have something of a burgeoning DFID/MoD fixture list: I have already played host to General Sir David Richards, the incoming Chief of Defence Staff while I have invited the outgoing CDS, Air Chief Marshal Sir Jock Stirrup to address DFID staff on the nexus between security and development.  The more we share our experiences, the more we will all learn. ### Increasing our chances of success Right now, the SDSR gives us the perfect opportunity to go further in coordinating Whitehalla€™s response to conflict and poverty. In the past, the UK took important steps to create cross-departmental bodies, bodies such as the Stabilisation Unit, that could improve cooperation between departments. The Helmand Provincial Reconstruction Team has also shown how effectively DFID, the Foreign Office and the military can work side by side. But there is scope to go further, learning from past experiences while  making better use of existing structures - drawing on whatever tools and instruments are most appropriate, without getting hung up on institutional provenance. I want to see more flexible, bespoke solutions crafted in response to specific needs on the ground. I want to see DFID, FCO, MoD and the Armed Forces working even closer together, for example delivering effective Security Sector Reform. The Stabilisation Unit is proof that this experience is possible; it is time now to build on this so that we can change mindsets and habits across Government. Cross-Whitehall cooperation should be second nature for DFID staff, and we will encourage our colleagues in the FCO and MoD to think and act similarly. This is what I have in mind when I say we should develop an a€œintegrated approacha€. As part of the SDSR we will be discussing new ways to develop the Conflict Pool a€“ a unique cross-departmental funding arrangement -- so that it can better support the full breadth of our work in conflict-affected countries. But as we look ahead we will find ways of going further and faster. The Bilateral Aid Review, which I initiated as soon as I came to office is a€“ as I speak - analysing DFID's programme in each country, looking at the results our programmes obtain and the value for money we get. This is a thorough bottom-up process and will focus on the detailed picture in each country.  Overall, however, I am pushing for us, in future, to spend more of the UKa€™s aid programme in conflict and fragile countries. Because in doing so we will maximise our impact on the lives of the most vulnerable, while also leveraging the contribution that aid can make to national security. And as we approach the UN MDG Summit next week there can be no better time for remembering that our ultimate goal is to ensure that all people in conflict countries - and wherever else poverty may exist -- have access to the food, health care, education and other services that they so desperately need. ### Conclusion Ladies and gentlemen, if you are  living in one of those dreadful camps in Darfur, it does not matter how much access to money, aid, trade or different articles of development you may have, because as long as the conflict continues, you will remain poor, frightened, dispossessed and angry. Just as conflict condemns people to remain in poverty, so it is wealth creation - jobs, enterprise, trade and engagement with the private sector - that enables people to lift themselves out of poverty. Yet without peace and security this cannot happen. For just as development cannot occur in the absence of peace, peace without development is a peace that may not last. This is true not only in places like Helmand, that rightly fill newspaper columns and are constantly in the nationa€™s thoughts, but also in places like Harare where economic development that can provide jobs and basic necessities, is essential to achieving stability. To achieve this stability we have to move beyond a zero-sum game, where one camp sees DFID, the MoD and FCO working together as suspicious; and the other argues an independent DFID, focused on poverty-alleviation is wasteful. The worlda€™s poorest people have an interest in security and development. So do we. As your Collegea€™s motto so aptly proclaims: a€œStrength in Unitya€.   We cannot achieve our goals if we do not work together. If trust is the most important part of any partnership; then it is vital when you are talking about a partnership as wide as ours. DFID needs to trust its partners both in government and outside to help it innovate and push boundaries.  The military must trust that DFID will do everything it can to support their mission.  And our NGO and charity partners must trust that this Government will never compromise its development principles. Because one thing is certain: the future holds many new and more difficult conflicts, conflicts that will inevitably threaten Britain and its people while also making it harder for us to achieve our goal of eradicating world poverty. I said one thing was certain. But actually there is a second certainty:  that we have the will and the determination to face up to those challenges. To shape thoughtful solutions that address the reality of conflict while also bringing lasting help to the millions living in its shadow. The choice is ours. To move forward with confidence, focusing on the poor and vulnerable in conflict-ravaged countries, working across government and beyond in a spirit of true partnership; or to run scared of change and to miss this golden opportunity to make the world a safer and more prosperous place for generations to come. Development in a conflicted world Speech by International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell at the Royal College of Defence Studies on 16 September 2010 2010-09-16 5 As Minister for International Development, my mandate is to help eliminate poverty around the world.  It is the worlda€™s poorest people who will be hit first and hardest by climate change, who are least responsible for its causes, and are least able to cope with its effects. This is why addressing climate change is a key priority for DFID and why everyone in this room should be driven to do something about it. Before continuing, let me thank the organisers for their kind invitation to speak and for their work in putting this conference together. The Commonwealth Parliamentary Association is an excellent forum for parliamentarians from across the Commonwealth to share ideas, work together and foster better relations between our countries. This event promises to be a productive one, on an essential topic. This session is looking at vulnerability to climate change. My focus today will be on the vulnerability of the poorest countries to climate change, how the UK is supporting poor countries to tackle climate change and why we must continue to work together to address this major global challenge. Vulnerability around the world and the UKa€™s response I said a moment ago that the poorest will be hit first and hardest by climate change. The truth is they have already been hit first, and will continue to be hit hardest.  For many people around the world climate change is not a future threat, it is a current reality.  The poorest people are most vulnerable for a number of reasons. They are heavily dependent on agriculture and have few resources to draw upon when hit by a flood or drought. Poor people are also more likely to live in areas at risk to climate change, such as the tropics, which are already being affected worst by climate change. Furthermore, poor people are often marginalised from decision-making processes and their needs are often overlooked by governments. This is why a global deal on climate change that limits emissions is so important for the poorest people in the poorest countries. We will all have a role to play in forming country positions which make a deal fair and achievable. But even if we succeed in the hugely challenging goal of limiting the temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius, as set out in the Copenhagen Accord, millions of people, especially the poor, will still face enormous challenges. ### Africa Let us begin by turning to Africa. I was born in Tanzania and raised in Kenya and am lucky enough to have visited the continent often as part of All Party Parliamentary Groups on Tanzania, Trade and Debt as well as Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases. Two thirds of the surface of Sub-Saharan Africa is desert or dry land. On the continent as a whole, around 200 million people a€“ a quarter of the population - currently experience high water stress. As global temperatures increase, so too does the scarcity of water. Indeed, by some estimates, by the 2050s the number of Africans experiencing high water stress could triple. Testimonies from pastoralists in Kenya tell a vivid story of their changing climate. They speak of higher temperatures and a reduction in the flow of the Ewaso Nyero river. Water is getting scarcer and pastoralists find themselves digging deeper and deeper wells. This sometimes means finding water a€œ9-peoplea€ deep - in that it takes 9 people, one above the other, to pass the water out. Life is tough for pastoral communities in Kenya and it is getting tougher. This is why the UK government is supporting communities to adapt to the impacts of climate change. In Malawi, the UK is helping farmers to plant more drought-resistant maize. Similarly, in Ethiopia, we are helping farmers to adapt their farming practices to different weathers and rainfall patterns. Climate change also has a knock-on effect on other development challenges. For example, in some places, the pattern of vector-borne diseases such as Malaria and Dengue Fever will change. In Kenya, UK support is helping to predict new peaks in malaria outbreaks before they happen a€“ this is in addition to providing 17 million insecticide treated bed nets over the last 8 years, reducing under-5 mortality by nearly a half. ### South Asia In South Asia, rising sea levels also pose an enormous threat. Agricultural plains are increasingly threatened by saltwater intrusion and some low-lying islands face a threat to their very existence. Flooding in Bangladesh and India alone results in an estimated 4 million tons of rice per year being lost a€“ enough to feed 30 million people. More will be lost as floods become more frequent and more severe. With nearly half of all children in South Asia under-nourished, this will take a mighty toll. This is why the UK is supporting the government of Bangladesh to adapt to climate change. For example, UKaid has helped to raise 90,000 homes onto earth platforms, protecting more than 400,000 people and their possessions from severe monsoon floods. Forests are also important globally and in South Asia. They play a key role in storing carbon but also providing livelihoods and acting as sponges, holding water and releasing it slowly. UKaid is helping over half a million households in Nepal a€“ equivalent to a tenth of Nepala€™s population a€“ to make a living from the nationa€™s forests. This has helped to increase average household income by 60% over the last 5 years and helps to save an estimated 1.2 million tonnes of carbon every year. ### Future policy As we ramp up our efforts to tackle climate change we should therefore focus on four things. First and foremost, we must work towards an ambitious global climate deal that will limit emissions. If global action is not taken it will be impossible to limit the global temperature rise to two degrees celsius above pre-industrial levels and avoid potentially catastrophic climate change. The international community needs to come together to agree a deal that is fair for the developing world and makes available substantial financial resources for adaptation and mitigation. The UK government has committed to provide £1.5 billion in Fast-Start finance from 2010 to 2012 as well as help the very poorest developing countries to take part in international climate change negotiations. Secondly, we must make certain climate change is considered a key priority for all our governments. Countries such as Bangladesh are showing the way by integrating climate change into national development plans. Others should learn from them. And the international community must help by providing expertise and finance. Thirdly, we need to ensure all our aid is a€˜climate smarta€™. This means ensuring all development interventions take into account, and are resilient to, the impacts of climate change. Making aid a€˜climate smarta€™ will help ensure that for every pound we spend, we demonstrate 100 pence of value. Value for money means every hospital, school or road we build is built where it will last and not where it is susceptible to being washed away or blown away. Within my own Department we are also integrating climate change into all our development planning and ensuring programme decisions respond strategically to the impacts of climate change. Tanzania, Ethiopia, India and Nepal are amongst the first to pilot different approaches with Rwanda and the Caribbean embarking on similar exercises soon. Fourthly, we need to improve our understanding of the impacts of climate change. I have already outlined some major trends and implications across regions but we need to continue to build understanding of what climate change means on the local level, where will be affected and when. The UK is supporting programmes to improve climate change analysis in Africa and identify how countries can become more resilient to its impacts. In Kenya, Rwanda and Burundi, DFID has funded ground breaking studies to help identify the current and potential future economic costs of climate change. ### Closing summary Poverty and climate change have been described as the two defining challenges of the 21st century. Failure to tackle one means failure to tackle the other. I believe we all have a role to play in ensuring an outcome that brings a better, more prosperous future for the worlda€™s poorest, and for the global community as a whole.  Addressing climate change requires strong leadership and political will. And that is where we, as parliamentarians, can all play our crucial role. Thank you. From global to local: Climate change post-Copenhagen. International Development Minister Stephen O'Brien's speech to 3rd Commonwealth Parliamentary Association’s International Conference on Tuesday 13th July None 2010-07-13 6 Today I want to deliver a message from the new Coalition Government of Britain directly to the millions of people around the world who are battling against poverty, disease and injustice. Our message is this: the people and Government of Britain are on your side, and we will use every tool in our policy armoury a€“ aid, trade, climate policy, diplomacy, business investment, and more a€“ to champion justice, freedom, fairness and prosperity for you.  And I want to convey a message directly to the hardworking taxpayers of Britain: your contribution to our life-saving UK aid budget imposes a deep responsibility on this Government, and on me as Secretary of State for International Development, to deliver and demonstrate value for money in aid. I will work night and day to honour that commitment. To those big messages I add a third which I address to another audience a€“ to all those involved in international development. Be prepared for change. Not a change in our levels of compassion, nor in our understanding of the deep value of international development. Rather, a change of approach, a fundamental change that empowers people, that creates and sustains wealth rather than simply redistributing it. A change in how we position development in the 21st century. It would be hard to imagine a more appropriate forum to deliver these messages: Oxfama€™s amazing work is a beacon of hope for millions. I think back particularly to Goma in 1994, when Oxfama€™s work in helping to provide clean water to the refugees from Rwanda undoubtedly saved tens of thousands of lives. Neither could we have a more appropriate host than Neil Oa€™Brien of Policy Exchange. So it is here with you today that I will set out how we will apply our Coalition Governmenta€™s shared values to the great cause of international development. I will argue: * Firstly, that global poverty both affronts our moral conscience and is a direct threat to Britaina€™s vital national interests. * Secondly, that well-spent UK aid is amongst the most effective investments we can make a€“ but that we need radical steps to ensure that our aid achieves all it can. * Thirdly, that transparency, accountability, responsibility, fairness  and empowerment will be our watchwords. * Fourthly, I will announce two new concrete steps we will take to achieve this: the creation of an independent aid watchdog, and our commitment to a UK Aid Transparency Guarantee. * And fifthly, I will argue that although aid is important for development, we must use the whole of the British governmenta€™s policy spectrum to tackle global poverty. ### A shared commitment The imperatives of creating  wealth and tackling misery, exploitation and poverty are hard-wired into the British DNA. And our Coalition Programme outlines a strong, deep and ambitious policy agenda on international development. Our Coalition Government is motivated by a shared determination to erode the terrible inequalities of opportunity which we see around the world today. We believe in the British Big Society: decentralising power and responsibility; empowering citizens; making governments more transparent and accountable. But in our shrinking world, we are not just the British Big Society - we are all part of a global Big Society.  And we will apply our values to that. Our approach will move from doing development to people to doing development with people a€“ and to people doing development for themselves. In Britain, we see a vital role for the state in helping to strengthen and build the Big Society by actively catalysing change, agitating for social action, and pressing home every opportunity to strengthen communities.  Internationally, in parallel with this, we see a central role for a vibrant, strong Department for International Development, agitating campaigning and helping to deliver progressive change for communities worldwide. Our progressive, global vanguard.   ### Why International Development? Our vision will always be about making life better for the poorest people in the poorest countries. As simple a€“ and as complex a€“ as that. It is worth reminding ourselves of the scale of the challenge that confronts us. 8.8 million children die before the age of five each year. Half a million women die due to complications in pregnancy or childbirth. More than a third of children in Africa are short for their age a€“ this stunting affects brain development.. 72 million children are missing out on primary education. Every day nearly 25,000 children die from easily-preventable diseases. More than 33 million people are infected with HIV/AIDS. There are more than 14 million AIDS orphans in sub-Saharan Africa, more than all the children in Britain. Every hour, over 300 people become infected with HIV and 225 people die from AIDSa€¦and 31 of these are children. Clearly, we must act, and act now, to right these wrongs and end this terrible waste of human potential. But promoting global prosperity is also firmly in Britaina€™s national interest. Wea€™re all in this together. If we dona€™t tackle the root causes of our problems we will spend much more in future in trying to deal with the symptoms. Thata€™s why we want to prevent the spread of global diseases rather than waiting for them to attack us. Thata€™s why we want to tackle radicalisation by helping to build peaceful and stable societies overseas. Thata€™s why we want to help to build low carbon economies at home and abroad and to support vulnerable people in adapting to climate change rather than continuing our high carbon path. Thata€™s why we want Europea€™s neighbour, Africa, to be a prosperous trading society.  Thata€™s why we will champion a trading system that is free, open and fair rather than one that pursues an isolationist policy and limits market opportunities. And that is why we attach such importance to helping Afghanistan to become a more stable, functioning state. I saw for myself only last month the massive potential, but also the huge challenges, involved in getting that country back on its feet. Development is good for our economy, our safety, our health, our future. It is, quite simply, tremendous value for money: the best return on investment that youa€™ll find anywhere in government. ### Accountability There is clear evidence to show that effective aid works miracles. In 2007/08 alone, British Aid * Trained more than 100,000 teachers * Supplied just short of 7 million anti-malaria bednets * Vaccinated 3 million children against measles * Brought clean water to almost 1 million people * Provided electricity to close on 200,000 people. And just look at this statistic: British aid pays for five million children in developing countries to go to primary school every day. Thata€™s roughly the same number as go to primary school in Britain yet, it costs only 2.5 per cent of what we spend here. Thata€™s real value for money. But we cana€™t escape the fact that todaya€™s fiscal landscape is radically different from what has gone before. There is a massive deficit, which it is our number one priority to tackle. Against this backdrop our protected aid budget imposes a double duty to ensure that for every pound of taxpayersa€™ money we spend, we demonstrate 100 pence of value. And that we demonstrate it in a way that helps us to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Goals which have captured all our imaginations but which for so many people are so far away from being achieved. Of course, there are those who argue that in these difficult times aid and aspiration are inevitable casualties of austerity.  Collateral damage. I disagree. This is a time to reaffirm our promises to the worlda€™s poor people, not abandon them. We wona€™t balance the books on the backs of the worlda€™s poorest. We resolved, in our Coalition programme for government, to honour our commitment to spend 0.7% of GNI on overseas aid from 2013, and to enshrine this commitment in law. We will keep aid untied from commercial interests, and maintain DFID as an independent Department, focussed on reducing poverty. We will stick to the rules laid down by the OECD about what spending counts as aid. As Shadow Secretary of State I have travelled in dozens of countries over the last five years. I have been struck by how much DFID contributes to Britaina€™s global reputation. How it has broken new ground in international development and often succeeded where others have failed. Like our diplomatic services, our armed forces and the BBC World Service, DFID has become part of Britaina€™s national identity, reflecting our values and strengths overseas. I commend it and am proud to be its Secretary of State. Under my stewardship I want it to do more not less. But pride should never lead to complacency. To the British taxpayer I say this: our aim is to spend every penny of every pound of your money wisely and well. We want to squeeze every last ounce of value from it. We owe you that. And I promise you as well that in future, when it comes to international development, we will want to see hard evidence of the impact your money makes. Not just dense and impenetrable budget lines but clear evidence of real change. We currently spend aid in no fewer than 102 countries. For some of these countries that aid is absolutely critical, the safety net that saves lives. But ita€™s time to pause, to review whether wea€™re really targeting money where ita€™s needed most. For example, China is a country which spent £20 billion hosting the Olympics and Russia is a member of the G8. We will bring the China and Russia aid programmes to a conclusion as soon as is practical. Instead, we will spend the money on our priorities such as maternal health , fighting malaria, and extending choice to women over whether and when they have children. Prioritisation is vital. I have instigated a full-scale Value for Money Review at DFID, in order to identify projects that should be stopped and savings that should be made so that we can increase aid spending in poor countries more quickly. We have made an immediate start: ending the use of aid money to fund a Brazilian-style dance group with percussion in Hackney, and ending the practice of sending hard copies of the DFID magazine around the world at a cost to the aid budget of £240,000 every year. The savings from these measures will be ploughed straight back in to the frontline aid budget. We will also rent out two floors of DFIDa€™s central London offices, bringing in an extra £2 million for frontline aid. A small figure compared to the scale of the deficit, but an immense amount for people on the ground in developing countries. Our growing budget makes discipline, thrift and a relentless focus on value for money more important, not less. Overall we plan to redirect £100 million from projects that are low-priority or that are not performing, to programmes that have a better success rate in improving the lives of the worlda€™s poor. Combining compassion with hard-headed discipline in order to help more people escape from poverty. Across the Atlantic, Hillary Clinton has pledged to put women a€˜front and centera€™ of the American development agenda. That is the right choice. As David Cameron and Jeff Sachs argued earlier this year, women can hold the key to development in the world's poorest countries a€“ in education, enterprise, micro-finance and healthcare. Investing in women pays dividends throughout the entire community. Tackling the scandal of maternal mortality is particularly important. Half a million women die during childbirth every year, a figure that has barely fallen in the past two decades in many regions. So we will work to strengthen health systems and family planning facilities in developing countries, including taking steps to improve access to well-trained midwives and emergency obstetrics care. We need to ensure too, that action on women and development is on the agenda at key global meetings. This will be a top priority for us at the G8 and UN summits this year. Today, the Prime Minister is discussing this very subject with Prime Minister Harper of Canada a€“ the host nation for the G8 and the G20 - in the run up to those meetings.  We will shine our spotlight too, on multilateral spending.  Over a third of our aid money is channelled through 20 organisations, including the EU, the World Bank and the UN. There are good reasons for this. Working in partnership through these multilateral bodies we can achieve results that we could not hope to achieve acting alone. Yet in some places, corporate governance is weak, operational efficiency patchy, and too little attention is given to results on the ground. So we will conduct an impartial and rigorous assessment of the efficiency and effectiveness of all the multilateral bodies that we fund. We will be fair. We will be open. We will be transparent. But, if necessary, we will be tough. And this brings me to my central point today. Independent evaluation of British aid is absolutely crucial. There is something a bit too cosy and self-serving about internal evaluation. Reviews that focus on process and procedure miss the real issue: what did the money achieve? What change resulted from it? How were lives made better? We need a fundamental change of direction a€“ we need to focus on outputs and outcomes, not just inputs. Sweden has been using independent evaluation for years and others, including the MIT Poverty Lab, have shown that we can be much more scientific about measuring what works. Aid spending decisions should be made on the basis of evidence, not guesswork. So today I can announce that we have taken the first steps towards creating a new independent aid watchdog to gather evidence about the effectiveness of DFID programmes.  We will never maintain support for our growing aid budget unless we can offer to the British public independently verified evidence that it is being well spent. ### Empowerment, responsibility and fairness The philosophy of empowerment will be central to our approach.  We want poor people to be masters and owners of the international development system, not passive recipients of it.  David Cameron said of the Big Society: a€œAs long as there is deep poverty living systematically side by side with great riches, we all remain the poorer for ita€ The ideas of the Big Society are already familiar to people who work in international development. So much so, that you might think we took some of them from the best of development thinking. The idea that working together in a community is a fundamental human instinct. That society is built not by laws and bureaucracy but by community values and tradition. The Big Society defines our new approach to development. An approach that delivers choice and demands accountability. An approach that fundamentally lends itself to this value for money agenda. As I said earlier, this approach is defined by a fundamental recalibration of the balance of power; one that sees people in developing countries moving from a position of having development done to them to one where they shape progress themselves. In other words, giving people that most fundamental of human rights: the power to shape their own lives. Many aid agencies are testing options that involve giving control to citizens through direct cash transfers. I want us to explore that for ourselves. And where cash is not appropriate, wea€™ll look at other measures that involve participation, choice, and self-determination. Ia€™ve seen for myself in Ethiopia just how effective this can be.  These sort of schemes often make it more difficult for bureaucracies to waste or skim off money. Most importantly of all, they give people the power to make their own decisions. But working to build capable and effective states is also vital. Where the market or communities are not providing core functions or services, the role of government is crucial. Here too, wea€™ll put the power in the hands of developing countries rather than dictating activity from a distance. As we said in our Green Paper, we will test the concept of Cash on Delivery aid that has been mooted by the influential Washington-based Center for Global Development. The principle is simple. A group of donors makes a binding promise to provide money when a developing country makes progress towards agreed results. Results-based aid. With Cash on Delivery, developing countries can choose which investments will move them forward most quickly. We will be evidence-based, and sensitive to the specific needs and attributes of different countries. By testing new approaches carefully through a selected number of pilots we can make an informed decision about whether, how and where we can roll them out more widely. Linked to this theme are other, wider opportunities for empowerment. The sort of power that enables citizens to hold their governments to account. In future, when we give money directly to governments in poor countries we want to earmark up to five per cent of the total amount to help parliaments, civil society and audit bodies to hold to account those who spend their money.  Wea€™re also going to explore ways in which we can improve local advocacy, to help poor people to have a greater say in matters that affect them nationally and internationally. ### Transparency If empowerment is a key component of Big Society development, so too is transparency.  Transparency for the taxpayer and transparency for the recipient. This is an agenda that President Obama has led in the US. Indeed, USAIDa€™s Administrator, Raj Shah has promised to usher in an era of a€˜extreme transparencya€™. So today Ia€™m pleased to announce a new UK Aid Transparency Guarantee that will make our aid fully transparent to citizens both in the UK and in recipient countries. The UK Aid Transparency Guarantee will help to create a million independent aid watchdogs a€“ people around the world who can see where aid money is supposed to be going a€“ and shout if it doesna€™t get there. The Guarantee commits us to publishing full information about DFID projects and programmes on our website - in a way that is user-friendly and meaningful. Over time, we want to make that information available, in an open and standardised format to the people who depend on the funding: the communities and families living in poor countries. Knowledge is indeed, power. The simple act of publishing information can help us achieve many of our most important development aims. It reduces the risk of corruption and waste. It improves the quality of public services and increases public sector accountability. In Uganda, for example, the level of education resources diverted away from their intended purpose dropped dramatically as a direct result of better public information about resource allocation. In another example, a group of community health clinics in Uganda was chosen at random to receive published report cards. Public meetings were organised to publicise the quality of the clinicsa€™ health care. As a result, waiting times dropped, staff absenteeism plummeted, fewer drugs were stolen and crucially, there were a third fewer deaths of children under the age of five. Or, to put it another way, 550 lives were saved. So we will bring the post-bureaucratic age to aid. We will also   push for greater traceability across the aid system and for others to adopt our level of transparency. We will lead by example, and argue for common formats and standards for aid transparency internationally, so information from all donors is presented in a way that is consistent, exchangeable and  comparable. I put DFID staff on notice now, that every time I visit our work overseas Ia€™m going to be asking: * What are the results - the outputs and outcomes of your work? * Wherea€™s the element of choice in what youa€™ve offered? * How are you engaging with local people and civil society, as well as their government? * Are we making that shift that puts power in the hands of the local people? * Are you being transparent a€“ and are you supporting the governments we work with to be transparent too? This change may start with us in DFID but it doesna€™t end with us. I want transparency, accountability, responsibility, fairness and empowerment to be the words that define our funded activity wherever it takes place. And I want this to be the mantra that defines our partner bodies too, be they multilaterals, governments or Britaina€™s brilliant NGOs. We will now move ahead with our drive for greater transparency and independent evaluation. And let me be clear: we will extend those principles to our partners in development, to every organisation that receives money from us, or more accurately, from the British taxpayer. Transparency and independent impact evaluation are powerful tools for greater efficiency. This represents a step change in the way that we approach aid and a huge step forward in our fight against corruption and waste. ### Beyond Aid Aid is important: it has saved and improved the lives of millions of people and it can save and improve millions more in the years ahead. But aid is a means to an end, not an end in itself. Countries dona€™t get rich from external aid: they get rich from self-propelled economic growth driven by private enterprise. Smart UK policies can help with this. The message we have to put across, the message we have to shout from the rooftops, if necessary, is that 21st century development is about much more than aid. Ita€™s about what we do with our policies beyond aid. Ita€™s about creating opportunities across the whole policy spectrum. We can be clear: 21st century development is a complex tapestry of trade, investment and enterprise, climate change, economic growth, debt relief, financial services, intellectual property and advancing new technologies. Themes that are woven in and out of the essential fabric, creating a richer and more complete picture. Fragile states are a particular challenge: one where engaging and supporting better governance is critical. By pulling together the three strands of development, defence and diplomacy our response can be greater than the sum of its parts. Thata€™s precisely why the Prime Minister set up the National Security Council to take a cohesive and co-ordinated approach to the very real problems of conflict. This special blend of policy response also has a huge role to play in conflict prevention, an area which is becoming an increasingly important focus of our work.   The NSC is perhaps one of the most tangible examples of cross-Government working but, we can and will, make connections with wider  Whitehall at each and every opportunity.  Whether by: * advocating more open trade policies * lobbying for a climate change deal that is fair to the developing world * promoting the interests of women and girls in poor countries * promoting entrepreneurship and the foundations for strong economic growth * supporting financial services that benefit both poor countries and poor people or; * arguing for a more development-friendly regulatory regimes a€¦a€¦we will be part of that debate.  I see DFID as a key, joined-up, integrated department, a bright star in the Whitehall constellation, a department of state for development in the developing world. Thata€™s why DFID has a seat at the Cabinet table and ita€™s why I wona€™t be satisfied until our message rings down the corridors of each and every department in Whitehall. When David Cameron said that it is time for change, he really meant it. So now as our Coalition Government starts on its agenda for change, let us bring international development to the forefront of our efforts. The prize is great: a better life for millions of people, and a safer, more prosperous world for Britain. Full transparency and new independent watchdog will give UK taxpayers value for money in aid Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell's speech to Oxfam and Policy Exchange at the Royal Society in London, 12pm 3 June 2010. 2010-06-03 7 First of all I would like to thank the UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development for organising this conference. It is great to see so many partners from around the world here today.   The Consortium brings real value to the issues we all care so passionately about.  Part of their strength is the way they bring together so many different organisations to work towards a world free of AIDS. Of course, I am a part of a coalition as well, so I know how creative and energising collaboration like this can be.    Ia€™d like to spend a few moments on the Coalition Governmenta€™s approach to International Development before I turn to the specifics of HIV and the care and support of those affected. Wea€™ve just seen a historic moment.  As part of the Spending Review announcement, the Chancellor set out how we will spend 0.7% of our Gross National Income on overseas aid from 2013, helping the billion people in the world who live in extreme poverty.  I am proud that - even in these difficult times - the UK has chosen not to balance the books on the backs of the worlda€™s poorest.   I hope you are too.  Against the backdrop of the deficit, this ring-fenced budget puts a huge responsibility on Government to spend the money wisely.  As we ask people to made hard choices at home, we have to be able to demonstrate that our aid programme represents the most effective use of taxpayersa€™ money.  Thata€™s why we have recently established the IACI, which will provide rigorous independent evaluation of our aid programme and ensure accountability and transparency in what we do.  Now more than ever we need to be focused on where we add value and on what delivers results a€“ and account for every penny we spend.  That is why our Secretary of State has instigated a series of reviews of the DFID aid programme to determine how we can achieve best value for money for the British taxpayer and accelerate progress towards the MDGs.   I know that many people in this room have already fed views into this process and thanks you for the contributions you have made.   This is not a new agenda for people in this room.  People living with HIV a€“ and the organisations working in this area a€“ have led the way in mobilising communities and holding Governments to account.  Now I hope other parts of the international development community can learn from your experience and success.  Because we have seen success.  A decade ago, who would have imagined that we would have over 5 million people on treatment?    Or that the epidemic would have stabilised in most regions, with a 17% reduction in the number of new infections in 2008 compared to 2001?  Or that the price of first line AIDS drugs would have fallen by 99% from 2000 to 2008.  That is testament, in part, to the efforts of people in this room.   But there is - of course - also a tremendous way to go: over 33 million people are living with HIV.  Globally, AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age - and a major cause of maternal and child mortality and ill health in high prevalence settings. More than 2.1 million children are infected and, under new WHO treatment guidelines, at least 14.6 million are now in need of treatment.  In Sub-Saharan Africa, the epidemic has orphaned more than 14 million children. That is why the Coalition Government has made improving the health of poor people in developing countries - including curbing the spread of HIV and AIDS - a top priority.   In June at Muskoka, the G8 reaffirmed its commitment to come as close as possible to universal access to HIV prevention, AIDS treatment, care and support.   Progress against these targets will be reviewed at a UN General Assembly special session in June next year.  The Coalition Government will play its part in taking this forward.    I know that many of you want to know what the Coalition government is going to do on HIV and AIDS; whether we will continue to show the international leadership on this issue that UK government and organizations have become renowned for.   Well, we will review the UK Governmenta€™s forward approach to HIV and AIDS in the light of findings from the bilateral and multilateral aid reviews.   But today, I want to suggest three areas where efforts must undoubtedly focus: Firstly, we should focus on empowering people - especially marginalised groups and women and girls - to protect themselves from HIV and to access the treatment, care and support they need.  The Coalition has been clear that women and children's health are at the centre of what we do.  As well as being disproportionately vulnerable to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, women and girls bear much of the burden of care and support, usually unpaid. This intensifies poverty. Gender inequality and gender based violence are significant factors fuelling the epidemic. Women and children affected by HIV and AIDS will benefit from the Governmenta€™s prioritisation of reproductive, maternal and newborn health.  The UK is committed to doubling the number of lives of women and babies saved through UK aid by 2015. As a result, at least 50,000 more women and 250,000 babies will survive pregnancy and childbirth and 10 million more couples will get access to family planning.  DFID is developing a new business plan, which will set out how the UK will achieve its contribution towards achieving MDG 5 to improve maternal health.  This will also make an important contribution to reducing child mortality (MDG 4) a€“ particularly through improving the survival chances of newborn babies.  We have had a fantastic response to our public consultation. Thank you to those of you who contributed. Later this year we will publish a summary of responses of all the feedback submitted. Second, we have to focus on the underlying drivers of the epidemic such as poverty, gender-based violence and inequality, stigma and discrimination.  Here as elsewhere we need greater evidence on which interventions have impact, and more imaginative ways of measuring that impact.  Finally we should be innovative a€“ both in leveraging resources for the response and in ensuring the money we spend reaches those in most need.  For example cash transfer programmes have been shown to be highly effective in reaching vulnerable children, including those affected by HIV, and promoting their access to basic services. In Kenya for example, the National Cash Transfer Programme for Orphans and Vulnerable Children reached around 70,000 households by the end of 2009. And in Malawi, cash transfers targeted to help girls stay in school reduced the risk of HIV infection.  Thata€™s why my department will explore using cash transfers more often, where appropriate, combined with a stronger focus on evaluation. Care and support has for too long been the neglected sister in the universal access family.  In order to achieve MDG 6, more focus is needed on the broader care and support needs of adults and children living with, and affected by, AIDS.   This includes prevention of, and treatment for, opportunistic infections; nutrition; palliative and home-based care; as well as broader support services.   Quality care is important to maintain the health of a person living with HIV before they require treatment, and to secure the benefits of treatment once they are on ARVs a€“ including minimising the risk of them developing resistance to their drugs. The impact of AIDS, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, is enormous and individuals, families and communities need to be supported to be able to cope with its consequences.  And an effective response to HIV and AIDS must include the protection of human rights, action on stigma and discrimination, support for orphans and vulnerable children, wealth creation and community-wide responses to the epidemic. Home-based caregivers and community organisations led some of the earliest responses to HIV in many countries, and continue to play a key role in settings where health services are overstretched or unavailable.   Palliative care should be an integral part of the AIDS response a€“ not only the best possible end-of-life care, but also relief from pain. That is why DFID is currently supporting efforts to improve access to pain control medicines. This is a complex agenda - we should be wary of anyone who offers us a silver bullet.   The way forward is harder than that.  We will keep making the case for prevention as the sustainable response, but we will also continue to push for increased access to treatment and, crucially, for the care and support that will remain necessary for years to come.  And this must be underpinned by innovative approaches, allowing those affected by HIV to take charge of their health, their lives, their future.  Thata€™s the way to an AIDS-free world.   I look forward to working in partnership with you as we continue to work towards it. HIV care and support Speech by International Development Minister Stephen O'Brien at the HIV Care and Support: A Roadmap to Universal Access by 2015, International Conference, hosted by UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development. 2010-11-09 8 Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, I am very glad to be here to launch this joint DFID and Foreign Office a€˜How toa€™ Note on Electoral Assistance. ### Democratic Politics and Development Democratic politics play a vital role in the fight against poverty. It is politics that determine how a society makes choices, how competing interests are mediated and how resources are allocated. That is why the UK puts support to inclusive, democratic politics at the very heart of our development efforts.   Part of the definition of being poor is to have no power a€“ no power to shape your own life; no power to make sure government policy meets your needs; no power to hold your leaders to account for what they do. Moreover, people want democracy. In a recent poll, for instance, four out of five Nigerians chose democracy over military government or religious system as the best form of government for their country. But democratic politics help deliver other development objectives too. The economist Paul Collier has found evidence that regular, free and fair elections lead to better policy and governance. Morten Halperin, in his book the a€˜Democracy Advantagea€™, sets out convincing evidence that citizens of democracies live longer, healthier, and more productive lives than those in autocracies. And Amartya Sen has shown that democracies also tend to have more macroeconomic and political stability and are better able to respond to devastating disasters, such as famines. Inclusive politics are also vital in post-conflict situations. Lasting peace and stable states cannot be built if the problems of political exclusion and the legitimacy of governments are not considered.  The parties to a political settlement need to be the right parties. Thata€™s why, after the conflict in Nepal, we put so much effort into broadening the social compact by ensuring that excluded groups had a voice at the table during the peace process and that the percentage of female members of parliament rose from six to thirty-three. In Sierra Leone we see another example of the vital role that elections can play after conflict. Although the conflict lines still exist, the 2007 elections allowed a peaceful change in the governing party without rending the fabric of society.  For all these reasons, the UK government is committed to strengthening its work to empower citizens to hold their governments to account through democratic elections. ### Governance and development Support for democratic politics is just one part of our efforts to strengthen governance in our partner countries. As the Prime Minister said his speech on a€˜One World Conservatisma€™ in July, a€œCountries are pulled out of poverty by a golden thread that starts with the absence of war and the presence of good governance, property rights and the rule of law, effective public services and strong civil institutions, free and fair trade, and open markets.a€ Or as Kofi Annana€™s Africa Progress Panel said this year: a€œGood governance and accountability will determine Africaa€™s future. The quality of governance is a key determinant in political and social stability, equitable economic growth, and poverty reduction.a€ Governance is a complicated concept which is used to mean many things. Let me set out what I mean by governance. First, I mean the critical institutions which help people hold their governments to account and which strengthen the legitimacy of the state in the eyes of the people a€“ the parliament and the judiciary, auditors and ombudsmen. Second, I mean the institutions that enable a state to deliver for its people a€“ to provide a stable and predictable environment for the private sector, to deliver health and education whether directly or through non-governmental providers, to provide policing and security for everybody.  Third, I mean the underlying structures and relationships which govern the way citizens interact with the state and with each other and which are so critical to the opportunities they have to lift themselves out of poverty. Without the development of these governance institutions and underlying structures, we will not see significant wealth creation and we will not see sustainable progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. ### The Elections a€˜How toa€™ Note Now let me return to elections in particular. The a€˜How toa€™ Note we are launching today sets out how the UK will support elections in our partner countries drawing on lessons of experience. I commend it to you. Let me just pick out a few of the key principles that will guide us. First, understanding of the context a€“ historical, social and political. The UK will never impose any particular model of democratic governance on another country. All we can do is support processes that are already at work within a country. We will seek to work with the grain, helping others to nudge forward change. We need to be pragmatic. In countries where the economy is growing fast without full democracy it makes sense to build on this progress while working to strengthen accountability. Economic development can help democracies to emerge and be sustained. Second, we will take an electoral cycle approach, providing long-term support to democratic processes not just for short-term election events. And, as Jeremy Browne has stressed, we will work with a broad range of partners a€“ parliaments, political parties and civil society groups, as well as electoral management bodies. We also recognize that democratic practice takes a long time to develop. In the UK ita€™s taken us some 800 years to get where we are today - and we are still learning a€“ about coalition government for example! Third, we will take what Andrew Mitchell, the Secretary of State, has described as an a€œintegrated approacha€. We will work across government to make the best use of our development and diplomatic resources. That is why DFID and the Foreign Office produced this a€˜How toa€™ Note jointly and that is why Jeremy and I are up here together. But the integrated approach is also about working in broader partnerships: with governmental and non-governmental actors, with other development agencies, and with important bodies such as the African Union.   Fourth, we will put greater emphasis on identifying the potential risks around elections and working to mitigate them. The Kenyan Finance Minister estimated that the violence around the 2007 elections cost his countrya€™s economy about one billion dollars. And the direct human cost was also huge with over 1,000 deaths and more than 300,000 people displaced from their homes. So, for example, in Nigeria we are working with national and regional authorities to identify potential hotspots of violence in the vital upcoming elections. And fifth, the Note emphasises a theme that now runs through all of our development efforts a€“ demonstrating value for money. Let us not pretend that this is straightforward a€“ building a democracy is not the same as building a road. But we owe it to the British taxpayer to improve the way we demonstrate the efficiency and the effectiveness of our support to elections. We are making progress already Let me assure you that we are already making progress. Over the past four years, DFID has provided support to elections in 25 countries with a combined electorate of over 600 million.  And we have seen the benefits: in increased voter registration and election turnouts; greater acceptance of results; and a trend towards wider public support for democracy. For example, in the ten years since the first round of Afrobarometer surveys in 1999, the level of engagement in political discussions has increased 11%, the number of citizens who know who is their MP has increased 21%, and the number of people attending community meetings has increased by 17%. Let me give you some examples of the different types of support that the UK has provided, support that has made a real difference to the lives of some of the worlda€™s poorest people. In some cases, we provide support for democratic processes themselves. In Bangladesh, for example, DFID was part of a major international community effort to support the 2008 elections. DFID support focused on improving voter registration and we directly helped around 14 million people to get the chance to vote. Voter turnout was around 85% in a free, fair and credible process. In many countries we also provide support for democratic institutions. In Uganda we are pioneering a Deepening Democracy Programme which is an example of the electoral cycle approach in action. Working with other donors, we provide support to: a€¢ the Electoral Commission, to improve competence and greater independence; a€¢ parliament, to strengthen it as an institution, enabling it to hold the executive properly to account; a€¢ political parties, to build capacity and improve internal democracy; a€¢ and the media, encouraging balanced and fair reporting. Finally, we are increasingly helping citizens to engage in public life. Take Ghana, for example. Here, we funded a project in advance of the 2008 elections to raise the profile of gender issues with political parties. A televised meeting of party leaders discussing their gender policies galvanised widespread media coverage and public interest. Several hundred women leaders were trained to campaign on gender issues. This project supported a movement which led to some impressive results. For the first time a women was elected Speaker of the national parliament. Of 32 ministerial portfolios, 8 are now headed by women. And crucially, the benefits are already evident with a stronger government focus on maternal mortality and girls. ### Going forward Guided by this Electoral Assistance a€˜How toa€™ Note we will strengthen our efforts to improve democratic governance in our partner countries. We want our practice to continue to evolve. We have posted this Note on our external websites and we would welcome your comments and suggestions. We are also working with other donors in the OECD to try to improve the impact of the overall international efforts to support elections and democracy. Before closing, let me echo Jeremya€™s thanks to you all for being here today and to ERIS for sponsoring the launch of the How to Note. This agenda lies right at the heart of the coalitiona€™s commitment to help citizens in the developing world take control of their own lives. I am honoured to be part of this effort to which DFID, the Foreign Office and many of you in this room are dedicated. This is a difficult, complicated agenda but the rewards of success will be great - a better life for millions of people and a safer, more prosperous world for Britain.   How to Note on Electoral Assistance Speech by PUSS Stephen O’Brien to launch DFID/FCO “How to Note on Electoral Assistance” 2010-12-14 9 The new UK Government places a high value on transparency of government spending, and nowhere does this apply more appropriately than to aid spending.  Aid transparency is critical to improve value for money and accountability.  I strongly believe that the public has a right to access information about the aid we provide so as much as possible should be released. We should support those who want to analyse and use data to hold us and developing country governments accountable for using aid money wisely. We live in a post-bureaucratic age in which information needs to be diffused and democratised, so we can use it to improve the quality of aid programmes.  This is why I have recently launched a UK Aid Transparency Guarantee and taken decisions to make DFID more transparent.  I wish you well in delivering your agenda today and urge you to join us in being as ambitious as possible.  The agreements you reach here today could deliver the real change in aid transparency that is so urgently needed. Statement on aid transparency Statement from the Secretary of State for International Development to the International Aid Transparency Initiative meeting on 7 July 2010 None 2010-07-07 10 ![Andrew Mitchell](/Images/250x190/1/uk-mitchell-smaller-100x124.jpg)The Pakistan floods have all too tragically shown just why aid really does matter. I am extremely proud that the UK led the world in its response to this tragedy, sending thousands of tents, shelter kits, water containers and blankets to address immediate needs. I am proud too that the British public has yet again demonstrated its capacity for generosity. Humanitarian support, however, is only part of what we do at DFID. Our remit is far wider, and it is a remit about which this Government cares passionately. One of the first things we did upon taking office was commit 0.7 per cent of Gross National Income to overseas aid from 2013 and promise to enshrine this commitment in legislation. We said that we would stick to the internationally agreed definitions of aid and keep aid separate from commercial interests. In July, we published our [Structural Reform Plan](/About-us/How-we-measure-progress/DFID-Business-plan-2011-2015/) outlining the steps we will take to achieve our objectives on international development, making it clear that the emphasis will be on results a€“ about what is being achieved on the ground. I am acutely conscious that in these difficult economic times we must demonstrate to taxpayers that we are getting value for money and I have launched full-scale reviews of where that money is going and how it is being spent. These reviews will give us evidence from our experience in the field combined with the views of a wide range of people and organisations, which will allow us to make informed decisions about our future funding.  Alongside this focus on results and value for money, I am determined that DFID will become more transparent. I want the British public and people in developing countries to be able to see where money has gone, as well as what it has achieved a€“ this is our UK Aid Transparency Guarantee. We have already established the Pakistan Floods Monitor, so that you can see how UKaid is being spent, and we will be publishing the details of all projects over £500 on our website from next January. At the same time, the new Independent Commission for Aid Impact will assess just how effective our spending has been, and will report directly to Parliament. We will be equally open about our policy development, and we are currently running [open consultations](/Work-with-us/Consultations/Open-consultations/) about ways of tackling malaria and maternal, reproductive and newborn health. I hope you will let us know what you think. This is a vital year for international development with only five years left to achieve the [Millennium Development Goals](/News/Latest-news/2010/MDG-summit/), and the majority of them off-track. I will be urging the world at this montha€™s United Nationsa€™ MDG Summit to step up a gear and reinvigorate efforts to meet these goals. We are burning the candle at both ends to make sure British aid is spent effectively in helping the worlda€™s poorest people lift themselves out of poverty. I hope you will be part of the debate and that you will share your views and engage with us over the coming months. Making the case for UKaid Message from International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell: 2010-09-14 11 I wish to update the House on my visit to Sudan between 8-11 November 2010. During my visit to Khartoum, El-Fasher and Juba, I met with: Vice President, Ali Osman Taha; President of the Government of Southern Sudan, Salva Kiir; Presidential Adviser on Darfur, Ghazi Salah Al-Din Al-Atabani; other Government Ministers; a range of Sudana€™s political leaders; the Chairman of the Southern Sudan Referendum Commission (SSRC) Professor Ibrahim Khalil; and members of civil society. I also met with: visiting UN Under-Secretary Generals, Baroness Amos and Alain Le Roy; UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) Special Representative Haile Menkerios; UN / African Union Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) Joint Special Representative Ibrahim Gambari; members of the UN Country Team; humanitarian actors; and NGOs. In Juba, I opened the new HMG Office, which will house staff from DFID, the FCO, the Stabilisation Unit and the Ministry of Defence. In North and South Sudan, I stressed the importance of the referendum being credible, peaceful and on time. I delivered messages on the importance of both parties agreeing the outstanding Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) issues such as Abyei, citizenship and the border. The UK is actively supporting the referendum, including through financial support to the UN Development Programme Basket Fund for the referendum process which will provide voter education, civic education, pratical assistance and technical support. We are also providing technical assistance to the talks on border demarcation and security arrangements. I made clear to the Governments in the North and South that the UK is committed to the longer-term future of both North and South Sudan whatever the outcome of the referendum. Through successful completion and implementation of the CPA and progress towards peace and justice in Darfur, the North has an opportunity to change its political relationships with the international community. The Government of Southern Sudan must set out a vision for the future with which its citizens can engage, including making appropriate investments to support diversification of the economy into non-oil activity. The UK has a substantial development programme in South Sudan, an area where thousands of adults are illiterate and women and children are more likely to die in childbirth than complete primary education. Amongst other benefits, this programme has already provided basic services for over 1.8 million people so far. We remain committed to supporting the long-term future of Southern Sudan, and working with the Government to help improve the lives of those who live there. I found the situation in Darfur much changed since the Prime Minister and I visited in 2006, but in discussions with Government Ministers and Advisers, I underlined my concern about the security situation in parts of the three states. I called for the immediate and unconditional release of the four European nationals currently being held hostage (1 Hungarian UNAMID peacekeeper and 3 Latvian World Food Programme pilots), and stressed the need for the full and unhindered access for humanitarian workers and Peacekeepers. I urged all sides to refrain from military escalation in Darfur, and to engage constructively with the AU/UN Mediation to work towards an inclusive and sustainable peace agreement for Darfur. I reiterated the UKa€™s support for the International Criminal Court and urged the Government of Sudan to engage with the Court. I underlined to senior UN representatives that the international community could not be caught short in its preparedness to respond to a referendum-related humanitarian crisis in Sudan. I stressed the need for the UN and its agencies to have comprehensive contingency plans in place to address any potential future challenges. The UK is determined to help improve the lives of the Sudanese people. But only if peace is kept and conflict avoided, will development succeed and those lives truly be improved. Ministerial statement on Sudan The Secretary of State for International Development, Andrew Mitchell: 2010-11-22 12 Mr Prime Minister, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentleman I am delighted to be here today. This is the 4th time that I have visited Pakistan this year: the first was in January while I was still in opposition; the second was in June as my first overseas visit in Government; I visited in August during the dreadful floods and today to pledge my support to the future development of Pakistan.  The UK has a long and close friendship with Pakistan. But I know I speak for the entire international community when I say what happens in Pakistan matters for the rest of the world. And I want to acknowledge here Pakistana€™s sacrifices in the struggle against terrorism. We all want to see a vibrant future for this country. Pakistan can realise that goal. It sits at the crossroads of South Asia, Central Asia, China and the Middle East. It is the sixth most populous country in the world. And in my visits here, I have always been struck by the vibrant entrepreneurship of the Pakistani people, the importance they attach to education and the spirit of zakat. The question for us all here at the Pakistan Development Forum is how we support Pakistan to realise that potential and support the Minister of Finance and his excellent team. Pakistan faces enormous challenges. Economic growth needs to reach 8% just to keep pace with population growth. The Millennium Development Goals are off-track. Half of the adult population is illiterate. Women are particularly disadvantaged. And security and corruption are pressing and immediate concerns. On top of these challenges, as I saw in August, is that the floods have left millions of people destitute and homeless. Through the massive and commendable joint efforts of the Government of Pakistan and the international community, we are slowly moving into the recovery phase. But as we have seen from the Damage and Needs Assessment, the losses are approaching ten billion dollars. And it will take years to rebuild the lives and livelihoods of those who have been affected. So we cannot underestimate the desperate needs of those affected by the floods. But nor can we ignore the plight of millions of others trapped in poverty and hopelessness. Underlying this is the urgent need to lay the foundations of an economy that can sustain economic growth above 8%. Last month, the UK published its Comprehensive Spending Review which set out our plans to make significant cuts in our public spending. The UK Government has had to make difficult and unpopular decisions. But it was absolutely essential to address the deficit so that we can build our economic potential. Having taken these decisions, we are now on the road to recovery. Pakistan is at a similar crossroads. To realise its economic potential, it will have to implement some difficult, short-term reforms, to gain real long term benefits. Three key issues stand out for me. A stronger tax base that does not balance the books on the backs of the poor. The Federal Board of Revenue and its provincial equivalents must be strengthened to implement existing tax laws. But in the short term, to stave off a crisis, the General Sales Tax must be implemented. British taxpayers cana€™t be expected to support your development if the wealthy in Pakistan dona€™t pay their dues. Second, the need to reform state-owned enterprises and tackle corruption to get the best value for public money. And third, the need to reform the energy sector. Government subsidies are using up valuable revenues while power outages cripple business and leave millions of people sitting in darkness. But more reliable power means higher prices. I know progress is being made in these areas. The Government has taken tough decisions to increase electricity prices by 2% a month and has tabled the General Sales Tax before Parliament. Ultimately, it is the Pakistani Government that must own and drive these reforms with the support of the international community. We cannot and should not impose change but we can support your efforts, providing assistance in step with your readiness to take the brave decisions that are needed. I am pleased that the Government has called on the IMF and World Bank to support them in delivering these reforms. Their support is critical. I am pleased also that the UK has played a leading role in the EUa€™s initiative to cut tariffs on key Pakistani exports. The EU will shortly be asking the WTO for a waiver and I hope that all countries will support us in ensuring this is approved quickly. As a politician and friend of democratic government, I know that these reforms are unpopular and difficult. The same is true for any government. But that is exactly when we politicians earn our pay. Not just those of us in Government but those in opposition as well. We need to provide a long-term vision if we are to ask people to accept the need for painful reforms. I want to reassure Prime Minister Gilani and his team, as well as the Pakistani people, that they are not alone in facing these difficult decisions. The international community will stand by them. That means in the short-term we must support reconstruction. For our part, the UK is prepared to support the Family Compensation Scheme, which the Minister of Finance mentioned in his speech, provided we can ensure the funds reach those most in need. And we will aim to ensure our education programmes in the Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkwa support the rehabilitation and reconstruction of schools that have been damaged by the floods. But over the medium-term, donors must get better at supporting the Government of Pakistan. I look forward to co-chairing the Aid Effectiveness session this afternoon and to agreeing how we a€“ as donors a€“ can commit to concrete improvements in the way we work, inclduing better donor co-ordination and clearer prioritisation. Ladies and Gentleman, let me conclude my remarks by saying these are challenging times for Pakistan. But I know I speak for all of my international colleagues when I say we are determined to ensure we play our part in supporting that difficult transition. Pakistan Development Forum International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell's speech to the Pakistan Development Forum in Islamabad on 15 November 2010 2010-11-15 13 As world leaders gather for the G8 Summit, I want today to argue that, over the course of the next five years, we have the means and the opportunity to put to an end some of the most egregious problems facing the world today. But that the only way we will do so is by putting women front and centre of all our efforts. Most importantly, I will argue that this is a perfect moment when, with political will and with leadership, we can change the course of history. Our generations are the first that can make a real difference to the discrepancy of wealth and opportunity which exists around the world today. We know so much  more about what works and we know what needs to be done. We understand, for example, that it is conflict ultimately which mires people in poverty. If I think about those dreadful refugee camps that I've seen around the world, in Darfur and on the Burma/Thai border, if you are languishing in one of those camps, it doesn't matter how much access to aid and to trade and to money which you have, until the conflict is over you are going to remain poor and miserable and fightened and dispossessed. And in just the same way we know that it is conflict which mires people in poverty and condemns them to stay there, so we now have learnt and generally accept that it is free trade and the private sector and wealth creation and enterprise and jobs which lift people out of poverty. And I must emphasize the importance, which should never be forgotten, on bringing the Doha round to a successful conclusion. A successful conclusion to the Doha round, and on any basis at all, would mean an increase in world trade of about $300 billion and the total amount of aid flows across the world is something like $150 billion. So the importance of the Doha trade round should never be forgotten. And lastly that money, aid spent well, works miracles, not least when we are talking about maternal health. This is the context within which I want to set my comments today.  ### Introduction Ladies and Gentlemen, this is my first overseas speech since becoming Secretary of State for International Development and I can think of no better place to deliver it than here, in the home of philanthropy: the Carnegie Endowment; and in that great hothouse of free thought that is Washington DC. And Ia€™d like to congratulate Carnegie as they celebrate their Centennial this year. We have a great dialogue with Carnegie and regard Tom [Carothers] as a member of the Department for International Development family in Britain.  So, let me begin by paying tribute to President Obama and Secretary Clinton for their commitment to global development. I salute too, the tireless battle pursued against HIV/AIDS by President Bush. And I applaud the pioneering efforts of the Clinton Foundation; the campaign against River Blindness spearheaded by President Carter; and the inspirational work of Bill and Melinda Gates. You are true leaders, one and all. ### Approach to development under new, coalition Government I want to begin with a few words about our new coalition government, a government that is motivated by a shared determination to erode these vast inequalities of opportunity that I described and we see around the world today. Ours is a new agenda, one of value for money; accountability; transparency and empowerment. We have promised to enshrine in law Britaina€™s commitment to spend 0.7% of GNI on overseas aid from 2013. And crucially, we will keep aid untied from commercial interests a€“ in this I urge the US to follow our lead. ### Millennium Development Goals This new agenda will underpin our approach to the Millennium Development Goals. These goals, agreed by the UN ten years ago, were the concrete embodiment of our generationsa€™ collective commitment to tackle the terrible poverty and suffering that afflict so many. As well as being in our own national interest that is also our shared moral obligation. ### Successes And yes, the commitment has led to some real results: * We are on track to halve extreme poverty; * Wea€™ve made strong progress on universal primary education, where some thirteen African countries look set to achieve that MDG * Measles-related deaths fell by 78% between 2000 and 2008 ### Challenges However, in other areas - and indeed, even within those goals where we are doing quite well - progress is patchy. Most regions are off-track on tackling child mortality; while progress on maternal health is especially disappointing. Ita€™s significant, too, that across all the goals, sub-Saharan Africa lags far behind. And, however hard we try, new challenges constantly threaten our ability to meet the MDGs and jeopardise our gains. The world of 2010 is not the world of 2000. Wea€™ve had food price hikes. A global recession. A massive increase in the cost of fuel. Some argue that against this backdrop we should focus our attention on domestic priorities. I disagree. This is a time to reaffirm our promises to the worlda€™s poor, not abandon them. We should never balance the books on the backs of the worlda€™s poorest people. It is true that charity begins at home, but it doesn't end there.  Promoting global prosperity is also very much in our own interests. Development is good for our economy, our safety, our health, our future. It is, quite simply, the best return on investment youa€™ll find: a cause that commands consensus across the political spectrum both in Britain and hopefully, here in America. So, our response is not to abandon the MDGs but to encourage all parties to work towards a clear action plan that can be agreed at this Septembera€™s UN Summit. For our part, Britain will also be aligning development more effectively with other policies, whether with trade, investment and enterprise, climate change or economic growth. In the UK, we have brought together the three policy pillars of development, defence and diplomacy through our new National Security Council. This synergy will allow us to reduce poverty in fragile states, while also building capacity and guaranteeing security and stability. I know that balancing and integrating all of the elements of power is a major objective for you here in the States. There are areas, however, where our approaches to development differ. In Britain, the Department for International Development is a separate Government Department in its own right. As its Secretary of State, I have a seat in Cabinet and on the National Security Council. A vibrant DFID, at the table, agitating, campaigning and helping to deliver progressive change for communities worldwide. And in our Government, an equally vibrant coalition whose leaders share a vision of a world where everyone has the opportunity to fulfil their true potential. Abroad as well as at home, we believe in decentralising power and responsibility, empowering citizens, making governments more transparent and accountable. ### Transparency Here in the States, President Obama has spoken out for greater transparency and accountability across his administration. Back in Britain, our Prime Minister, David Cameron and Deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg, have applied these same principles to our new coalition government. Thata€™s why one of the first things I did on taking office was to launch our new UK Aid Transparency Guarantee, a guarantee that will help to make aid transparent to citizens in the UK - and also to those in recipient countries too. This chimes with Raj Shaha€™s promise to embrace "extreme transparency" throughout USAID. I look forward to working with Raj and to discussing this with him when we meet again this afternoon. ### Results-based aid Wea€™re also fundamentally redesigning our aid programmes so that they build in rigorous evaluation processes from day one. The focus will be on outputs and outcomes rather than inputs. In these difficult, economic times donors have a double duty, a responsibility to achieve maximum value for money: not just results but results at the lowest possible cost. With this in mind, we want to test the concept of cash on delivery aid thata€™s been mooted by the Centre for Global Development. CGD has been the leader of so much great thinking on development, and Nancy Birdsall told me this morning that she learnt her trade here at Carnegie. Wea€™re also taking a fundamentally new approach to our bilateral and multilateral aid: reviewing what we do - and where - so that we can maintain a ruthless focus on results. At the same time, Ia€™m setting up a new independent body that will gather evidence about the effectiveness of our programmes. Again, our two nations are on the same page: I know Raj Shah envisages a stronger focus on impact evaluation in USAIDa€™s work. Let me now, Tom, turn to the most off-track of the MDGs: maternal health. ### Maternal health When a jumbo jet crashes anywhere in the world it makes the headlines. If it were to crash week in week out in the same place therea€™s not a person alive who wouldna€™t be talking about it. The international community would set up an enquiry and no money would be spared in making sure it never happened again. Yet, in Nigeria, the equivalent number of women die each and every week from pregnancy-related causes - and the world stands silent. In Britain, we want to make a serious contribution to tackling this tragedy. Today, at the G8, our Prime Minister, David Cameron, is working with PM Harper and other G8 leaders to ensure the world delivers on its commitments to cut the number of women and children dying during pregnancy and childbirth in some of the worlda€™s poorest countries. The Prime Minister will argue today that it is indefensible in this, the twenty first century that for so many women, pregnancy and childbirth should represent a death sentence or at least, a morbid lottery. Or that the risk to a woman of dying in the UK due to a pregnancy-related cause at some point during her lifetime is 1 in 8,200 while in Niger, it is 1 in 7. Every year, at least a third of a million women, and probably more, die due to complications in pregnancy or child birth. The vast majority of those deaths occur in low and middle income countries. And research by my department tells us that if a mother dies in childbirth, there is a high chance her child will die within a few months too. But we all know a€“ it doesna€™t have to be like this. As Melinda Gates said earlier this month, ita€™s not that we dona€™t know what to do or that we cana€™t do it. Ita€™s that we havena€™t tried hard enough. We have within our grasp a golden opportunity, a perfect moment when we have the technology and the political will a€“ if not to eradicate maternal mortality a€“ then to reduce it significantly. ### The great blot on public health History is on our side. The last time that the UK had a Conservative/Liberal coalition government was back in 1935. That coalition didna€™t pull its punches when it referred to Britaina€™s maternal mortality rate as the "great blot on public health". Determined to reverse the trend and with political will behind him, the British Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin established a national midwifery service. This move, coupled with the necessary policies and resources, saw maternal deaths fall by 80% in just 15 years. The resonance with where we are today is uncanny and only serves to sharpen our governmenta€™s resolve to seek an equally radical result abroad. ### Innovation We will not be afraid to try new approaches: maternal health is an area where therea€™s room for innovation. Look at the example of Madhya Pradesh where pregnant women are offered free transport to hospital and paid 1400 Rupees (about $30) to compensate them for the work their partners lose in having to stay at home to supervise the other children. Phone numbers for the service are widely displayed, while community workers spread the message about safe deliveries and timely check-ups. These workers receive 350 Rupees (about $8 dollars) for every expectant mother that they bring to the hospital. Innovation isna€™t confined to overseas activities. Closer to home, I was excited to hear of Oxford Universitya€™s creative plan to use crowd-sourcing as a means of undertaking research into maternal health. 10,000 healthcare professionals across the developing world will be asked to complete an online survey and to identify where they see the gaps in maternal healthcare in their respective countries. We are being equally innovative in my department. Two weeks ago I launched a fund that will allow our health professionals to share their skills with birth attendants, doctors, nurses and midwives across the developing world. We want to encourage partnerships that can pilot new techniques, such as live internet link-ups or the use of mobile phones for emergency referrals or operations. ### Family planning and safe abortion I want to turn now, Tom, to a subject that I recognise to be sensitive but which is nevertheless close to my heart. I understand the cultural difficulties implicit in any discussion about contraception and abortion; I merely lay these facts before you: every year 20 million women seek unsafe abortions and 70,000 of them, many still girls, die as a result. And 215 million women around the world who want to use modern contraception dona€™t have access to it. President Obama has described a womana€™s right to make a decision about how many children she wants to have, and when, as one of the most fundamental of human freedoms. Let me say this to you today: I could not agree with him more. Empowering women to take decisions about their own future is the right thing to do for so many, many reasons. Not least, as your President pointed out -the fact that it is a basic human right. The UNFPA estimates that satisfying the unmet need for modern family planning would reduce unintended pregnancies by 53 million every year, the greatest reduction being in low income countries. We recognise that these are difficult areas and will proceed carefully a€“ while never forgetting that our ultimate goal is always to empower women in their own lives. That goal is simply non-negotiable and I promise you here and now, that Britain will be placing women at the heart of the whole of our agenda for international development. In the immediate term, we will be doing everything in our power to urge all countries to sign up to a strong set of commitments on maternal health at Septembera€™s MDG Summit. ### Women at the heart of development ### Education Just as maternal health covers a whole continuum of care, so too, does gender cover a continuum of opportunity a€“ of which a key stage is education. Focussing our efforts exclusively on women rather than on women and girls is to miss the opportunity to reverse a vicious cycle that can be the lot of girls in poor countries. The cycle starts with limited access to education but soon leads to poor employment, ill-health, early marriage and, all too frequently, to violence and exploitation. By making sure that more girls have the chance to attend school we can replace that vicious cycle with a virtuous one that ultimately puts females at the heart of their families and their communities. Bringing in money, supporting local enterprise, making sure their own children are educated. And typically, putting an average of 90% of their earnings back into the family compared to the 30 or 40% that males contribute. There are many reasons why education is particularly hard for girls. These can be linked to issues of comparative low status: girls will often be expected to do the household chores or to make the long journey to fetch water, instead of attending school. When I visited Pakistan earlier this month, I saw how insecurity can add to the difficulties girls face. The new work that I was able to announce while I was there will see some 300,000 girls in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa encouraged to attend school in return for a monthly allowance. There is a good story to tell in Afghanistan, too, where 3 million girls are now attending school. Making sure that girls are able to have access to education a€“ and are able to complete that education - will remain a key priority for the UKa€™s Department for International Development. ### Cash-transfers as part of the solution Cash incentives can also work for education a€“ and for health too, as we saw with the Madhya Pradesh project a€“ but they can also have a wider application, enabling women to meet basic household expenses and ultimately, to re-invest their savings in the family unit. I give you the example of Nihoza Angelique from Rwanda, a country my party knows well. She has less than a quarter of a hectare of farmland on which to support her family of three. However, thanks to development support, she has now been in employment for six months, earning 1,000 Rwandan francs per day (less than $2), out of which she is saving some 400 francs (just under 70 cents) in her newly-opened savings account. With her first salary she bought school uniforms for her children. With her second and third salaries, she bought a goat. She now plans to use her savings to build a house for herself and her children. ### Gender and voice Wea€™ve seen, ladies and gentlemen, that when women are empowered economically they are more likely to have a voice in the community and to be advocates for other women. In Nepal, the percentage of female Members of Parliament rose from 6% to 33% in 2008, while Ghana has seen a women elected Speaker of the national Parliament for the first time in its post-independence history. In the UK a€“ although wea€™ve had a woman Speaker, indeed, a female Prime Minister - only 22% of our MPs are women. In your Congress, female representation is just 17%. Ita€™s salutary to be reminded that the developed world isna€™t always the shining beacon we might wish it to be. On the theme of governance let me say a few words about the new UN Gender Entity. This is an historic opportunity to create an efficient, powerful and well-resourced body that has the chance to make a positive impact on the lives of millions of women and girls across the world. It is vital that a competent and visible leader is appointed as soon as possible, a leader who is mandated to make progress in this crucial area. ### Conclusion Ladies and gentlemen, as we sit here in Washington - across the world, millions of people are suffering. Millions of people are denied the dignity and the opportunity they deserve. We can change that. The playwright, George Bernard Shaw once said that the essence of inhumanity wasna€™t hate, it was indifference. He was right: indifference kills. Septembera€™s MDG Summit represents a golden opportunity for us to demonstrate that we are not indifferent, that we will recommit to the promises that we made ten years ago to the worlda€™s poor. We must call on the worlda€™s political leaders to come to the Summit ready to make and deliver ambitious pledges. We must urge them to fulfil their aid commitments and to sign up to the Secretary-Generala€™s Action Plan on women and childrena€™s health. We must grasp this single moment that history offers us, a moment when, together, we can make a stand. If we are prepared to do that then we truly can leave this world a better place for generations to come. Thank you. Andrew Mitchell delivers first overseas speech in Washington Secretary of State Andrew Mitchell's first overseas speech given at Carnegie Endowment, Washington DC, Friday 25 June. 2010-06-26 14 With permission, Mr Speaker, I would like to make a statement about the floods in Pakistan. I am sure that Members of all parties will wish to express their profound sadness at the terrible suffering and devastation that the catastrophe has caused. Our thoughts are with all those families, both in Pakistan and here, whose lives have been touched by this terrible natural disaster. It is now nearly a month since the devastating floods hit Pakistan, and it is almost impossible to describe the magnitude of what has happened. Ten years' equivalent of rainfall fell in one week, and subsequently a wall of water has travelled 1,200 miles down the country. Some 12.5 million people are in need of immediate assistance and 1.2 million homes have been damaged or destroyed. More than 1 million head of livestock have been lost and 3.5 million hectares of standing crops damaged or lost. The estimated cost to Pakistan's economy this year alone is $4 billion. Britain will continue to do everything we can to help. I am particularly concerned about the potential for a secondary humanitarian public health crisis due to the slow draining of waters from Sindh province and parts of Punjab, the lack of access to clean water and sanitation facilities, and inadequate health facilities to treat the outbreak of water-borne disease. I have discussed all those concerns on a number of occasions with the United Nations Secretary-General, and he has assured me that the UN, working with partners on the ground, will do all it can to respond to the threat. I am pleased to be able to say that the UK has been at the forefront of the international community's response to the disaster and was the first major country to come to Pakistan's support in significant scale in its hour of need. The Department for International Development has sent 3,500 all-weather tents to provide shelter for up to 10,000 people. More plane loads of aid quickly followed, providing tents, shelter kits, water containers and blankets to help many thousands more affected by the floods. We have drawn upon all resources available to the Government. The Royal Air Force has flown in five plane loads of relief, and I am sure that the whole House will join me in paying tribute to the contribution of our armed forces in this crisis. Our assistance to date includes help for 500,000 malnourished children and pregnant or breastfeeding women through the provision of high-energy food supplements, treatment for severely malnourished children and the training of health workers. We are providing safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene for 800,000 people, and have prioritised clean water and health interventions in Punjab and Sindh. Our support is helping to provide hygiene kits for more than 500,000 people and is being channelled through Save the Children, Concern and Oxfam. We are also providing shelter for up to 40,000 households through the Pakistan Red Crescent movement and working closely with Islamic Relief. In addition, I am pleased to announce the overnight arrival in Karachi, in Pakistan, of the first of three new flights delivering DFID relief goods. It will bring much needed water purification units, pumps and water tanks to assist those in desperate need of clean drinking water. The other two flights will carry a range of items, including water carriers and shelter kits. We are also starting emergency production lines in two factories in Pakistan to produce hygiene kits and water containers that will help stop the spread of water-borne diseases in southern Pakistan, and are helping to set up an emergency field operation and co-ordination base camp near Sukkur to provide a base for relief workers in the middle of the worst flood-affected area. My Department has also brought forward a bridge rehabilitation programme as part of the recovery effort. The first 10 bridges left Tilbury docks last week and will arrive in Karachi later this month. That assistance will help to open access routes and reduce the pressure on much-needed air assets. Soon after the flooding started, I travelled to Pakistan with my right hon. and noble Friend Baroness Warsi to see for myself the devastation. I visited the town of Pir Sabaq in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and saw the 12 foot-high watermarks on the remaining walls of the houses. It is not easy to imagine the terror and panic that must have affected particularly older, less mobile people and children as the mountain of water swept through the town. I know that the Deputy Prime Minister's visit to Pakistan last week made a similarly deep impression on him. During our visits, the Deputy Prime Minister and I discussed the situation with President Zardari and Prime Minister Gilani, as well as with representatives of UN agencies, non-governmental organisations and donors. Following my visit to Pakistan, I went immediately to attend the UN General Assembly special session on the Pakistan floods, to support the UN Secretary-General's appeal. The initial response of the international community was woefully inadequate. I used that meeting to encourage other nations to contribute more and announced the doubling of the UK's contribution to the relief effort to £64 million. We have consistently worked to co-ordinate the effort of the donor community and on the ground with Pakistan's National Disaster Management Authority, under the experienced leadership of General Nadeem. The Pakistan authorities, the Pakistan Red Crescent Society and local and international agencies, including many brilliant British non-governmental organisations, have worked tirelessly throughout. We will continue to work closely with all partners to ensure that the response is as effective as it can be. I should like to assure the House that my Department has throughout been committed to transparency and achieving value for money. We have not simply signed a cheque and handed it over. Our contributions to this humanitarian crisis have been based on detailed and rigorous assessments of needs on the ground. We are working night and day to ensure that every penny spent achieves a meaningful output that alleviates the suffering of the victims of this disaster. We have recently put a floods monitor on DFID's website to enable everyone to see where and how British aid is being spent to help those affected by the floods in Pakistan. All the UK's humanitarian assistance is provided through impartial agencies or through goods in kind. I should also like to express my profound gratitude and respect for the unstinting hard work and skill shown by all British Government officials-both in DFID and from across Whitehall-throughout this emergency. In addition to the UK taxpayer's contribution, the British people have once again demonstrated their compassion and generosity. I am sure all hon. Members will wish to join me in commending the magnificent response from the British public, who have committed more than £47 million to the Disasters Emergency Committee appeal. We continue to urge people to give, and to give generously, to that appeal. Our commitment is not just for the current emergency relief phase but also for the long haul. We will remain at Pakistan's side to help people to rebuild their lives and livelihoods. We will also support the longer-term reconstruction needs, such as schools, health clinics and other essential infrastructure, which are being considered as part of the bilateral aid review of our development programme. Although the floods have been a terrible tragedy, their aftermath offers a genuine opportunity for Pakistan. It is an opportunity for the international community to come together and provide exceptional support to Pakistan in its hour of need, but equally, the situation offers an unprecedented opportunity for the Government of Pakistan to drive forward a radical economic reform agenda that could make a real difference to the future of the country. The UK and Pakistan are bound together by bonds of history and family, which underline our support for Pakistan in good times and in bad. The Pakistani diaspora living in Britain ensures that our two countries remain closely linked. This bond will remain strong over the coming months and years, as we work together to help Pakistan to recover from this unprecedented catastrophe. Statement to House of Commons on the Pakistan floods from Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell None 2010-09-07 15 The Secretary of State for International Development (Mr. Andrew Mitchell): Following the last Governmenta€™s statement about the situation in TCI in October 2009, I would like to update the House.  The financial situation in TCI has worsened to the point where it was not possible for its government to meet its June financial commitments, including payment of public sector salaries. Without immediate UK support, TCI would fall further into economic crisis. Following discussions with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, I have decided to provide a temporary package of financial support. This support is conditional on the TCI Government strengthening its capacity and systems to manage its public finances, and balancing its budget within the next three years.  We are finalising the details of the package, which we want to put in place together with commercial lenders over the coming months.  We intend these arrangements to be at or near zero cost to HMG over the medium term. In order to address the immediate shortfall, we last week agreed a short term loan of up to £10 million to help meet unavoidable commitments including staff salaries for the police, health and education services.  This loan will be repaid in full as soon as the package outlined above is in place.  Our aim is to restore and firmly embed the principles of sound financial management, sustainable development and good governance.  This should help rebuild confidence in TCI and its ability to manage its public finances. Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) Financial Stability Written Ministerial Statement to Parliament 2010-07-01 16 Thank you Paul and Howard and thank you to the International Growth Centre for hosting this event. It is a particular pleasure to speak here this evening at the London School of Economics  an institution whose list of alumni reads like the edited highlights of "Whoa€™s Who" and who yesterday added another Nobel prize winner to their tally. It was one of the LSEa€™s own founders, George Bernard Shaw, who once described poverty as the greatest of evils and the worst of crimes. A hundred years on I believe that just as we look back with disbelief at the social poverty of Shawa€™s Britain, so future generations may yet judge us equally harshly - as passive colluders in global poverty. This government is not prepared to accept such a shameful distinction. Thata€™s why at the UN Summit last month the Deputy Prime Minister led the way in calling for reinvigorated action across all the Millennium Development Goals and announced that Britain will by 2015 save the lives of at least 50,000 women and a quarter of a million newborn babies. We will do everything in our power, use every policy tool at our disposal, bang every head together, if necessary, in our determination to make life better for the worlda€™s poorest. Just a month ago I spent an unforgettable night in the Azernet Berbera district of Ethiopia - 200 kilometres southwest of Addis Ababa. I wanted to see what conditions were like for the millions of Ethiopians living on less than a dollar a day. The family I stayed with were very poor. There were fourteen of us in the hut that night a€“ not counting the livestock. But that family had access to the four key Millennium Goals. Within the last two years they had secured access to clean water, sanitation and basic healthcare. Six of the eight children are in school just ten minutes away (not least due to the good work of ActionAid). But they remain grindingly poor. Each child has only the clothes in which they stand. The battle to secure enough food is fought every day of the year. So, looking at those children, whose life chances contrast so dramatically with my own, I ask myself how their generation can exit from such grinding poverty. I suggest tonight that there are perhaps two key points.  The first is without question their access to education. And the second, as the farmer just up the road has realised; if he can join together with others to market the beans he grows, then he can access that golden thread of wealth creation that is a universal instinct. That story, that instinct, is what this speech is all about. Our generations, for the first time ever, have the huge opportunity to help people to move beyond mere survival. To a place where people and economies can grow. Where the private sector can unleash its immense development potential; where individuals can create their own wealth; and where countries can begin to rely on their own economies and not on the cheques or the charity of others. I do not underestimate the enormity of our task. Despite the progress that has been made since the Millennium Development Goals were set ten years ago we are a long way from eradicating poverty. The figures speak for themselves: * 70 million children cannot go to school;  * Almost 900 million people lack access to clean water;   * Nearly a thousand women die every day in childbirth or from pregnancy-related causes;  * And more than 8 million children will never live to see their fifth birthday. No-one can listen to those statistics and feel comfortable. We all know there is no single answer to this. But what we do know is that economic growth contributes to development and that the private sector can be the engine of that growth.  Done right it promotes new jobs, new opportunities, new markets, new prosperity. The sinews of wealth creation. As even the former Prime Minister said recently in Kampala: "The job of aid is to kick-start business-led growth and not to replace ita€. So Ia€™ve come here to this great university tonight to make three points: * The first is that it is wealth creation, jobs and livelihoods above all which will help poor people to lift themselves out of poverty. Aid is a means to an end, not an end in itself. * Secondly, that we will bring a new energy to Britaina€™s promotion of wealth creation in development and reconfigure within my department to meet this challenge. * And thirdly, that we will reposition CDC so that it rediscovers its development mission, and acts as an engine through which the British taxpayer supports inclusive investment in some of the poorest places in the world. So, let me begin by underlining the case for sustainable growth.  Ita€™s easy to forget that poverty has been the natural state of humankind for thousands of years. It was only when the industrial revolution kick-started our manufacturing economy a couple of hundred years ago that Britain really accelerated its way out of poverty. This same pattern is evident in the history of all developed countries. The starting point might be different but the journey has been the same. Even America was poor once. The power of economic growth, and the importance of the path taken, is incontrovertible.  Compare South Korea and Zambia. In 1960 South Korea had a GDP per capita only twice that of Zambia. By 2009 as a direct result of their different growth paths and policies, South Korea's per capita income was nearly 40 times higher than Zambiaa€™s, while the rate of children dying before their fifth birthday was 5 per thousand compared to Zambiaa€™s 141. And look at China where, during the period of nearly 10 per cent growth per annum between 1990 and 2005, 475 million people were lifted out of poverty. Economic growth isna€™t just an abstract process of statistics and percentage points: behind that slightly arcane language lie families and communities. For every extra percentage point of growth more schools can be built, more health facilities developed and more safe drinking water supplied. So - if youa€™re in the business of helping reduce poverty, you have to believe in economic development and growth.  Growth that is broad-based, inclusive and sustainable; in which all people benefit from the proceeds of prosperity; and in which even the poorest have access to the opportunities and markets that it creates.   What is our role? There is no magic growth cocktail. As Michael Spence said after chairing the Growth Commission, there is no recipe for growth, only ingredients. And we have to be humble. Politicians and bureaucrats dona€™t have a good track record at trying to pick winners or engineer growth. History is littered with the failures of those who have tried. But we always remember this: no country has grown on a sustained basis in recent times without successfully integrating itself into global markets. For a country to grow it has to be part of the global goods and services market and it must also be able to access global capital.  And it is the private sector that holds the key to that integration. If the private sector is going to deliver its full development potential in this regard, then countries need to get the climate right for both domestic and foreign investment. So, through our development work, we will help to build prudent macroeconomic policies, including monetary and fiscal policies, that support growth, low inflation and sustainable finances. And we will support developing countries as they identify and attempt to tackle the barriers to growth. This might mean helping them to build the legal infrastructure through which property rights and contractual agreements can be enforced, and investors assured that they will be treated fairly in all circumstances. Or it might mean developing the physical infrastructure by which supplies and goods can be transported, the communications infrastructure through which information can be disseminated or the financial infrastructure through which credit can freely flow. Ultimately, domestic investors are just as important if not more so than any amount of foreign direct investment.  If the private sector is to be the real engine of growth in a developing country, and the business leaders of tomorrow are going to emerge and lead the way, we must work with developing country governments to get some critical prerequisites in place: 1. One: a competitive environment a€“ a level playing field for all investors to enter the market place, without vested interests and other barriers thwarting fair market competition. 2. Two: reduced barriers to market entry and to cross-border trade, which exist everywhere but are especially high in Africa. 3. Three: an appropriate regulatory framework. Developing countries have, in many cases, made good progress on improving business regulations. Last year, out of 183 countries ranked by the World Bank for the ease and cost of doing business, Rwanda rose from 143rd place to 67th.  This meteoric rise has been achieved with their governmenta€™s leadership and donor support.  And thinking back to what it all means for individualsa€™ lives, in Afghanistan, for example, an entrepreneur in Kabul who wants to set up a business today no longer has to spend 3 months doing it as they did 5 years ago: it could be done by this time next week. Throughout all of this, of course, we must never forsake the local consumer, the local workforce and the local environment. Growth that simply squanders todaya€™s assets at the cost of tomorrowa€™s, is not growth in the true sense of the word.  Future generations matter too. The importance of sustainable growth cannot be over-stated and I shall return to this theme at greater length next month when I speak on the subject of development and climate change.  But let me say this: over-farmed land, over-mined resources and over-depleted water supplies may yield benefits now but will drive even deeper poverty in years to come. The responsible exploitation of non-renewable mineral and petroleum resources is a case in point and is a topic that Paul explored in his excellent book: a€œThe Plundered Planeta€. This should be required reading for all governments. If countries are to invest in the responsible exploitation of non-renewable resources it is essential that they have in place a solid policy and regulatory framework to safeguard profits, collect taxes, regulate investors, ensure transparency and protect the environment. Throughout all of this the UK will lead by example:  Where British businesses invest and operate in developing countries, UK membership of the OECD a€“ and our own beliefs and expectations -  require that they do so in a manner that is socially responsible, environmentally sound and legally compliant.  This Government strongly supports the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and the OECD Guidelines on Multinational Enterprises. And let me be clear: this Government has a zero tolerance approach to corruption.  The new Bribery Act, passed earlier this year, puts beyond doubt the fact that bribery of foreign officials and office-holders by UK nationals constitutes corruption, and makes it punishable as such through the British courts.  Why it took the last Government so many years to put such vital legislation to Parliament, when the OECD Anti Bribery Convention was ratified as long ago as 1998, I dona€™t know.  There is no question that this Government supports it 100 per cent.  I move now to my second key point tonight.  It is my intention to recast DFID as a government department that understands the private sector, that has at its disposal the right tools to deliver and that is equipped to support a vibrant, resilient and growing business sector in the poorest countries. To do this we will need to add new types of people with different skills. I want to preface my comments by recognising that it is the state that must guarantee access for all to basic services such as education and health care, that are vital for quality of life and that represent a safety net for the most vulnerable. And it is the state that must get the enabling environment right for investment and growth. But when it comes to wealth creation it is the private sector that must take the lead in creating jobs and opportunities. And let me be clear about the lazy thinking that equates the private sector with some kind of ideological promotion of privatisation. We will support what works and wea€™ll be completely non-ideological about it. Thata€™s why at the UN Summit last month I joined ten other Development Ministers in endorsing a commitment to strengthen our work with the private sector. And in promising to create a new Private Sector Department within DFID I have sent, I hope, the clearest of signals that I believe business has a vital role to play. This is the stuff of real change. There is already a genuine sense of excitement within DFID about what this new approach can achieve. I want this department to be the place that defines, lives and breathes the new DFID culture of private sector-led development, an example for other development bodies to follow. I want DFID to learn from business.  I want to explore how we might enrich DFIDa€™s own talent pool with a series of short-term secondments from the private sector in order to inject new, business-savvy DNA into the department. I also want the new department to bring together representatives from business in ad hoc, time limited groups, being bold and finding creative solutions to development challenges. That, after all, is what business does so very well. Let me give you just a few examples of the sort of creativity that private sector companies in their core business have already shown. In India, the health company, Lifespring, plans to provide quality ante and post natal care for 82,000 women at some 30 to 50 per cent of the market rate through specialisation in maternal healthcare, optimal use of resources and cost-sharing of ambulances, laboratories and pharmacies. In doing this, it will also help to build capacity in the health system by employing more than four thousand doctors, nurses and outreach workers. Then there is Unilever, which has equipped more than 25,000 women known as Shakti entrepreneurs in India and Bangladesh to sell products such as toothpaste or tea to people living in hard-to-reach areas a€“ in turn, allowing them to afford healthcare for their families and schooling for their children.  And Thomson Reuters, which has developed a text-messaging service that provides up to a quarter of a million Indian farmers with access to information that will improve yields and increase incomes across the agricultural industry. These businesses are prime examples of innovation in action and exactly the sort of thing the new private sector department will champion. We want to do more work with companies like this.  There are already some exciting examples of collaboration between DFID and businesses which have led to the harnessing of technology and business innovation for development goals. Advance Market Commitments have helped incentivise investment by major pharmaceutical firms who might otherwise have steered clear from costly research and development on products much needed in the developing world.  By working with the Gates Foundation and others, DFID has helped to create an international market for a vaccine against pneumococcal diseases a€“ amongst the biggest child killers in the developing world. And let us consider the massive success of M-PESA, the result of a collaboration which saw DFID seed-funding some early product development by Vodafone.  Thanks to this partnership a simple but game-changing product a€“ a mobile-phone based money transfer service a€“ has succeeded in allowing millions of the country's very poorest people to engage in the economy in ways they've never done before. The number of Kenyan adults with access to financial services rocketed by nearly ten million in just three years. Now, building on this success, Vodafone and the local Equity Bank have launched M-KESHO, a facility that is helping people to open savings accounts for the first time in their lives. This has inspired similar initiatives a€“ with nearly 70 mobile money platforms across the world. And the M-PESA platform is now being used to pay policemen in Afghanistan. Something so small transforming lives on a massive scale. And whether in micro-finance, branchless banking, solar energy, or biogas the private sector can be the touchstone for other equally exciting and revolutionary innovations. What will be tomorrowa€™s M-PESA? It would be remiss of me to talk about private sector innovation without making the point that a successful conclusion to the Doha round of trade talks could transform the economic landscape of the very countries we are all trying to help.  We must not lose sight of the fact that Doha was always intended to be a development round, and if successful could bring gains for poor countries which amount to three times the volume of global aid. Indeed, I hope you will agree that this Government is earning itself something of a reputation as a passionate advocate of free and fair trade. The Prime Minister spoke out forcefully at the G20 in Toronto and will reinforce this point at next montha€™s G20 meeting in Seoul, including the need for G20 countries to do more for the Least Developed. This Government has consistently pushed in Europe for the extension of GSP + privileges to Pakistan and will continue to do so.  And, following the devastating floods that hit that country in August, it was our Prime Minister who helped secure agreement for the EU to put in place an immediate reduction in tariffs on goods imported from Pakistan. This measure will provide Pakistan and its people with a vital window in which to rebuild its economy. And in Africa, where growth and poverty reduction prospects are constrained because of the high costs of trading, we have helped to set up one-stop border posts and have promised to support the proposed Pan African Free Trade Area across the continent. It is also worth remembering that developing countries represent a huge market that richer economies can tap into, something described by the author and management guru, C.K. Prahalad as the a€œthe bottom of the pyramida€. Open markets are a two-way street that can therefore benefit British businesses as well as bringing much needed revenue, product choice, technology, services and cheaper goods to people in developing countries. I turn now, Ladies and Gentlemen, to the third and final issue I would like to address today: CDC.  Founded in 1948 and formerly known as the Commonwealth Development Corporation, CDC is the Governmenta€™s development investment vehicle that a€“ if we get it right a€“ should be a vital ingredient in the work on wealth creation that I have discussed today.  CDC has the potential to be the jewel in the crown of the UKa€™s support to the private sector in developing countries. But it has lost its way.  CDC has come on a journey.  In its first phase, when its expertise was more developmentally than financially focused, its record of achieving investment returns was at best uneven and its stewardship of public money sometimes seriously deficient.  In its second phase the balance has tipped too far the other way.  If CDC only does what the private financial sector can do, then what is its raison da€™Ãªtre?  The answer is that CDC needs to reinvigorate its development DNA, marrying this together with business know-how and financial discipline. Of course, profitability is important, it is CDCa€™s profitability that has enabled it to keep investing hundreds of millions of pounds without receiving a penny of tax-payersa€™ money since 1995.  And CDC should look to invest in enterprises that can be profitable.  It is only when businesses are profitable that they will be sustainable beyond aid, and continue to generate incomes and jobs and taxes when development agencies have moved on.  But CDC must rebalance; it must strive towards both development and financial gains. In its current configuration as a Fund of Funds CDC has, in some ways, been a remarkable success.  In terms of financial performance we should applaud the achievement of turning £1 billion into £2.5 billon since 2004. In turning this profit, it has lately become the target of fierce criticism for enriching its executives a€“ and directing its investment activities at opportunities which were already financeable by the private sector.  It is important to keep a sense of proportion in all of this.  The fact that China, India and Africa can now attract private equity capital in ever-growing amounts should be a source of pleasure and vindication to all those who believe in the power of the private sector. Memories can be short when it comes to recalling how difficult and unlikely some of this seemed 10 or even 5 years ago.  And if some of CDCa€™s investments have been directed at opportunities which could have attracted capital elsewhere, at least their success has given us a substantially enhanced pool of capital to direct at the smaller group of countries on which this very economic success now allows us to concentrate.  Nevertheless the stinging attacks directed at CDC are not without justification.  In its current form it was poorly conceived and was left largely undirected by Government. It became less directly engaged in serving the needs of development.  The last government announced its privatisation without understanding either the difficulty of executing such a strategy or its likely consequences.  So when it was rebuffed by the markets it resorted to the expedient of keeping the capital in public ownership whilst privatising the management. The consequences were inevitable: using public capital CDC pursued the narrowly-defined private sector goals for which it was incentivised, and this meant the greatest return for the least risk.  This was hardly likely to be consistent with concentrating its efforts in the regions of greatest development need and it was not. Worse, the private equity Fund of Funds structure has sometimes locked it in to the pursuit of investment opportunities where its capital is not needed. Not only is this a wasted opportunity; it is also a waste of spirit, of motivation and of a 50-year tradition of public service motivated by the desire to do something good for others and to create a world-leading development institution of which the British people could be proud. It would be unfair of me to say that this old spirit of CDC has been lost entirely. It is still there in the halls of CDC.  But it has been substantially weakened through the 100% reliance on outside Fund managers. So - the current approach needs a major overhaul.  CDC should provide pound for pound the most effective development effort in the world.   We have to understand where the money is going, know why we have chosen to invest it in that way and have effective mechanisms to monitor whether it had the result we intended.  We need to see a radical change in the way CDC operates, in the instruments it offers and in its internal management structure. In my statement to the House of Commons this morning I said that the Government will reconfigure CDC.  We will create a revitalised CDC with a great deal more clarity and ambition over what it does and where it works. Specifically, I shall be proposing that CDC reduce new commitments to future third party Funds and consider the benefits of liquidating some of its existing investment where this can be done on attractive terms.  I do not propose that we end commitments to new third party Funds since they can be the most appropriate way to mobilise funding in some countries and for some investment purposes.  They can also be effective at mobilising third party capital alongside ours and I do not discount the value of the demonstration effect where they genuinely open new markets to private sector investment.  But the Fund of Funds model should make up no more than a part of a new, broader and more actively managed portfolio. CDC should regain its power to make investments directly in target markets. I envisage that, at least to start with, this would be done through co-investment with other sources of capital where, by doing so, CDC could make possible desirable investments which could not otherwise be made. Its criteria for such investments in terms of geography, sector or purpose could be published and investors in qualifying projects could approach CDC for support. Such investors might be private equity investors, possibly but not necessarily, those with whom CDC is already invested, struggling to find capital for a desirable qualifying project. They could also be local investors, the World Banka€™s International Finance Corporation or other development agencies.  It is too big a step to move in one go from where we are now to a fully fledged investment operation managing investments on its own. But I want CDC to start down the road to making its own investment decisions.  In addition to regaining some investment control, CDC should be encouraged to participate through a wider range of vehicles.  I should like it to be able to invest in debt instruments and provide guarantees.  Greater flexibility will enable it to build a more diversified portfolio in terms of risk, maturity and liquidity. Debt instruments and guarantees as part of its offering could make it a more flexible and useful partner to the providers of equity for appropriate projects in the poorest parts of the world. I should like CDC to develop a more active approach to portfolio management. Its purpose is to invest in targeted countries or sectors where capital is otherwise not available a€“ to provide patient capital to finance and kick-start private investment in the most difficult regions - not the most immediately desirable. There is no reason why it should stay around when other capital has become available.  CDC has received much criticism for finding itself invested in projects and places for which abundant private sector capital is now available. This is partly the result of its 100% commitment to an inflexible private equity Fund of Funds model but to be fair it is partly a result of the success of that very model. Where success has been achieved, however, we need at least to try to find liquidity for our investments so that the capital can be recycled much more quickly to new targets. I should also like CDC to develop more financial firepower.  The illiquidity of its investments and its considerable uncalled commitments to existing Funds means that it will take a long time to free up capital for more active and direct investment.  I would therefore like CDC to regain its power to borrow.  This must be constrained within prudent limits but the ability to do so will give us the power to move more quickly and more effectively. And in all it does I shall continue to expect CDC to show that it is improving the way in which firms in the poorest countries operate a€“ and that CDC monitors and demands improvements in the conditions under which people work. I also expect CDC to demand more effective treatment of environmental issues, more transparency and a rigorous approach to corruption. Ladies and Gentlemen, if we make these reforms, CDC will become a distinctive, innovative and differentiated development finance institution a€“ with clearly measurable development impact and additionality, and a new commitment targeted throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and the poorer parts of Asia.  I want CDC to be more focused on the poorest countries than any other DFI, doing the hardest things in the hardest places. More investment in businesses which would never otherwise have been considered; more capital unlocked to boost the potential of hundreds of new enterprises employing thousands of people and paying their fair share of revenues to their local exchequers.  Economic development stimulated and communities empowered.  The prize is great indeed. Now there are some in the audience, I am sure, who at this stage, will expect me to identify today those sectors where I want CDC to focus in future. This is a complex area. Infrastructure and energy are at the top of my list.  That family I stayed with in Ethiopia: how much better their lives and their local economy would be if there were a better road network to link their products to markets and electricity allowing them to be productive throughout the day and those long hours of darkness. But I want to listen to a range of views before taking any decisions. The correlation between investment and poverty-reduction is not straight forward. So, from NGOs to business, from Oxfam to Lazard, we welcome your views. Views on which sectors CDC should focus in order to generate the highest wealth creation impact for the poor. I have asked CDC and DFID to commission independent studies, the findings of which will be made public through DFIDa€™s website. The Department will also be launching a consultation, outline details of which will be available online tomorrow. I will listen and then make further announcements early next year.  CDC will reflect the necessary changes in the business plan which they will publish in the spring. Regaining power over the investment of capital needs to be staged carefully and will need resources of human capital additional to the often highly-committed and dedicated people working at CDC at the moment. I want people to be proud of working for CDC, to see it as a badge of honour.  I want CDC to regain its identity, its spirit and its energy a€“ to rediscover its developmental DNA.  I want it to inspire at home and abroad as our repository of knowledge of how to make development investing work.  CDC must attract people of the highest calibre, people who are passionate about development investment and whose expertise is rewarded by remuneration that is fair and appropriate a€“ but not excessive.  So as part of the period of consultation, I will consult on what that remuneration structure should be.  Let me be clear about this: I do believe that there is a willingness on the part of many qualified people to come and engage in such a vital and exciting enterprise without the need for excessive financial incentives.  I want to appeal to people who are motivated by something other than money, something that our generations for the first time have the ability to do a€“ to drive sustainable growth and development and help people lift themselves out of poverty. They may be young, brilliant and determined to save the world. Or they may be older and experienced, successful and less interested in their own financial reward, seeking instead to leave their footprint in the sand of a truly noble endeavour. We intend to set about the business of mobilising such people and supporting them in every way we can to build an enterprise and a success of which Britain can be proud. **Conclusion** Ladies and Gentlemen, I have set out this evening my vision for a world where development is embedded through inclusive economic growth, where wealth creation is the route out of poverty and where the private sector is the catalyst. I want to say to you publicly, the leaders of British business, that you have an incredibly important role to play in combating global poverty.  Wea€™re all in this together.  I look forward to working with you.  Andrew Mitchell's speech on wealth creation Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell's speech on wealth creation at the London School of Economics on Tuesday 12 October 2010 2010-10-13 17 Thank you. First of all I would like to thank the All Party Parliamentary Group on AIDS and RED for inviting me to make some short remarks and for organising such a fantastic event to mark World AIDS Day 2010. Today we pay tribute to the millions of people who have lost their lives to AIDS, to those living with HIV and to people from all levels of society, who have fought relentlessly for action against the epidemic.  Let me say at the outset that the Coalition Government remains 100% committed to this fight. Yes, we have new priorities as well a€“ such as malaria. But that in no way diminishes our commitment to this agenda. The **APPG** likewise plays an important role in the UK's response to the epidemic by bringing together members of parliament across the political spectrum and working with our strong civil society network to sustain UK taxpayers' support for tackling AIDS. They hold us to account for what we promise to deliver. I would also like to commend **RED's** efforts to raise funds through private-sector partnerships to address AIDS in Africa. The UK believes that the private sector has a vital role in a sustained response. I would like to say a few words on two issues a€“ first about how the UK government will contribute to end mother to child transmission and secondly how we intend to move forward in response to the epidemic over the months and years ahead. But let me first reflect on the progress we've made in the response so far. **We have seen enormous progress** - over 5 million people on treatment (13 times more the number of people that had access in 2004!); an epidemic that has stabilised in most regions; a 19% reduction in the number of new infections since 1999.  And therea€™s more good news in the Global Report that UNAIDS published last week.  In 33 countries HIV prevalence has fallen by more than 25% between 2001 and 2009 a€“ many of these countries are in sub-Saharan Africa.  And HIV prevalence has also fallen by more than 25% among young people in 15 of the most affected countries as young people have adopted safer sexual practices a€“ showing prevention messages are getting through and saving lives. But there is bad news too. More than 7,000 people get infected with HIV every day and an estimated 10 million are in need of treatment, but not getting it. And UNAIDS report that in five countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, where the epidemic is driven amongst marginalized groups, HIV prevalence has risen by 25% since 2001. We now see two epidemics a€“ that in sub-Saharan Africa, with a female face, and that elsewhere, where we increasingly need to reach men who have sex with men, sex workers, prisoners and drug users. That is why we must continue to defend the rights of marginalised groups to protect themselves from HIV for example through supporting harm reduction programmes that ensure drug users get access to clean needles. The APPG has a proud record in this area. The UK Government, too, will continue to be an advocate for these groups.  But let me turn to the matter that concerns us today a€“ **an estimated 370,000 children contracted HIV through mother to child transmission in 2009**.  This is a significant reduction from 500,000 in 2001 a€“ but this level of entirely avoidable infection is still unacceptable. These numbers tell us that there is still much to do to eliminate paediatric AIDS.  As you know, the UK Government have committed to allocating 0.7 of our Gross National Income for overseas AID by 2013 and have ring-fenced our budget.  This is a historical commitment. We have also put **women and children's health** **at the heart** of our international development agenda and we expect that our Commitments made on women and children's health will contribute to the survival of at least 50,000 more women in pregnancy and childbirth and 250,000 newborn babies and to provide **10 million more couples with access to comprehensive family planning**. The UK Government wholeheartedly supports the call for the virtual elimination of paediatric AIDS and we are working with others to scale up prevention of mother to child transmission services. To reach this goal, we need to** adopt the comprehensive approach** recommended by the World Health Organization, and we are committed to doing so by focusing where we have comparative advantage. This is on **primary prevention of HIV among women of child-bearing age**, and on **prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV** through our investments in family planning. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is not just about provision of anti-retrovirals. **Making choices through family planning** is a key element of the package- but many women do not have access to modern methods of contraception and cannot choose whether and when and how many children to have,  let alone choose to do this safely. And we know that the **unmet need for family planning among HIV positive women is higher than among HIV negative women** (as high as 51 to 90%). Most paediatric infections occur in Sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for more than 91% of all pregnant women living with HIV. We expect to make a significant contribution to the goal of eliminating paediatric AIDS  in Africa  through our investments in family planning and commitment to double the numbers of mothers and babies lives saved.  There are real challenges here. How do we change behaviour? We know this is not easy a€“ but I'd suggest it's largely through giving people a€“ particularly young women like Esnart who will shortly be telling you her story a€“ the right information and supporting them to make real choices about their health and their lives by addressing factors that influence behaviour. We know that programmes that do this do work but we also need to make prevention programmes more effective, particularly in generalised epidemics. To do this, we need to strengthen the evidence by rigorously evaluating what we do. The UK government is strongly committed to **empowering women and girls**, by focusing on their sexual and reproductive health and rights, and addressing the underlying drivers of the AIDS epidemic such as gender inequality, gender based violence and poverty. The latest UNAIDS report tells us that young **women aged 15-24 in Sub-Saharan Africa are as much as 8 times more likely than men to be HIV positive**. This is alarming, and clearly, we must do better to protect women and girls. This is why we will test and support innovative approaches such as cash transfers to reduce women and girls' HIV risk a€“ as well as getting more girls into school, something this Government is determined to support. We will use the **Reproductive, Maternal and Newborn Health Framework for Action (which we will publish later this month)** as the Coalition Government's key mechanism to prioritise the health of women and children. The Framework will support service delivery across the continuum of care needed to improve the health of women and children, including Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission. And we will continue to support the implementation of the UN Secretary General Global Strategy for Womena€™s and Children's Health which is based on delivering a comprehensive, integrated package of essential interventions and services. Of course a€“ we can't do this in isolation. I'm proud of the UK's success in working through coalitions and alliances a€“ of punching above our weight by persuading others of the case for action. That is something I'm keen to build on. So I want to close by renewing a commitment. This World AIDS Day marks the close of 2010 - the target the world set for universal access to HIV prevention, AIDS treatment, care and support. In June at Muskoka, the G8 reaffirmed its commitment to come as close as possible to this goal. Progress against these targets will be reviewed at a UN General Assembly special session in June next year. The Coalition Government will play its part in taking this forward. We have not given up. As many in this room will know, we have been clear that the detail of our future plans depends on the outcome of the Multilateral and Bilateral Aid Reviews a€“ which the SoS commissioned to ensure that every pound of UK aid buys 100 pence of value. We will set out the UK Government's position on HIV in the spring, in the light of the findings of these reviews. As part of this we will need to articulate where the UK can add most value to the global response to HIV. This will inform our position at the UN special session in June. Input from the APPG, and other stakeholders, will be key to getting this right and I am asking my officials to work with you, as we develop and confirm our thinking over the coming months. Thank you all for your continued support. World AIDS Day Speech by International Development Minister Stephen O'Brien at APPG on HIV & AIDS/ Stop AIDS (RED) on World AIDS Day 2010-12-02 18 I am delighted to be here with you today to mark World Population Day and delighted to take on the job of PUSS at DFID. It is a real pleasure to be able to meet you all this evening and Ia€™d like to thank our hosts, the All Party Group, IPPF and the other co-sponsors for hosting this event. Ia€™m also very happy to be able to congratulate Jenny Tonge on becoming the new Chair of the All Party Group.  I know Chris McCafferty did a great job, so Jenny has big shoes to fill a€“ but she has a great track record on all of the issues the group stands for; she is a passionate and knowledgeable advocate for womena€™s rights and will, I have no doubt, take the Group from strength to strength. I will talk about Reproductive and Maternal Health in a moment- but first Ia€™d like to say a few words about how the UK will be doing development under the coalition Government. We have promised to enshrine in law Britaina€™s commitment to spend 0.7% of GNI on overseas aid from 2013 a€“ and we are taking a good look at just what that will look like. Our new agenda has some new watch words: including value for money and accountability and transparency. Value for money has always been important but never more so than now.  With the international development budget ring fenced in the Chancellora€™s recent emergency budget, the eyes of Whitehall a€“ and the UK - are on us and we must therefore demonstrate, with crystal clarity, that we are delivering better aid, that is much more clearly focussed, and above all gets results.  It will be the outcomes and outputs that matter most.  We are reviewing our bilateral and multilateral programmes as well as our humanitarian response, so that we keep a ruthless focus on results a€“ shifting resources towards the successes and away from the failures.  These reviews are a necessary precursor to building our strategic approaches to sexual and reproductive health and family planning. And accountability and transparency will also affect every facet of the aid programme.  Colleagues here in Parliament a€“ in the All Party Parliamentary Groups and the International Development Committee - have always held DFID to account for the taxpayersa€™ funds it spends a€“ but we want to go further than that and have launched the new UK Aid Transparency Guarantee a€“ which will help to make aid much more transparent to people in the UK and in developing countries. Today, though, wea€™re here to mark World Population Day a€“ and UNFPAa€™s theme for this year a€“ Everyone Counts a€“ is a brilliant reminder for us all of the importance to development of accurate data.  Good data is just as important for measuring effectiveness of the UKa€™s aid efforts as it is for governments in developing countries to know their population projections so they can plan for better services; so they can prioritise where the needs are greatest and where they will become even more pressing in the years ahead. Andrew Mitchell, our new Secretary of State, made his first speech in the US a couple of weeks ago.  He pledged then that the new Government would make a serious commitment to tackling the tragedy of the thousands of women who die each year from pregnancy-related causes.  Today I want to reiterate that commitment. All of us in the room know all too well the stark numbers that for too long have gone with this territory.  One number resonates above all the others. That each year, more than a third of a million women die due to complications in pregnancy or child birth.  And we know that when a mother dies in childbirth, there is a very real chance her child will die within a few months too. This is the reality.  Day in.  Day out.  Across sub-Saharan Africa and in parts of south Asia.  Where women and girls face the risks of pregnancy and childbirth. But we think ita€™s time to face up to the realities and work with the world as it is. The reality that over 200 million women around the world, who want to avoid a pregnancy a€“ who want to decide whether and when to have children - are unable to access the modern contraceptives they need. And the reality that for many women, faced with an unintended pregnancy, is that they are desperate enough to risk their lives by resorting to an unsafe abortion. And in facing up to these realities a€“ not of modern life a€“ leta€™s be equally real here a€“ women have been facing these issues for centuries a€“ in facing up to these realities, we must offer women the choices they crave. With better access to education, we know a€“ because Gill tells us this time and again a€“ we know that women will choose more for their children rather than to have more children. We must start to close the unmet need for modern contraceptives a€“ and DFID is ready to do more in this area a€“ the coalition Government has made a positive start. One of the very first programmes which Andrew Mitchell approved on taking office was a 5-year programme of DFID funding for Uganda to enable UNFPA to better support the Government of Uganda to deliver their National Population Policy. In providing this support we recognise that rapid population growth is a critical constraint to sustained, rapid economic and social development in Uganda. DFID is also supporting UNFPA with interim funding for emergency procurement of contraceptive supplies in order to manage a financing gap and avoid stock outs. Yes, family planning is cost effective and saves womena€™sa€™ lives a€“ But the benefits of giving women choice go much wider.  It improves newborn and child health outcomes, and it empowers women and enables them to engage in education and economic activity. But if we are serious about saving womena€™s lives we must have the will to work for better access to safe abortion.  As Hillary Clinton said in her confirmation hearing before the US Congress a€œabortion should be safe, legal and rarea€.  A word to both sides of the lobby here a€“ working for better a€“ for universal a€“ access to family planning means reducing recourse to abortion. Abortion isna€™t family planning a€“ ICPD tells us that and we continue to fully support the whole of the ICPD Programme of Action. But family planning helps avoid abortion. Family planning also works directly for womena€™s health a€“ if women can realise their rights a€“ their choice - to avoid pregnancy, they radically reduce their risk of dying in pregnancy.  Ita€™s that clear. We are continuing to play our part in working for safer delivery for pregnant women a€“ the G8 last month launched the Muskoka Initiative, a comprehensive and integrated approach to accelerate progress towards MDGs 4 and 5 that will significantly reduce the number of maternal, newborn and under five child deaths in developing countries. And David Cameron signalled his personal commitment to our cause putting the UK squarely at the front of efforts to reduce the numbers of mothers and babies dying in pregnancy and childbirth. The UK is a key partner and supporter of the UN Secretary Generala€™s Global Effort to advance progress on womena€™s and childrena€™s health. The MDG Summit in September provides a historic opportunity to deliver for women and children. We are working for the endorsement of a Joint Action Plan that will deliver ambitious commitments for women and children and hold governments and others to account to improve reproductive and maternal health. Donors must play their part, as must partner countries, philanthropists, civil society and the private sector. The UK Government is playing its part in supporting this Global Effort and I encourage all of you here today to join us. As I close, I just want to highlight again the importance of the theme of World Population Day a€“ the need for better, accurate and timely data.  Without good data we are simply stumbling around in the dark.  With better information, we can make better decisions and ultimately get better health outcomes. I also want to mention very briefly the P word - Population. Many of you will have been at the Symposium today at the London School (for Hygiene and Tropical medicine) looking at the interactions of population growth with health, poverty, food, water, climate change.  I am sorry I couldna€™t be there but have heard briefly about some of the talking points. The data projections tell us that global population will grow from 6.8 billion today to 9.2 billion by 2050.  An increase of 35% a€“ but even this rate of growth assumes a significant fall in the global fertility rate a€“ and that will only be achieved if we meet the unmet demand for family planning.  If there is no collective action a€“ on the part of national governments and the international community - in responding to the voices of poor women and providing universal access to family planning a€“ then the projection is for the global population to grow to 10.5 billion. The challenge of providing basic services in countries across Africa, like Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Niger and Uganda, - where the populations will at least double, sometimes triple and, in Niger, quadruple a€“ will be immense.  I hope your symposium today took us closer to some much needed answers. But one fact around high fertility is certain a€“ amongst the poorest women, high fertility is inextricably linked to high maternal mortality. Our shared mission is to start to change that reality. Thank you. World Population Day International Development Minister Stephen O'Brien's speech to the All Party Parliamentary Group on Population, Development and Reproductive Health on 12 July 2010 None 2010-07-14 19 I would like to update the House on the Pakistan floods and the UK Governmenta€™s response to the ongoing emergency relief and early recovery needs of the critically affected population. Four months after the onset of the floods, the situation remains deeply challenging.  The majority of the 14 million people who were displaced by the floods have returned to their areas of origin, apart from in Sindh Province.   But with homes, farms and villages badly damaged, they will need humanitarian relief for months to come and help to restore livelihoods and basic services, particularly education and health, in the affected areas. The situation in Sindh remains critical.  Up to 350,000 families remain displaced by protracted flooding on the right bank of the Indus in northern Sindh.  These people are hard to reach and will need humanitarian relief well into next year a€“ especially shelter, with winter setting in across Pakistan. In this context, I am pleased to inform the House of further UK Government support for relief and recovery efforts since I last updated the House on 12 October. These include: * Providing safe drinking water, sanitation services, basic healthcare, basic household items and shelter to some 305,000 people in Sindh and Punjab through Handicap International, Oxfam, and CARE for a total cost of £5.5 million. * Providing emergency shelter for 180,000 people in the worst affected areas of Sindh, through a £1.7 million grant to Concern. * Assisting 25,000 people in Sindh to build permanent homes to replace those destroyed in the floods, through a £1.8 million grant to UNHABITAT. * Supporting a disease early warning system and provision of essential health services to over 500,000 people in the areas worst affected by the floods for the next six months, through a contribution of £2 million to the World Health Organisationa€™s most recent appeal. * Helping 200,000 children to resume education, through programmes costing £10 million involving Save the Children, Plan International and Hands.  This will involve rehabilitation of damaged schools and provision of temporary facilities where schools have been destroyed while longer term reconstruction is implemented. * Supporting agricultural livelihoods and the wider rural economy that will benefit approximately one million people.  The programme will provide work opportunities, cash grants, materials, tools, seeds, skills training and technical expertise over the next nine months, through the Consortium of British Humanitarian Agencies at a total cost of £20 million. * Helping over 28,000 families to acquire and look after domestic animals such as poultry, goats, and donkeys to improve nutrition and support their incomes. All of these interventions have been appraised in detail by my Department to ensure value for money and a focus on results.  The overall DFID humanitarian programme for the flood affected areas is proceeding well. I can report that, as of 1 December, UKAid has achieved the following; approximately: * 971,390 people have been provided with drinking water  * 254,480 people have had access to latrines and/or washing areas  * 867,900 people have received hygiene kits or hygiene education  * 453,860 people have had access to basic healthcare  * 712,590 women and children have received supplementary or therapeutic feeding for malnutrition  * 540,560 people have received emergency goods packages typically including blankets, cooking equipment, jerry-cans, and plastic sheeting.  * 504,450 people have received emergency shelter; and * 71,925 people have benefited from seeds and fertilisers These results are provisional estimates from ongoing operations where the eventual total number of beneficiaries will be significantly higher.  As a result of UK and other interventions, the risk of disease has been contained so far. But there is no room for complacency. Millions of people will remain highly vulnerable and dependent on external assistance until homes, basic services, economic infrastructure and livelihoods are re-established. My Department plans to maintain a dedicated Flood Response team on the ground in Pakistan for the next six to nine months, actively monitoring the situation and our programme of humanitarian relief and recovery. Written Ministerial Statement on Pakistan Floods The Secretary of State for International Development (Mr. Andrew Mitchell): 2010-12-15 20 The Secretary of State for International Development (Mr. Andrew Mitchell): I would like to update the House on the humanitarian situation in Pakistan following the floods and on the UK Governmenta€™s response. It is now nearly two months since the floods hit. The situation, particularly in Southern Sindh province, continues to be extremely difficult.  7.3 million people there have been affected. Of this total, 2.3 million people are in need of immediate assistance. Significant shortfalls continue in the distribution of relief across all sectors and capacity to respond is stretched. The World Food Programme continues to drop food rations by air and public buildings such as schools still house tens of thousands of people. The full extent of loss and damage may not be known for several weeks as many areas remain under water. In other areas of Pakistan, the situation is mixed. In Punjab, the majority of the 5.3 million people affected have now returned to their home areas and the focus is beginning to shift from emergency relief to early recovery. In Khyber Paktunkwha most of the 3.8 million people affected have returned home and are beginning to rebuild their lives. Approximately 1 million internally displaced persons are gradually returning to Sindh from Balochistan.  The monsoon season is now drawing to a close and snow has already been reported in the northern mountainous regions reflecting the seasonal change to winter. The scale and shifting patterns of both displacement and return means it remains a challenge to achieve the necessary pace and scale of response. The UN continues to build up its surge capacity and improve coordination. NGOs are beginning to improve their reach in Sindh province. The Government of Pakistan is responding through the relevant Provincial Disaster Management Authorities and is still delivering relief through the Pakistan military in Sindh province. Meeting the remaining emergency relief and early recovery needs of the critically affected population remains our immediate priority.  To date UKAid has helped approximately: * 900,000 people receive health care services; * 620,000 people receive clean drinking water; * 425,000 people benefit from the distribution of over 60,000 hygiene kits; * one million people receive hygiene awareness sessions; * 420,000 people benefit from shelter kits; and * 36,000 and 48,000 pregnant and lactating women receive nutritional supplements. Given the changing nature of the situation support is now needed to help Pakistan recover from the floods. On 17 September, the United Nations launched a revised Plan to provide a framework for remaining emergency relief needs, but also to help up to 14 million people get back on their feet and recover from the floods. The total funding requirement stands at just over US$2 billion (£1.3 billion) over the next twelve months. The revised UN Plan was discussed at a High Level UN meeting on 19 September in New York. At that meeting I announced an additional £70 million of funding to help meet remaining emergency relief needs and in particular to support the people of Pakistan to rebuild their lives.  UK funding will help revive agriculture, provide temporary education facilities to get children back into school and help people rebuild their communities and provide short-term employment opportunities. This brings the UKa€™s total contribution to £134 million, in addition to the £60m raised through the generosity of the UK public through the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) appeal. I would like to emphasis to the House the Governmenta€™s commitment to ensuring transparency and value for money.  Funding allocations will continue to be made on the basis of rigorous assessments of needs on the ground, and will be subject to thorough monitoring and evaluation.  None of the resources pledged for relief will be channelled through the Government of Pakistan in line with standard humanitarian practice. My department has already begun to allocate the additional funding. In recognition of the ongoing emergency needs of flood-affected people in Southern Sindh, we are aiming to address the emergency health and water and sanitation needs of approximately 500,000 people through international and local NGOs at a cost of up to £8m. I am also pleased to announce that we plan to help meet the immediate agriculture needs of approximately 850,000 vulnerable people in Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan and the critical winter rabi cropping window in late October/November, at a cost of some £7 million. Our commitment to the people of Pakistan remains a long-term one. The UK will continue to play a leading role in encouraging others in the international community to step up to the mark. The UK was instrumental in securing a commitment at the European Council on 16 September to develop ambitious trade measures for Pakistan, including the immediate reduction of import duties and improved longer term access to EU markets through Generalised System of Preferences (GSP+).  The floods require an exceptional response from the Government of Pakistan as well as from the international community.  At the forthcoming Pakistan Development Forum the Government of Pakistan should set out plans for growth and economic reform as well as reconstruction. The credibility of these plans will determine how donors respond to future reconstruction and development needs. Written statement to the House of Commons on Pakistan floods None 2010-10-12 21 The Secretary of State for International Development (Mr. Andrew Mitchell): I wish to inform the House of the Governmenta€™s decision to reconfigure CDC in order radically to increase its development impact. CDC has the potential to be the jewel in the crown of the UKa€™s support to the private sector in developing countries. In the past, when its expertise was more developmentally than financially focused, its record of achieving investment returns was at best uneven. Subsequently, the balance has tipped too far the other way. CDC now needs to reinvigorate its development DNA and marry this together with business know-how and financial discipline. It must strive towards both development and financial gains. As a Fund of Funds, CDC has in some ways been a remarkable success. In terms of financial performance, we applaud the achievement of turning £1 billion into £2.5 billion since 2004. But CDC has become less directly engaged in serving the needs of development. Using public capital CDC pursued the narrowly-defined private sector goals for which it was incentivised and this meant the greatest return for the least risk. This was not consistent with concentrating its efforts in the regions of greatest development need.  We will create a revitalised CDC with a great deal more clarity and ambition over what it does and where it works. Specifically, I shall propose that CDC reduce new commitments to future third party funds and consider the benefits of liquidating some of its existing investments where this can be done on attractive terms. We will not end commitments to new third party Funds since they can be the most appropriate way to mobilise funding in some countries and for some investment purposes. But the Fund of Funds model should make up no more than part of a new, broader and more actively managed portfolio. CDC should regain its power to make investments directly in target countries. This could be done through co-investment with other sources of capital where, by doing so, CDC would make possible desirable investments which could not otherwise be made.  In addition to regaining greater investment control, CDC should be committed to participating through a wider range of vehicles, including investment in debt instruments and the provision of guarantees. Greater flexibility will enable it to build a more diversified portfolio in terms of risk, maturity and liquidity. I should like CDC also to develop a more active approach to portfolio management. Its purpose is to invest in the poorest countries or sectors where capital is otherwise not available a€“ to provide patient capital to finance and kick-start private investment in the most difficult regions. CDC also needs more financial firepower. It needs to try to find liquidity for its investments so that capital can be recycled more quickly to new targets. We are also exploring how CDC could regain its power to borrow. This would give CDC the ability to move more quickly and more effectively. CDC must continue to show that it is improving the way in which firms in the poorest countries operate, and that it monitors and demands improvements in the conditions under which people work. CDC must also continue to demand more effective treatment of environmental issues, more transparency and a rigorous approach to corruption. These reforms will enable CDC to become a distinctive, innovative and differentiated Development Finance Institution, with clearly measurable development impact and additionality, and new commitments targeted throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and the poorer parts of Asia. I want CDC to be more pro-poor focused than any other Development Finance Institution, doing the hardest things in the hardest places. Identifying the sectors on which CDC should focus in future is a complex area. The correlation between investment and poverty-reduction is not straight forward. The Government wants to listen to a wide range of views before taking any decisions. CDC and DFID will commission independent studies which will be made public on the DFID website and my Department is also launching a consultation, outline details of which will be available on Wednesday 13th October. Regaining greater power over the investment of capital needs to be staged carefully, will take time, and will need resources of human capital additional to the dedicated people working for CDC at the moment. CDC must attract people of the highest calibre, who are passionate about pro-poor investment and whose expertise is rewarded by remuneration that is fair and appropriate, but not excessive. As part of the consultation, I will consider what that remuneration structure should be. I shall make a further announcement early next year and CDC will reflect the necessary changes in the business plan which they will publish in the spring. Written statement to the House of Commons on reform of CDC Group plc None 2010-10-13 22 As a personal Friend of Yemen for more than 20 years Ia€™m grateful to be speaking at this timely and important event today, albeit I regret the deteriorating security backdrop to our discussion of this important country.  It doesna€™t take me to tell you that there has been a huge increase in international attention to Yemen during the last year or so a€“ this has been in parallel with an increase in Yemena€™s fragility and the potential impact of this not only on Yemeni citizens, many of whom are amongst the worlda€™s most vulnerable, but also on global security. We have seen only this weekend how its impact reaches across the world. The threat we face from Al Qaeda is global and it is inter-connected. This most recent plot encompassed Yemen, the UAE, Germany, the UK and the US a€“ and as such requires a collective response. Politically, Yemen presents us with difficult choices. Many think that the window of opportunity for preventing State failure in Yemen is closing and there are perhaps two schools of thought on that:  either the country is heading for collapse or somehow it will muddle through as it always has done.  Whichever you think is the case, I dona€™t think either Yemen or the international community can afford to sit around to a€˜wait and see which prediction is righta€™.  For Yemena€™s sake, we must not take the risk of doing nothing, hoping that things will just muddle through: dancing on the heads of snakes has had its day.  Any effort spent on preventing state failure now is a million times better than the effort that would be needed to cope with any state failure later.  Yemen on the brink therefore presents us with a pioneering opportunity.  So leta€™s see for once if early intervention can secure a fragile statea€™s future. Wea€™ve got to try to secure Yemena€™s future before ita€™s too late.  In short, we must hope for the best, but assume the worst. Yemen paints a worrying picture. It is running out of oil, running out of water and may be running out of time, while the world is in some eyes running out of patience.  From a development perspective we know that Yemen has not and will not meet any of its Millennium Development Goals.  It has the worst figures for the position of women in society in the world; food insecurity and malnutrition are on the rise; its population growth is one of the worlda€™s highest; and its macro-economy has been failing, hitting a budget deficit of over $2 billion at the end of last year.  But these are not its only problems.  Internal conflicts in the north and the south continue to generate cause for concern, and there is some anxiety about the suspected violation of human rights and about Yemena€™s 300,000 internally displaced people.  Weak government capacity and its inability in the past to implement key reforms have left much of its population without basic services, without jobs, without security and justice.  All this has the potential to exacerbate local grievances felt by Yemenis and it gives Al Qaeda an easy target for exploitation.  And this is grim. The lesson from other countries is that if we sit around and analyse a country on the edge of collapse for too long, by the time we decide to do anything about it ita€™s already too late. That may be just where we may be heading with Yemen.    So we must now make a choice.  I think we should follow the precautionary principle which is to act now to be sure of preventing state failure rather than risk it happening.  Yemen is high on the Coalition Governmenta€™s agenda.  It is one of the countries of most interest to our new National Security Council, and it is one where we believe the solution must be driven by an integrated approach, with development and diplomacy at its heart.  What we are interested in doing is tackling the challenges of poverty, disease and education in Yemen; we are interested in helping achieve better governance; we are interested in regional and global stability; and we are interested in arresting the rise of terrorism.  In short we are interested in addressing poverty and instability so that Yemen can hold together and prosper. **Conflict and development in Yemen** Yemen is on the front pages again this week because of terrorism a€“ but terrorism is not the only threat facing Yemen; Al Qaeda look to exploit instability where they can. Leta€™s for a moment just ask ourselves what a collapsed Yemen could look like. Yemen in collapse could lead to a litany of chaos: no water, no energy, no food, civil strife, Al Qaeda flourishing, increasing radicalisation, and a regional and international threat both to world energy supplies and to many nationsa€™ security.  A country which is off-track in reaching the Millennium Development Goals could go further backwards all the faster.  Thata€™s a frightening prospect, and a serious concern for the wider world. Yemen has all the ingredients for growing difficulty. There is injustice and grievance; a rapidly growing population is scrabbling over diminishing resources and fewer jobs; and there is easy access to weapons.  Declining oil revenues are beginning to hinder the wheels of power.  Yemen is a telling example of the complexity of todaya€™s conflicts, where individual and community grievances - exclusion or unemployment - can interact with powerful regional and global drivers like rising food prices or the global narrative of international terrorism.  When put together it almost guarantees chaos. The warning signs are clear. Conflict is escalating and governance deteriorating.  Tribal clashes continue to become more lethal and difficult to manage, and local and regional issues are increasingly acting as a€˜lightning-rodsa€™ for broad-based public discontent.  Security and development are intertwined. There are two ways Yemena€™s problems could be approached.  We can either address the underlying causes of poverty, grievance, joblessness and governance, or the international community could begin to start shouting and wave a big stick.  For us in the Coalition Government and DFID, we are going to put development at the heart of an integrated approach for Yemen. **Taking action** The Coalition Government intends to spend 30% of its development budget on fragile states.  Yemen is a prime candidate for such attention.  Our view is that development is not just there to try and pick up the pieces.  It is that development has a crucial role in stopping a country from falling to pieces in the first place.  Wea€™ve done lots of work on post-conflict interventions but much less on pre-crisis intervention, so we are going to have to be bold and we are going to have to be innovative. We of course need to look at what you might think of as traditional development interventions a€“ building schools and clinics, and all the things that Yemena€™s Social Fund for Development does so well.  But we need to look further - to tackle the lack of jobs and the causes of child malnutrition; to support a process of National Dialogue that will lead to inclusive and fair elections next year; to get government working in a way that is more accountable and responsive to peoplea€™s needs.  In Yemen, we are smartening the UKa€™s Aid. Our aim is to give people security, a stake in society, access to basic services such as health and education, and a say in their future.  By adopting this approach, and working with civil society, with local government and with traditional tribal systems, we hope we will address local grievances. We will empower the Government to tackle its challenges and as a result would hope to see a stronger, more stable Yemen. Securing the future of Yemen is not just about what they do internally for themselves any more than it is only about what the UK does for them.  It is about what all Yemena€™s friends do and, crucially, how we all act together. In the same way as the Government of Yemen tries to address trouble internally in a piecemeal fashion, so have its international partners tended to act separately and inconsistently.  The fragmented efforts of donors and neighbours have almost certainly been as much a hindrance to Yemen as a help. There have been attempts in the past to get together to help Yemen but, for instance, very little of the $5bn pledged to the country in 2006 has been taken up and directed into much-needed infrastructure projects, and most of the  funds received for other purposes have tended to be bilateral and unpredictable. This approach from the international community risks adding to the fragmentation of the government, and it weakens everyonea€™s development efforts because, above all, effective development a€“ in its ability to plan and deliver programmes that make a real difference - requires consistent and reliable funding flows. So whatever we do, we must to do it together.  Better donor coordination is essential, but it remains a huge challenge. Fragmented donor flows have contributed to the fragmentation of Yemen itself. And to avoid the risk of state failure we must improve our own behaviour now.  As I said in New York at the recent Friends of Yemen meeting, we as Yemena€™s Friends must co-ordinate and communicate, we must all be present on the ground in Sanaa€™a, and we must look for ways to be flexible in how we provide our support a€“ finding common delivery mechanisms.  **The Road to Riyadh** The thinking I have outlined has been valid for some time now, but its shelf-life as a viable option is in jeopardy.  Last month a British Embassy car was violently attacked and many of our team in Sanaa€™a had to be withdrawn so we could assess their safety. This weekend has seen another seriously worrying development. The security situation jeopardises what we can do in and for Yemen a€“ indeed it jeopardises our very presence there.  If the security situation drives out the help Yemen now needs, things risk becoming very bad indeed.  We should not, however, belittle some of the progress that has been made.  Within Yemen itself, we have seen the implementation of an IMF programme to build Yemena€™s economy; an agreement to a ceasefire with Huthi rebels in the north; the launching of a process of National Dialogue; and the agreement by the Yemen Government to publish a prioritised national plan embracing such structures as the Yemen Fund for Development. The Friends of Yemen meeting in New York in September was widely regarded as a further successful step in the right direction. However, we dona€™t have long. The next Friends of Yemen meeting in Riyadh, is in February, only a few months away. The Riyadh meeting has the potential to be a major turning point a€“ a meeting in the region, hosted by one of Yemena€™s most significant neighbours, where tangible progress can be demonstrated.  More than any other meeting before it, the Friends of Yemen meeting in Riyadh is possibly both a golden opportunity and the last chance there will be to address Yemena€™s problems before it is too late. The challenge for all of us is to make sure we step up to the mark a€“ the Government of Yemen, NGOs, the UN, donors, Yemena€™s neighbours and the rest of the international community a€“ and work together to bring peace and stability to ordinary Yemenis.  We need to appreciate the potency of development as a force for good in underpinning this state.  We need to realise that for both moral and practical reasons it is important to focus on poverty and good governance. We need to combine internationally to approach Yemen in a unified and consistent manner.  We need, as Friends of Yemen, to speak frankly and act practically. We want effective development, we want improved donor co-ordination and we want a really successful outcome in Riyadh.  For me, the dire situation only increases my determination to keep involved.  But what comes next is key.  The next two months in the run-up to Riyadh are crucial.  And the rhetoric wea€™ve all been hearing must now become reality. Yemen: Political dynamics and the international policy framework Speech by the Right Honourable Alan Duncan MP, Minister of State for International Development at the Chatham House Yemen Forum Conference on 1 November 2010 2010-11-01 23 I would like to take this opportunity to welcome the launch of [The Kaleidoscope Trust]( - an independent not-for-profit organisation working globally to promote rights for all citizens, regardless of sexual orientation. It is outrageous that people across the world are still subject to arrest, detention or even death simply because of their sexual orientation or gender identity and this Government is fully committed to advancing LGB&T equality and challenge discrimination wherever it occurs. The [UK published an action plan in March]( this year that demonstrated its commitment to advancing equality for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGB&T) people domestically and internationally. The UK is actively pressing countries to ensure they do more to promote the basic rights of all of their citizens. We strive to give a voice to those who are oppressed or threatened. The UK is committed to promoting basic rights across African countries and other developing nations, with aid programmes to promote civil society, better education and encourage better parliamentary scrutiny, allowing the people to hold their Government to account. Through these actions, we are taking steps towards greater equality and a world where people can live their lives free from stigma, discrimination and persecution. We look forward to Kaleidoscope contributing to this crucial work. Alan Duncan: Launch of the Kaleidoscope Trust Alan Duncan welcomes a new initiative promoting diversity and equal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people 2011-09-12 24 Thank you. First of all I would like to thank the All Party Parliamentary Group on HIV and AIDS and the UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development for inviting me to make some short remarks and for organising this event to mark World AIDS Day 2011.  Today we remember the millions of people who have lost their lives to AIDS, to those living with HIV now and we pay tribute to people from all levels of society, who have fought relentlessly for action against the epidemic.  The APPG plays an invaluable role in the UKa€™s response to the epidemic by bringing together members of parliament across the political spectrum and working with our strong civil society network to sustain UK taxpayersa€™ support for tackling AIDS.  They hold us to account for what we promise to deliver.  I would also like to commend Stop AIDSa€™ continued efforts to raise awareness on HIV issues. ### Getting to zero Today, 30 years on from when AIDS was first diagnosed, we are working towards realizing the idea of a€œGetting to Zeroa€. Zero New HIV Infections, Zero Discrimination and Zero AIDS Related Deaths. Never before have we been in a realistic position to seriously articulate and work towards this ambition: * Globally, we are seeing new infections fall - the UNAIDSa€™ World AIDS Day report published last month showed that in sub-Saharan Africa HIV infections have dropped by more than 26% from the height of the epidemic in 1997;  * The price of first-line HIV drugs have been reduced by 99% in 10 years; * There are nearly 7 million people living on life saving drugs in developing countries, compared to just a few thousands 10 years ago.    * And new game-changing evidence is emerging on what seems to work best in preventing the transmission of HIV. Let me say at the outset that the Coalition Government remains 100% committed to this agenda.  And, we have new priorities as well a€“ such as our new strategic vision for women and girls. We confirmed our commitment in our recently published position paper on HIV. And we renewed our commitment to increase coverage of life saving treatment to reach 15 million people with HIV by 2015 alongside the global community at the UN General Assembly in June. ### The challenges But despite these commitments and unprecedented efforts over the past decade, the current pace of change is not likely to achieve universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support. Although transmission rates have reduced or stabilised in some countries, they are on the increase in others. Vulnerable communities, men who have sex with men, sex workers, prisoners and injecting drug users are still marginalized and often excluded from prevention, treatment and care services. Currently, around 8 million who could benefit from HIV treatment do not receive it. Women continue to bare a disproportionate burden of illness and care responsibilities. The impact of the epidemic, on individuals, families and communities is enormous. Many adults and children living with and affected by HIV still struggle to get the quality care that they need, when and where they need it, be it in the home, hospital, village or health centre. ### New and innovative approaches  We need to look at new and innovative approaches to get to zero new infections, zero AIDS deaths and zero stigma and discrimination. I want to outline 3 important ways we can work towards this. Firstly, in a difficult global financial climate, we need to ensure our HIV investments are effective and efficient. We need to show that wea€™re spending tax payers money on the right things and in ways that deliver maximum value for money. Every penny of every pound needs to make a positive difference. The strategic investment framework (SIF) is a very useful approach to thinking through how we could optimize HIV responses. It is an approach to help partners involved in implementation focus and prioritise their efforts among the most affected populations in order to achieve the greatest impact. The SIF is a departure from previous plans because it suggests that up-front investment in a closely defined range of interventions will mean we reach the peak earlier and then see a drop in the epidemic. So up-front investment is justified by the decline in investment needs in later years. And it places community mobilisation and community-led service delivery at the heart of the response. Communities affected by the epidemic need to be involved in the solutions. More work is needed to spell out what this approach will mean in particular countries. That is why we are now engaging with UNAIDS to see how DFID can collaborate in taking forward this work and encourage countries to start managing their investments (and those of donors) more effectively and efficiently in order to reach this critical a€˜tipping pointa€™ in the epidemic.  Secondly, we need to drive more innovation of products and delivery models so that affordable access to quality assured treatment continues to save lives. The UK will support innovation in a number of ways. Through our long-term commitment to UNITAID, we will support their engagement with markets to drive down the costs of antiretroviral therapy, including supporting the establishment of the Medicines Patent Pool. We work closely with originator pharmaceutical companies to ensure the benefits of innovation are made more widely available. And we work with generic companies through our funding to the Clinton Health Access Initiative to support, among other things, price reductions. UK support of this kind has already led to the significant price reduction of one first-line AIDS drug.  We calculate the cost savings, made as a result of the UKa€™s investment alone will enable an additional 500,000 people to access treatment. Our research investments also drive innovation and over the next 4 years, research and evidence will increase to 3% of our total DFID budget, about a third of which will be focused on health. This will include: * Product development such as microbicides a€“ an emerging prevention technology;  * Clinical trials, such as the ARROW and DART trials, to improve delivery of HIV treatment in developing country settings, especially for children; and  * Strengthening the evidence base on what actually works to tackle the structural drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability.  Thirdly, we need to seek new approaches to optimise linkages and integration with other sectors which are critical in ensuring a comprehensive approach. Our broader investment in women and girls, including for reproductive, maternal and newborn health, education and social protection, will contribute to the HIV response. It is not just biomedical interventions which matter. We must ensure a comprehensive approach which also addresses structural and social barriers to confronting the epidemic and changing risky behaviour. We need to improve integration at the level of service delivery so that clients are better provided for. This means making a number of different services available a€˜under one roofa€™, without compromising quality of care. For example, we have seen successes in integrating the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV within antenatal and delivery care. This can reduce the risk of a child being born with the virus to less than 5%a€”and just as importantly, keeps their mothers alive to raise them and their siblings. We need integrated approaches to ensure HIV-TB co-infection is diagnosed and treated. Our support to TB Alert programmes in Zambia and India, through the civil society challenge fund, specifically targets this issue. And we must not neglect care and support. Adults and children affected or living with HIV need to access services that include: clinical and psychosocial support, protection of social, economic and human rights, as well as action on stigma and discrimination. Finally, we need sustainable resources for achieving results. Despite the challenging global financial climate, the UK government remains committed to reaching the target for 0.7% of GNP committed to overseas development aid from 2013. We urge other countries also to meet their commitments. Our support to the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria is the principal mechanism the UK uses to finance our contribution to HIV and TB. In the face of the current financial shortfall being experienced by the Global Fund, the UK only last week brought forward a further £128 million for the Fund. The UK has committed up to £1 billion from 2008 a€“ 2015 to the Global Fund. Our current support to the Global Fund will enable 37,000 HIV-positive women to prevent transmission to their babies. And it will also enable 268,000 people to secure life-saving treatment. We intend to increase our commitment if there is the right kind of response to the recommendations made in the High Level Panel Report. The UK will also encourage other partners to meet their commitments. The UK also continues to work through our country and regional programmes to ensure that evidence is translated into best practice and results on the ground. Through this support the UK will: * Help to prevent half a million HIV infections amongst women in Sub-Saharan Africa; and  * in at least 6 countries, reduce HIV infection amongst the most at-risk populations, for example, by improving access to prevention services such as needle exchange and condoms. * And my Ministerial colleague, even as I speak, is in Dakar, Senegal making an announcement to give £5 million to UNFPA for procurement and supply of female condoms. ## Conclusion So, with a focus on greater effectiveness, efficiency, innovation and integration, alongside the resources needed to deliver results, I believe as a global community we are at an exciting moment in the response to HIV and AIDS. It is not an exaggeration to say that there is light at the end of the tunnel for the first time in three decades. So today, lets stand in solidarity with people living with HIV and together restate our commitment to a€˜Getting to Zeroa€™ - Zero New HIV Infections, Zero Discrimination and Zero AIDS Related Deaths. Alan Duncan: World AIDS Day Minister of State Alan Duncan speaks at The Beginning of the End of AIDS? event hosted by the All Party Parliamentary Group on HIV and AIDS and the UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development 2011-12-01 25 I cana€™t think of a better place to give this speech than here at the Wellcome Trust, one of the early pioneers of British philanthropy. Ladies and gentlemen, the concept of the modern charitable foundation wasna€™t born in Washington or Seattle. It wasna€™t born in New York or Atlanta. It was born right here in Britain more than two hundred years ago when the two Thomases a€“ Coram and Guy, along with the likes of William Wilberforce and John Radcliffe a€“ ignited the great tradition of British philanthropy that continues to this day. The Wellcome Trust is part of that proud tradition. Founded by Sir Henry Wellcome some seventy five years ago, it was to become a beacon of medical research, its work known and admired across the world. Wellcomea€™s dedication and generosity live on today, with the Wellcome Trust, now the second largest charity in the world, investing an amazing £600 million a year in the research of illnesses such as malaria, pneumonia, TB and HIV. Sir Mark, I want to pay a very public tribute to you and indeed, to the many other institutions which, like the Wellcome Trust have blushed unseen for decades. Through your work in some of the most testing environments, you prove that poverty may be a complex challenge but that the right investment in the right place at the right time can deliver results that are nothing short of transformational. So, in this of all venues, it is fitting that I argue tonight that there are many tools that we can bring to bear in the fight against poverty. That aid, vital though it is, is just one of those tools. And that by taking an approach that draws on the best of everything that Britain has to offer, we can set the bar of our achievement even higher. Of course, aid a€“ smart aid a€“ is incredibly important. We have only to look at parts of the Horn of Africa to see why this matters.  Thanks to British funding: * 1.68 million Ethiopians had food to eat in May and another 2.4 million in June and July * 40,000 people living in the Dolo Ado refugee camps have shelter and * more than 300,000 refugees in camps in Dadaab in northern Kenya have safe drinking water. So, yes, when it's spent well, aid can indeed work miracles. But aid alone is not the solution to tackling the deepest, most grinding poverty. That is my subject tonight.  And my argument has two elements. First, that as well as committing significant (and hard earned) financial resources through our aid programme,  this Coalition Government is tackling poverty in other ways: including by working together to tackle conflict and insecurity and to galvanise the private sector. Second, that Britaina€™s offer to the world a€“ and especially to the poorest a€“ comes from all of us, not only from government.  Britaina€™s inventors, its economists, its academics, its judiciary, its entrepreneurs, have, for centuries been a powerful catalyst for growth and development way beyond these shores. And indeed, this country continues today to have a tremendous offer to make to the world, which comes from our charities, our world class institutions, our generous and globally-facing citizens, and our world class researchers a€“ especially on science and technology.    ## A holistic approach to development I have worked hard since coming into office to turn the Department for International Development into a Department of State, rather than an NGO moored to the side of government. Because development is about more than aid. It requires a whole of government effort. DFID has always been good at what it does. But it could be so much more. Previous Cabinets have thought about development. But they have not done enough to address development implications and impacts of policies a€“ known in the jargon as a€˜policy coherencea€™. As Development Secretary in the Cabinet, my job is to ensure that this happens. And I judge my officials not just by how well they administer British aid, but by how effectively they collaborate with colleagues across Whitehall in shaping UK Government policy, across a range of issues, to be as effective as possible in promoting poverty reduction. Let me give you some examples of where DFID is now working as a Department of State, on issues beyond aid. And where this Coalition Government is bringing development into its wider policies: a€˜policy coherencea€™ in action.  ### Conflict and security   Ita€™s obvious to anyone who has set foot in a country affected by conflict, like Afghanistan where I was only last week, that no one can be sure of the basics of an education, of basic health, let alone the chance to flourish, while conflict and insecurity are the norm. This Governmenta€™s position on conflict and security is very firmly based around the three inseparable pillars of defence, diplomacy and development. I have a seat on the National Security Council alongside the Defence and Foreign Secretaries and other Cabinet Ministers. The National Security Strategy and Strategic Defence and Security Review went far beyond narrow issues of military hardware and asked how best we defend ourselves at home and abroad, recognising for example that girls' education in Pakistan can be a powerful weapon in our armoury. Our recently published tripartite strategy 'Building Stability Overseas' commits us to looking upstream to prevent conflicts as much as downstream to help countries after war - what the military call 'getting left of the bang'. In Libya we acted quickly to respond to a crisis, deploying the first ever UK-led International Stabilisation Response Team. This team was able to gauge what help the National Transitional Council might need during the lead up to a political settlement and to support the United Nations in its post-conflict planning. Now, DFID is working closely with the Ministry of Defence, the Foreign Office and the Treasury, helping Libyan policemen and women to uphold the law, encouraging a vibrant civil society to hold their leaders to account, and supporting government officials as they begin to plan their budgets. We also invest in longer term action to prevent conflict. For example, in Sierra Leone, DFID, the Foreign Office and the Ministry of Defence shared their expertise with the army and the police force, helping each to provide a more effective service. ### Diplomacy The role of diplomacy in tackling conflict and insecurity cannot be over-stated.  In the Foreign Office we have an unparalleled hub of diplomatic expertise and influence overseas. Foreign Office diplomacy daily plays a vital role in helping countries to resolve conflicts and in fostering the basic rights and freedoms that are the building blocks of political legitimacy and economic growth. The examples of its impact are too numerous to recite, so let me mention just three: * training local journalists in Bangladesh to keep the government on its toes through investigative reporting * encouraging Egyptian women to stand for parliament and * working with the Minister of Justice in Mozambique to combat child trafficking and sexual abuse ### Private sector Just as peace is a prerequisite for development, growth and private sector development are the route out of poverty to prosperity and off aid. That is why I have set up the Private Sector Department in DFID, as the crack SAS troops who will help put private sector development and engaging with private enterprise at the heart of everything we do. Ita€™s why the Government has reformed CDC so that it will make investments which not only wash their face, but which also pioneer new business frontiers and generate tangible development outcomes a€“ the productivity gains, increased employment and better services that poor countries so urgently need. And ita€™s why the Prime Minister went to Africa last summer, accompanied by myself and Lord Green, the Trade Minister at BIS, supported by UKTI, to make the case for growth as the surest path to economic progress and better livelihoods for poor people. All three of us gave the strongest message that investing in Africa isna€™t just a savvy thing to do, it will also open opportunities for millions of poor women and men to earn or venture their way out of poverty. The other message which the Prime Minister took to Africa was about trade and the importance of global and regional trade rules which allow poor countries and people to trade themselves out of poverty. Britain has always been a great trading nation and one of the most open economies in the world. The Governmenta€™s White Paper on Trade and Investment has development concerns and arguments at its very core. And our Joint Trade Policy unit a€“ in which officials from DFID and BIS work alongside each other a€“ ensures that the issues that affect developing countries are clearly in the frame in our trade policy. ### Climate change Ita€™s not only on trade that we want to make sure the rules of the game work for developing countries a€“ and where there are win-wins for the UK. Take climate change. We know that climate change threatens to reverse the progress wea€™ve made in reducing poverty in the worlda€™s poorest countries. Britain is setting an example to others in tackling climate change, as recognised in the Commitment to Development Index published recently by the Center for Global Development. On the global stage, we are pressing for progress in international negotiations while at home, our Climate Change Act is the worlda€™s first long-term legally binding framework of its kind. Through the Advocacy Fund that I recently launched the UK will help developing countries participate actively in negotiations on both trade and climate change. But we also need to know how the climate is changing and how it will affect countries around the world. So we should take pride in the fact that the Met Office Hadley Centre is arguably the worlda€™s premier body for climate research. And that wea€™re spearheading innovation in clean energy and in developing the technology that will allow poorer countries to adapt to floods, droughts and other climatic events. My Department is playing a part in all of this, working alongside the Foreign Office, the Department of Energy and Climate Change and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, whose Chief Scientific Adviser, Professor Bob Watson, is one of the leading lights on this subject.  ### Corruption and transparency Wea€™re showing equally robust leadership on setting and upholding the rules of the game on corruption and transparency. Britain has a long history of fighting crime. It was another Conservative Minister, Robert Peel, who established the modern concept of the police force. Nearly two hundred years later, others are looking to us to take a similar lead on tackling corruption. And we are. We have our own International Anti-Corruption Champion, Ken Clarke who a€“ as a result of the actions of this Coalition Government a€“ now has recourse to the statutory support of the Bribery Act. Wea€™re working with the Serious Organised Crime Agency, the Metropolitan Police, the City of London Police and the Crown Prosecution Service to hunt down money-launderers and bribe-payers that fuel corruption in developing countries. The results?  * more than £160 million of assets frozen * £20 million of stolen assets recovered by developing countries and * 18 more cases underway Wea€™re the only development department in the world to be taking such an innovative approach to fighting corruption. Ia€™d like to see others following our lead. The Government intends to do more a€“ we have already announced plans for the new National Crime Agency, a powerful body of crime fighters which will make a significant contribution towards tackling economic crime, including bribery and corruption. Taking a tough line on corruption also means cracking down on individuals who are corrupt, particularly those in positions of power and influence or who benefit from such corruption. The Government is clear that these individuals are not welcome in the UK. Within DFID, I have personally championed a new culture of transparency, a culture that extends to those bodies which are funded by the Department. The more open the process, the fewer the opportunities for theft and malpractice. We can see this in Africa where the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative has led to 150 companies reporting $130 billion of payments. Or in Ghana, where drug-testing carried out under a medicines transparency pilot allowed the government to prevent sub-standard antibiotics being sold to its people. Be in no doubt, Britain has been right out there, leading from the front, taking the fight to those who dare to try and misuse our taxpayersa€™ funds. British companies have to play by the rules and we expect others to do the same. These are just a few examples of where a co-ordinated approach across Government on a range of issues that go beyond aid is delivering real results for development.   ## Britain's offer to the world So, I turn now to my second argument: that Britaina€™s offer to the world and especially to the poorest doesna€™t just come from government. Britaina€™s brilliant charities, its generous globally facing citizens and its world class researchers all play their part. In other words, Britaina€™s offer to the world comes from all of us. The Governmenta€™s role is to recognise, celebrate, support and catalyse this. We only have to look back through history to see that Britain has for centuries played a more subtle role in development, by laying the scientific, legal, economic and intellectual foundations that have helped whole generations to pull themselves out of poverty. Some of the most powerful weapons in the fight against poverty came from Britain. Each started a small revolution that was to change the world: * the steam engine * the electric battery * Penicillin * the contraceptive pill * the world wide web This tradition is just as vibrant and relevant today. Just four years ago, 19-year old Emily Cummins, from Keighley, West Yorkshire designed a solar-evaporation refrigerator, meaning that families and hospitals previously dependent on an unreliable electricity supply could finally store foods and medicines. Britain didna€™t just give the world the physical tools of growth. We helped to create the soft infrastructure, the ideas that allowed growth to take root and flourish: * The repeal of the corn laws, which paved the way for free trade and which was described by Richard Cobden as a€œthe greatest revolution that ever happened in the worlda€™s historya€ * The ideas of Adam Smith, now widely regarded as the founder of modern economics * The touchstone of human rights, Habeas Corpus, that most hard-won and cherished of principles The point Ia€™m making is that none of these can be characterised as being specifically about aid. Yet, each has been the catalyst that has driven growth and stability in other countries and economies. Ita€™s an alchemy that continues today, where everything that is best in Britain: our scientists, universities, police, courts, civil society, is being brought to bear in the fight against global poverty. ### Britaina€™s brilliant charities and institutions Let me dwell for a moment on whata€™s happening at a grassroots level in towns and villages across the country, where Britaina€™s brilliant charities have their roots. When it comes to Britaina€™s approach to development, the Big Society agenda a€“ the empowering of individuals and communities a€“ is already there to be seen. If youa€™re in any doubt, ask yourselves which of the following was founded here: Save the Children, Oxfam, VSO, Barnardoa€™s, Christian Aid, Cafod, Action Aid, WaterAid, SightSavers. The answer is, of course, all of them. Other British organisations testify further to what Britain has to offer. Take health. Britain is the scene of some of the most exciting of healthcare innovations. New ideas and techniques are being developed every day and our expertise is in great demand. NICE, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, is the envy of the world, with China, India, Brazil and South Africa all keen to draw on its expertise. NHS Global is a new initiative that showcases some of the most exciting of those developments with a view to exporting them to other countries. Where profits are made they will be reinvested in the NHS. Ita€™s still at an early stage of development, but already ita€™s enabling us to help Saudi Arabia as its government redesigns its healthcare offer. Last year the Prime Minister also launched the Health Partnership Scheme, linking health institutions in the UK and in developing countries. ### Britaina€™s generous, globally-facing citizens And if youa€™ve travelled overseas to visit any of the projects run by these organisations youa€™ll have noticed just how many of the volunteer workers hail from these shores. The generosity, commitment and courage of these women and men is something of which we can all be proud. Therea€™s a lot going on back here in Britain too and ita€™s happening organically. Sponsored fun-runs, Fairtrade coffee mornings, office bake-ins, high-end receptions, the way we participate in and give to Comic Relief a€“ more generously this year, despite tough economic times, than ever before: there is a spirit here that unites us. We want to build on that.  Let me tell you briefly now about a couple of ways in which this government is taking steps to build on the innate generosity of the British people: First, wea€™ve launched the Global Poverty Action Fund that provides match-funding for organisations to pioneer trail-blazing initiatives and to make a deep and lasting impact on the lives of poor people. The Fund has already identified projects that will help more than 5 million people. And second, earlier this year we launched UK Aid Match a€“ a scheme that promotes and endorses the great work of our international development charities. Through UK Aid Match, the government matches, pound for pound, public donations to international causes, so giving the public a say over a portion of the aid budget. Wea€™ve already matched Save the Childrena€™s Born To Shine appeal, and over the next few weeks we expect to be able to match a number of Christmas campaigns. The truth is, this country has been a€œdoing developmenta€ for years. To anyone whoa€™s out there playing a part, however small, I tell you this: this Government is on your side. We want to energise, to rev up, to link, to kick start those many small platoons of enterprise that are fizzing with commitment.  ### Britaina€™s world-class scientists The final group I want to draw attention to this evening is Britaina€™s world-class scientists. Britain is in the vanguard of original thought and especially scientific research on development, which every day is pushing back the frontiers on global problems a€“ like disease a€“ that affect poor countries and people. Britain has more Nobel Laureates than most other countries in the world. Indeed, it was a British doctor, Sir Ronald Ross, whose work on malaria was to win him the second-ever Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1902. It should come as no surprise then, to learn that it is British scientists who have been at the forefront of many life-changing discoveries. Take Rinderpest, a disease that wiped out 80% of cattle in Africa from the Horn down to the Cape. This year Rinderpest was eradicated. Eradicated. A disease thata€™s been around since the birth of civilisation. A disease written about in ancient Chinese scripts and Roman texts. That afflicted even Charlemagnea€™s cattle. A disease of historic and epic proportions. Eradicated. And eradicated largely thanks to the efforts of a British scientist, Walter Plowright, who helped to create the first effective vaccine against the virus. The impact of Plowrighta€™s work has been simply enormous: a very quiet revolution of which we can all be proud. Britain has also lent its support to a worldwide effort to re-invent rice, testing new varieties that are more productive, resist the extremes of flooding and drought and which, in just three Asian countries, have already delivered staggering economic benefits of $1.46 billion a year. What an amazing, almost incredible, annual return for a relatively modest research investment. Or take Sleeping Sickness, for which the main treatment until recently involved arsenic. It was a painful and potentially fatal process, sometimes described by patients as a€œfire in the veinsa€. Now, a safer combination of drugs has now been developed thanks to a British-backed collaboration between the private, public and academic sectors. Without this collaboration, people would still be dying, often in the most unimaginable agony. This Government wants to help British scientists to ramp up their efforts. While recognising that science is by its nature unpredictable we will, amongst other things: * map the spread of drug-resistant malaria * develop an affordable meningococcal vaccine to fight meningitis * improve the diagnosis of TB and Malaria and * give small farmers the miracle of new technologies a€“ from seeds to SIM cards Right across the UK, our scientists and universities are working at the very cutting edge of innovation. Which brings me back to where I started in saluting the vital and world class work that the Wellcome Trust does.  Thank you once more for your warm welcome this evening.   ## Conclusion Ladies and gentlemen, this year marks the fiftieth year since the Department of Technical Co-operation, DFIDa€™s closest predecessor, first opened its doors. Wea€™ve come a long way since then. But as we look to the future, immense challenges remain. In tackling them we will use every means at our disposal. Because as I have argued tonight, when it comes to the fight against poverty Britain will always have far more to offer than Government policy, important though that is. Far more to share than aid, even though it remains the right tool in the right circumstances. Our offer to the world is a rich tapestry of British commitment and endeavour. My point is this: the leadership that this Coalition Government is displaying on development is just a part of the leadership that Britain as a nation has displayed for centuries. I am proud that we are playing a tiny role as part of that great tradition.   Andrew Mitchell: Beyond Aid Andrew Mitchell's speech to the Wellcome Trust looks at a more holistic approach to development and Britain's wider efforts in beating poverty 2011-11-11 26 Thank you Professor Furness.  Ia€™m very grateful to you and to the Royal College of Pathologists for hosting this eveninga€™s event. I've been hugely looking forward to delivering this speech and will extend time for questions. Elsewhere in this magnificent building is a room dedicated to Edward Jenner, a man who has arguably been responsible for saving more human lives than anyone else on the planet. And all because he helped to spearhead a vaccine against smallpox.  In a few daysa€™ time countries a€“ led by Britain and by our Prime Minister a€“ will gather, along with charities and businesses, to pledge to vaccinate hundreds of millions of children across the poor world. The passion and commitment of Jenner lives on today in our determination to make deaths from preventable childhood illnesses a thing of the past. Ladies and Gentlemen, ita€™s now a little over twelve months since I took office as Secretary of State for International Development. Ita€™s been a year of urgency, optimism and action. I was clear from the very outset that under my stewardship DFID would embrace a relentless focus on results.  I think that after 12 long months DFID officials will testify that I have been true to my word. This evening I want to set out our vision for international development and explain why I have insisted on this emphasis on results.  By spending time getting right the why, the what, the where and the how of development, I believe that the ensuing results have the capacity to add up to something far more significant a€“ something that can transform communities, societies and economies. We see examples of this happening all over the world. They give us cause for hope and I will talk about some of them later on.  **Vision** Let me be clear: my vision is not about accountancy and bean-counting; ita€™s about changing the world.  Ita€™s about being: * smarter in how we spend money * sharper in our focus * tougher in our approach * more inclusive in our partnerships. Ita€™s a vision: * that is rooted in evidence and evaluation * that subjects DFID a€“ and its partners a€“  to rigorous and ongoing scrutiny * that ushers in a new culture of radical transparency.  A vision that sees us focusing on results and a€“ yes a€“ going after the hard wins too. One that sees us working in the toughest places but always tailoring solutions to specific needs and contexts, something that we will be even better equipped to do with our strengthened in-country teams.  Dona€™t be misled into thinking our focus on results means wea€™ll avoid doing the harder things just because theya€™re difficult to measure.  It doesna€™t and we wona€™t. If it costs twice as much to educate a child in a conflict country as it does in a stable one, it's still good value. We will be guided by what we can achieve not just by how much it costs to achieve it.  **Why, Where, What, How, Who** Ita€™s because wea€™ve spent time getting the basics right that wea€™re able now to hone the results that will produce that change. So let me begin tonight by telling you where wea€™re up to with those basics, with the why, where, what, how and who of the past year.  So first, WHY is the Coalition Government so clear about the vital nature of what wea€™re doing in development? Ita€™s because development is both morally right and in our national interest.  It is a stain on all our consciences that a girl born in South Sudan today is more likely to die having a baby than to complete primary school. When we know what life a€“ and death a€“ is like for over a billion people living on less than 80 pence a day, and we have the wherewithal to do something about it, then yes, I do believe we have a moral imperative to do so. But if the moral case were not enough we also know that whether youa€™re talking about tackling conflict, addressing climate change, building global economic stability or helping the most vulnerable populations, international development is one of the best means we have of protecting UK security and prosperity. Ita€™s also one of the most cost-effective. As the Prime Minister said last month: a€œa€¦these countries that are broken like Somalia, like Afghanistan a€“ if we dona€™t invest in them before they get broken we end up with the problems; we end up paying the price of the terrorism, of the crime, of the mass migration, of the environmental devastationa€¦. If wea€™d put a fraction of what wea€™re spending now in Afghanistan on military equipment into that country as aid and development when it had a chance perhaps of finding its own future, wouldna€™t that have been a better decision?a€ So said our Prime Minister. They are my sentiments exactly. Turning to the WHERE.  The Bilateral and Multilateral Aid Reviews have been completed and their findings are being implemented. They have allowed Ministers to take a strategic, informed view about where to focus our efforts in order to achieve the greatest impact. And to recognise the relative success of many countries that are coming out of poverty themselves. So, over the next four years UK bilateral aid will be concentrated on 27 rather than 43 countries, amongst the poorest countries in the world, where the need is greatest. And whether we channel funds through multilateral agencies, or indeed through NGOs or others, we will expect the same rigour in results, transparency and value from them as we do from ourselves. We are withdrawing aid from those countries that have succeeded in pulling themselves out of poverty. And we will continue to take this approach, celebrating when countries make the transition to self-sufficiency and supporting them through this process. Aid is a means to an end not an end in itself. Britain will continue to be a beacon of support at times of humanitarian need a€“ the floods, earthquakes and conflict-generated crises that plunge thousands into sudden need. But our response will now be informed by the review that Lord Ashdown led at my request earlier this year, allowing us to maintain our reputation as a world leader in times of disaster. So next, WHAT will we work on? UK aid will focus on those issues that can lead to the greatest transformation, whether ita€™s girls and women, conflict, wealth creation, climate change or innovation. And my litmus test for HOW we will work? In whatever way delivers the best results. This doesna€™t just mean working with in-country governments, it means working with new partners, with foundations, citizens, the private sector, emerging powers - in short with anyone whose support complements our own efforts.  We have become much more joined up with the rest of Whitehall, a central player in policy decisions that affect poor countries, whether through the National Security Council, the International Climate Fund or in our close working with other Government departments.  Wea€™ve taken the bold step of opening our actions up to external scrutiny, promising a€“ and delivering a€“ a radical new agenda of transparency and accountability, and Ia€™m delighted to see the Chief Commissioner of the Independent Commission for Aid Impact here tonight.  Wea€™ve made it easy for people to understand what wea€™re doing a€“ publishing clear, simple data thata€™s easy to understand. Not only can the British taxpayer see what we are doing but so too can the people our aid programmes are intended to help.  Whether ita€™s a British person sitting in Manchester or a Kenyan sitting in Kisumu, any individual can hold us to account a€“ and tell us if they think wea€™re getting it wrong. We want to build evaluation processes into our programmes from the outset so that we can learn which interventions work best. So, in summary, in just one year wea€™ve got the UK Aid Transparency Guarantee and the Independent Commission for Aid Impact up and running and wea€™ve started to embed evaluation throughout DFIDa€™s work. That is no mean feat. Wea€™ve taken a fresh look at our response to key challenges such as malaria and maternal health, publishing frameworks that shine a spotlight on what is needed and what works.   DFID country offices are now trying out innovative approaches such as cash-on-delivery aid, cash transfers and participatory budgeting that put more power and choice into the hands of local people and communities.   And, within DFIDa€™s London office wea€™ve set up a new team and charged it with galvanising the entrepreneurial spirit of the private sector in the poorest countries. We are injecting private sector DNA into DFIDa€™s bloodstream, promoting the dynamism and know-how that often exists in the private sector, marrying DFIDa€™s traditional development expertise with business instinct to generate opportunity, jobs and prosperity.    CDC, the Governmenta€™s Development Finance Institution, has published a brand new business plan with an inspiring mission to be a pioneering investor in the poorest places of the world. Each of these reforms is necessary and important a€“ and all have been achieved in just one year. And finally, WHOM will we help? The simple answer is that we will focus on the poorest and the most vulnerable. On women and girls, including those who, because of the conflict in which they live, lose out twice over. Taken together, these cornerstones a€“ the why, where, what, how and who of our approach a€“ will allow us to be smarter and more effective in spending taxpayersa€™ money. We know what we want to achieve, we will measure how well wea€™ve achieved it, and we will learn the lessons when we could have done better. Of course, I know there are some people here who say that my focus on results, transparency and accountability is turning development into a numbers game. They suggest that it will encourage us to indulge in a host of evils: to focus narrowly on the easy wins, to adopt a€˜one-size-fits-alla€™ methodology, to take simplistic views of complex societies, and to mortgage long-term change for short-term gains. It is this critique that I want to address head-on tonight.  I put it to you that our focus on results will allow us to deliver the individual, incremental changes that will lead to deeper, more sustained change. Change that will transform whole countries - in our lifetime. We will address the difficult, thorny issues in development, not just pursue progress on the so-called a€˜low hanging fruita€™.   Our approach will be flexible and differentiated, recognising local realities and contexts. We will work to understand and go with the grain of change in complex societies, rather than attempting to impose rigid blueprints.  We will shine a spotlight on effectiveness and good governance and build up the democratic institutions which will ultimately allow countries to float free of development assistance. We will do what we can to address the structural inequalities that rob the poorest and most vulnerable of control in their lives and a say in their societies. And we will strive for long-term transformative impact, as well as concrete, observable improvements in human lives today. I do believe these aims are compatible with a results focus.  Indeed, they are part of it. Because it is through results that we will secure the underpinning to:  * propel economic growth * make governments accountable to their people * put more power into the hands of girls and women * promote peace and prosperity and * address the challenges of climate change. These are the fundamentals of development and what we are working flat out to achieve. Let me try to illustrate this with real-life examples which give a flavour of the kind of things which can transform our world. I could give you examples on contraception, nutrition, low carbon technology and many more. But let me pick just four for now.  **Results for Change** 1. Health Ia€™ll start with health, an area where wea€™re going to see some particularly strong results.  The sad irony is that much of what needs to be done here is so straightforward.  Vaccinations, for example, are proof positive that well-spent aid transforms lives. When I visited a vaccinations clinic in Karachi last week the mothersa€™ faces told the whole story: their children, like ours, now have the opportunity to escape polio and other preventable diseases and pursue healthy, full lives. Next week, the UK will host the GAVI replenishment conference. With the right financial resources GAVI can vaccinate around a quarter of a billion children and save four million lives. Imagine that for a moment. A quarter of a billion children. We wouldna€™t spend a second tolerating a single death from malaria or diarrhoea in this country. Why should we tolerate it elsewhere?  The UK will be making a strong commitment to the GAVI conference and I call on others here and now to do the same. It not only saves lives.  It reduces acute and long-term illness. It prevents decades of disability. Ia€™m thinking here, for example, of the paralysis that so often blights the lives of polio sufferers or the deafness that can accompany pneumococcal infection. Immunisation is also cost-effective.   * Families avoid the costs of hospitalisation * Women are freed from long-term caring for the sick * The crushing burden on doctors and nurses is reduced * Resources are liberated to invest in clinics and drugs * Healthier children are better nourished and educated, and so earn higher wages as adults.  There is another benefit too. Many poor people rarely see a health worker. A good immunisation programme draws people into contact with a professional. This professional can also distribute bednets, give Vitamin A supplements to children, advise on contraception, test for HIV, and schedule follow-up visits.    Of course, an essential part of getting this positive reinforcement off the ground is to ensure therea€™s actually a health professional to go to and thata€™s why a large part of our work is, and will continue to be, helping countries to develop their own healthcare systems in a way that suits their needs and contexts.   As in Odisha where DFID helped the Government of India to set up mobile health clinics, reform salaries and promotion systems and contract in private doctors. These relatively simple measures helped to reduce the number of vacancies for badly-needed rural doctors by 58% in the space of just one year.   So, you see what I am getting at. This simple result a€“ one ordinary jab a€“ can bring a host of other benefits, for the family, for the health system, for the economy. This is what economists call a multiplier effect. I call it a miracle. The miracle of a result changing our world.   2.  Education for Girls Next, I want to look at education.  Consider this simple fact: in some parts of Africa, half of all girls are married by the time they reach the age of 15.  Girls who marry at this age are more likely to drop out of school. They also put their health at risk. Compared with women in their twenties, mothers aged between ten and 14 are five times more likely to die from childbirth, while those between 15 and 19 are twice as likely. Conversely, when a girl receives seven or more years of education she typically marries four years later and has 2.2 fewer children.  But early marriage doesna€™t have to be inevitable, as the results of a pilot project supported by the Nike Foundation in northern Ethiopia has shown.  That project helped a whole community to come together to explore the consequences of young marriage. And the result? Over the course of the 18 month pilot, not one of the 376 participating girls married. Instead, they stayed in school. British aid a€“ working in partnership with the Nike Foundation a€“ will now help 200,000 girls directly, and many more indirectly, to delay their marriages and to stay in school.  And over the next four years wea€™re going to get another two million children a€“ half of them girls a€“ into school in Ethiopia. The cost? Just £20 a head. And the facts? Equally compelling. One extra yeara€™s schooling can increase a girla€™s earnings by ten to 20%. Earnings that she will plough back in to the family unit, ensuring that her children have better, more nutritious food and are more likely to attend school themselves. In turn, this leads to better jobs, higher wages, increased taxes, more effective public services.  A truly virtuous cycle a€“ what the Nike Foundation calls a€œThe Girl Effecta€ a€“ that drives and sustains deeper, transformative change. By preventing poverty from passing from one generation to the next, stopping poverty before it starts.   3. Wealth Creation Now, thirdly, we come to wealth creation. I could spend the whole evening giving you examples of the transformative impact of wealth creation but Ia€™m going to focus on just one: EasyPaisa, the branchless banking service thata€™s bringing financial services within reach of some of the worlda€™s poorest people in Pakistan.  EasyPaisa builds on the runaway success of M-PESA, a mobile phone-based system piloted in Kenya by DFID and Vodafone. And let me make something clear. Ia€™ve seen the reports that imply that EasyPaisa is simply a convenience measure. That somehow wea€™re just making life a bit easier for the busy elite in Pakistan.   Nothing could be further from the truth. Wea€™re talking about people whoa€™re existing on 80 pence a day. Who dona€™t have any access to the most basic financial services. Who cana€™t open a bank account, who cana€™t insure against the risk of a bad crop or a sudden illness. Who cana€™t do any of the things that we do day in and day out and on which our very economy relies. In fact, right now, less than half of the adult population of Pakistan has access to a bank account. But in future, thanks to EasyPaisa up to 3 million more people a€“ amongst the poorest people in the world a€“ will be able to use their mobile phone to pay bills and transfer money to their families. As I witnessed in Karachi just ten days ago where I saw a young nurse using EasyPaisa to send £27 home to her dad. And as they become familiar with using the technology a€“ and as the transferring banks become used to their new customers a€“ they will be able to open savings accounts. They will be able to start and sustain small businesses, creating jobs, contributing to the local and national economy and stimulating that growth that helps pull the country and its people out of poverty.  The implications are enormous. If youa€™re a small-holder with no access to a reliable power supply, you can finally afford to make small payments on a solar panel. At last, you can cook more nutritious food. Your children have light to do their homework. They get better jobs as a result. By changing lives we can change the world.  4. Governance Finally, ita€™s sometimes said that a spotlight on results pushes governance and politics into the shadow. Nothing could be further from the truth: what is good governance if it is not ensuring that politicians and local officials are held accountable for delivering the results that people demand?   Healthier, wealthier and better-educated citizens can make all the difference if they know what is being delivered in their name. And as Nancy Birdsall of the Center for Global Development has argued, the incentive to produce monitored results may be exactly what politicians need to prioritise delivery, try out new approaches, and tackle bureaucratic constraints.   In Bangladesh, we are working with the government to open new and inexpensive channels for people to access their legal rights. This system has brought justice within the reach of poor people a€“ the landless labourers, the slum dwellers, the very people who often need it the most.    68% of women surveyed said that there had been less violence and abuse within the home six months after mediation was complete. And just under £1.3 million worth of assets have been returned to poor people a€“ most of them women. The balance of power will also shift, meaning that poor people are safe to accumulate wealth and live their lives free from violence. **Beyond aid** Ia€™ve spoken this evening about how wea€™ve laid the foundations for a new results-based approach. And whether through the examples I have set out tonight, or the countless transformative results we achieve in all our areas of work a€“ I hope I have illustrated why I believe thata€™s the right direction for us to take.  But therea€™s one other thing I want to touch on before ending. When I was appointed to this job a year ago, I said: a€œPromoting wealth creation and development around the world is about so much more than just giving aid. We will harness the full range of British government policies a€“ including trade, conflict resolution and environmental protection a€“ to contribute to our progressive vision of a more prosperous, sustainable and secure world.a€ One year on, I can point to a number of specific examples to show that this is exactly what the Coalition has done: * Whether ita€™s the White Paper on trade that the Government published earlier this year, which has development concerns and arguments at its core * Whether ita€™s the Strategic Defence and Security Review, which has made tackling the causes of conflict a€“ which destroys the lives of poor people a€“ an absolutely central plank of the Government's approach to the world, complementing the astounding work of our brave armed forces of which we are so proud * Or whether ita€™s our action under Chris Huhnea€™s leadership, to drive forward climate negotiations and lock-in gains for the poorest countries. But we want to go further. Our ambition is to do much, much more than simply make Britaina€™s bilateral aid more effective a€“ important though that is.  Our ambition is to do more, even, than to drive a fundamental reform of the whole global aid system. Not just holding others to account for the commitments theya€™ve made to the developing world and not just bringing in new donors a€“ but making global aid radically more effective, transparent and responsive to the needs of poor people. Let me be crystal clear. Our ambition is to use every tool in the Governmenta€™s armoury to promote development. We are helping to build a new DFID, much closer to the centre of decision making, playing its full part within a joined-up Government a€“ and in turn, shaping and influencing the whole of Government policy to be development-friendly. DFID as a grown-up Department of State for Development, not just a narrowly-focussed unit for administering aid well. Ia€™ll be saying more about this later this year when I will set out more detail of that vision. **Conclusion** So, right now, my number one priority is for us to start delivering the results that will change the world.  Because as I have shown this evening, I believe results not only transform individual lives a€“ as a cumulative force they transform societies. Those same results lie at the heart of our vision for international development and, in turn, at the heart of our response to national and to global challenges.   As those challenges have become more sharply defined over the last decade our expectations have increased. Yet, few of our aid instruments and approaches have been refreshed to meet those higher expectations. And thata€™s why I was determined that the changes I introduced at DFID would not be mere cosmetic adjustments but deep, structural reforms that would enable us to deliver what is needed over the next decade. The effect of some of these changes will not be felt overnight. It will take time for the full impact of transparency, the aid watchdog and our investment in rigorous evaluation to trickle through. But we will be in a much better place for it by 2015 or by 2020. DFID is not alone in embracing this vision. Sweden, the Gates Foundation and USAID are amongst those who share some of our thinking and are joining us on this journey. Indeed, I believe that scholars will look back at the changes that we and our colleagues are making and see them as the start of a new paradigm across the development community. A paradigm: * that focuses with laser-like intensity on results * that places evidence above ideology * that welcomes external scrutiny, embraces radical transparency, opens its doors to fresh ideas and to new partnerships * a paradigm that injects the dynamism of the private sector into its DNA * that acts as a critical friend to its partners * that directs aid on the basis of performance  A paradigm in short, that we can hand to the next generation. A proud and enduring legacy.  Like my friend, Bill Gates, Ia€™m an impatient optimist. Ia€™m restless. I want to use this brilliant machine a€“ the sheer power of Britaina€™s development efforts a€“ to change the world. I want to use other parts of Whitehall to help us do that. This is why I have an obsession with results. I want to achieve more every day. I want to encourage our international partners to do the same. So that development as a whole is more effective because of UK leadership. Like the Prime Minister I think that Britain does stand for something in the world. And as the Deputy Prime Minister has said: a€œLet future generations look back and say that they inherited a better world because a€“ at this critical moment, at this difficult moment a€“ we did not shrink from our responsibilities.a€  Ladies and Gentlemen, this is the most exciting time to be working in development in the UK. Our results agenda will take development up a gear. Our credible leadership on the international stage will be a beacon to others. And our new culture of radical transparency will allow the world to judge us by our actions rather than our words.   As Disraeli, whose picture hangs in my ministerial office, once said we are not creatures of circumstance, we are its creators. We must all be ready to take up that challenge. Thank you. Andrew Mitchell: Results for change Results for Change: International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell's speech at the Royal College of Pathologists, 8 June 2011. 2011-06-09 27 I should like to make a statement on the Governmenta€™s response, which I will publish in detail online later today, to the humanitarian and emergency response review carried out by Lord Ashdown of Norton-sub-Hamdon. The Ashdown report is a deeply impressive document. It makes a compelling, clear and powerful case for reform. The Government agree with and endorse the reviewa€™s central thesis and will accept the vast majority of its specific recommendations. Indeed, in many areas we will go beyond its specific recommendations in order to drive faster improvement in the international response to disasters. I am extremely grateful to Lord Ashdown and his team for the work they have done to produce such a compelling and well-argued review. His formidable insight and experience shine through it. I am also grateful to all those who have taken the time and trouble to respond to the consultation and whose experience has added to the quality of the recommendations. I pay tribute today to those Brits around the world who are working tirelessly in extreme circumstances to save lives during humanitarian crises. Their work, which is often unsung and undertaken at real personal risk, is truly heroic. I also pay tribute to the role of the British armed forces in responding to humanitarian emergencies. In Pakistan last year our armed forces provided swift and effective relief, flying in emergency bridges to reconnect families separated by the floods. In Haiti they brought life-saving equipment and supplies to those stricken by the earthquake. The report sets a challenging agenda for the 21st century. It recognises that, although disasters are nothing new, we are experiencing a sudden increase in their intensity and frequency. It makes it clear that this trend will only grow with climate change, population growth and greater urbanisation. The review concluded that the Department for International Development has played a strong role in improving the quality of the wider international response. It is an area where Britain is well respected and well regarded, but there is no room for complacency, which is why I commissioned the review and why the Government will take action to implement it. In the Governmenta€™s response to the review, I have set out how, in collaboration with others, we will rise to the challenges presented and how we will do even more to help people stricken by disasters and emergencies. There are some fundamental principles that will guide our response to humanitarian emergencies. First, we will continue to apply the core principles of humanity, impartiality and neutrality to all Government humanitarian action. Secondly, we will respect, and promote respect for, international humanitarian law. Thirdly, and crucially, we will be motivated not by political, security or economic objectives, but by need and need alone. We will deliver humanitarian assistance in three main ways. We will provide predictable support for our multilateral humanitarian partners, including the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and the United Nations. In humanitarian emergencies, where there is compelling and overwhelming need, we will provide additional resources to the international system, Governments, charities and non-governmental organisations. We will intervene directly where the UK can contribute in ways that others cannot or where there is substantial public interest in our doing so. Let me turn to the detail of our response. Lord Ashdowna€™s report identifies seven specific themes: resilience, anticipation, leadership, innovation, accountability, partnership and humanitarian space. I will address each in turn. It is not enough for us simply to pick up the pieces once a disaster has struck. We need to help vulnerable communities to prepare for disasters and to become more resilient. That is where we can have most impact and where we can prevent lives from being lost. More resilient communities and countries will also recover faster from disaster. I commit DFID therefore to build resilience into all its country programmes. We must anticipate and be prepared for disasters. We will work with Governments and the international system to become better at understanding where climate change, seismic activity, seasonal fluctuations and conflict will lead to humanitarian disasters. With others, we will set up a global risk register of those countries most at risk, so that the international effort can be more focused. The review calls for stronger leadership by the international community. We strongly agree that the United Nations must be central to this, and I am extremely pleased that, under the leadership of the emergency relief co-ordinator, Baroness Amos, the UN has already made that a priority. Britain will specifically back her agenda for change, but I accept that significant challenges remain. Members from all parts of the House need only look back to the Haiti earthquake or the Pakistan floods to see examples of the United Nations failing to deliver the leadership that was badly needed, so we will work with other donors for much needed reforms. The review highlights the role that innovation and science can play in every aspect of humanitarian response. We will establish an innovations team to embed humanitarian research and innovation in our core work. We must always be accountable for and transparent about how we spend our development budget. It is taxpayersa€™ money. That duty of accountability extends not only to British citizens and taxpayers, but to those who depend upon our aid. We will therefore make accountability central to our humanitarian work and do more to measure our own impact and that of our partners. Rarely is partnership more important than in the delivery of humanitarian aid. The strength and quality of that co-ordination can make the difference between life and death. We must therefore strive to develop stronger alliances, particularly with new donors, including the Gulf states, China and Brazil. We must improve the quality of our relationships with other key bilateral donors, making sure that our efforts are better co-ordinated and the burden of responsibility shared. I also want to involve fully charities, NGOs, faith groups, the diaspora and the private sector in our emergency response work. The review calls for the protection and expansion of humanitarian space, including for people brutally affected by armed conflict. That is crucial to our aim of protecting civilians in conflict situations. We must make a consolidated effort throughout the Government, using all diplomatic, legal, humanitarian and military tools, to secure unfettered and immediate access for humanitarian relief wherever we can. We recognise that to deliver this ambitious agenda, it is right that we change the way in which we fund the system, making it more effective and efficient, particularly in the first hours of an emergency. I have looked at the performance and efficiency that different humanitarian agencies offer. Many offer good value for money and have a sound track record in delivering results, saving lives and reducing suffering in some of the worlda€™s most difficult places. Some, however, do not. I am therefore outlining today increased core support for the best performing humanitarian multilaterals. I have also commissioned detailed work to design a new facility that will enable prequalified charities and NGOs to respond to crises within the first 72 hours, and to design a new mechanism to support the strongest performing British charities to improve the timeliness and quality of responses to humanitarian causes. The Government will consult further on the details of those two instruments. This country is a world leader in responding to humanitarian emergencies. By implementing Lord Ashdowna€™s recommendations, and by working alongside new partners, the private sector and other countriesa€™ Governments, we can be even better. I want this House and this country to be proud of our efforts, knowing that we in Britain will be there when the disaster strikes. Let me end with the words of a survivor of a cyclone in Haiti: "The water started to rise, and it did not stop...the water was already so high and strong that I could not hold on to one of my children and the water swept her away. Luckily someone was there to grab her." I commend this statement to the House. Andrew Mitchell: The humanitarian response review Andrew Mitchell's oral statement to the House of Commons in response to the Humanitarian Emergency Response Review (HERR), 15 June 2011. 2011-06-15 28 The Horn of Africa is currently experiencing a major humanitarian crisis: 10 million people are in need of emergency relief and the situation is likely to get worse, in places, before it improves when the next rains come. This is the Horn of Africaa€™s most severe drought since 1995. In some areas, 2010-2011 has been the driest period in 60 years, and soaring local and global food and fuel prices have made the situation worse. The ongoing conflict and insecurity in Somalia in particular is exacerbating the problem and driving over 10,000 people a week to flee into neighbouring Kenya. Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya are the worst hit. In the long term, people in the Horn of Africa desperately need food security. The UK is a world leader in supporting countries to become more resilient to drought and famine, and has been working in the region for many years. Thanks to UK support, 7.8 million people in Ethiopia have access to cash and food in exchange for work through the Productive Safety Net Programme. DFID funding is also helping create 60,000 new jobs that are not dependant on rain fed agriculture. A further 60,000 people are assisted through a a€œsafety neta€ programme for the poorest households in Kenya. These programmes that build long term resilience are having an impact. In 1992, 71% of the population of Ethiopia were chronically malnourished (out of 53 million). Today, only 46% of a total population of 80 million are malnourished, so tens of millions more Ethiopians are able to feed themselves throughout the year. Those benefiting from UK-supported programmes have proved less vulnerable to the current drought. But long term resilience takes many years to build up, and emergency relief is needed now to respond to the crisis before our eyes, and to make sure that the significant development gains of recent years are not eroded. On 3 July the UK government announced significant funding for the World Food Programme to help feed 1.3m Ethiopians for 3 months and to help 329,000 malnourished children and pregnant women. Our commitment will allow the WFP to access food from the Government of Ethiopiaa€™s Emergency Food Reserve now, while also starting procurement to replenish the reserve in time to meet shortfalls expected during the peak period of need (September to November). The UK has also provided strong support for Kenya and for Somalia in the last financial year, funding emergency nutrition, health, water and sanitation and livelihood support activities through UN agencies, Red Cross and non-governmental organisations. We are rapidly looking at what additional support the UK should give in Somalia and Kenya. But other countries must also do more. We are vigorously pressing the rest of the international community and governments in the region to join us in stepping up and taking action to prevent this disaster becoming a catastrophe. Intervening now is more cost-effective than waiting for the situation to get worse. I am in close touch with Baroness Amos, UN Under-Secretary General for Humanitarian Affairs, who I met on Tuesday 5 July to discuss how to galvanise a bigger and more effective response. Andrew Mitchell: Aid for the Horn of Africa food crisis Andrew Mitchell's written statement to the House of Commons on British intervention in the Horn of Africa food crisis 2011-07-06 29 [![](/Images/Infographics%20and%20charts/1/Booming-Africa-Wordle.jpg)]( Thank you very much for your kind invitation, to all of you for coming and to Sir Andrew for his kind introductory comments. For those of you who are maybe wondering what the Secretary of State for International Development is doing giving a speech to the London Business School - if you are wondering that, ita€™s because clearly, youa€™ve not followed closely the changes that this Coalition Government has made to the way that DFID works. By the time I sit down, I hope Ia€™ll have remedied that. I cannot think of a better place to deliver my message than here, at one of the worlda€™s best business schools. This evening, Ia€™m going to challenge some of the myths and assumptions about Africa. I do so, of course, at a time when sadly, once again, parts of the Horn of Africa face their worst drought in 60 years. Britain is playing its part in tackling this effectively and directly. But I want to argue that despite its undoubted poverty and hardship, Africa is also a continent of innovation, enterprise and opportunity. A continent where there are inspiring individuals who want to change things and where those who want to improve the lives of the poorest in the world, as well as making money, should be clamouring for opportunities to invest.  ### Introduction Ia€™m going tonight to lay before you three specific propositions.  First, that a new chapter in Africaa€™s history is opening up. Secondly, that this is a moment of opportunity for Africa and of choice for those who invest there. And thirdly, that this Coalition Government is determined to help businesses a€“ both international and local - play a leading part in Africaa€™s success. Let me start with some context. First of all, let no one accuse me of being naïve. It is too real a truth that Africa faces great challenges. Therea€™s the drought in the Horn where the rains have failed for the second year running, a crisis in Zimbabwe, a new state to be built in South Sudan, piracy off the coast of Somalia, and International Criminal Court investigations in Kenya. Growth a€“ where it has occurred - has at times ingrained inequalities a€“ particularly for girls and women. Extractive resource industries have often fuelled conflict. And the statistics on deep and unremitting poverty speak for themselves: * 250,000 women dying from causes relating to pregnancy each year * 330 million people without access to safe water * more than 565 million people without access even to a basic pit latrine These very real challenges illustrate just why this Government has a substantial development programme in Africa. British aid and debt forgiveness have, over the years, helped many African economies to stabilise and grow. Now, the Coalition Government is refocusing its aid programme to fuel the engine of development a€“ the private sector a€“ to help provide Africaa€™s poorest people with the means to create their own wealth. Wea€™re doing this because Africaa€™s long-term prosperity a€“ and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals - depend not only on aid or charity but also on sustained, economic growth. To quote Kofi Annan:  a€œIt is the absence of broad-based business activity, not its presence, that condemns much of humanity to sufferinga€ So, now, leta€™s consider some more context. Just a decade ago Africa was a continent of low a€“ or no a€“ growth. Today: * It has six of the ten fastest growing economies in the world * It is growing faster than the OECD, Latin America, Eastern Europe and the Middle East * By 2020, five of its cities will each have household spending to rival Mumbai a€“ one of the worlda€™s largest cities. Imagine that a€“ five Mumbais in Africaa€¦ In short, not only is Africa open for business a€“ it is a place of huge business opportunity. Its budget deficits are coming down. Its capital markets are beginning to take off. Its regulations and laws are starting now to encourage investment. Between 2006 and 2011, 39 African countries rose up the World Banka€™s a€œEase of Doing Businessa€ Index. Therea€™s also a greater understanding that independent judicial systems give investors the confidence to know they will be treated fairly and not according to political whim. And to those who say theya€™ve seen future dawns before in Africa, I say that it is the quality of its growth over the past decade that is profoundly different . Ita€™s no longer focused only on the commodities sector as in previous booms. Less traditional areas, such as the retail and financial sectors are attracting more interest. Chinese, Indian and Brazilian companies are increasing their investments. Twenty African companies can now lay claim to revenues of at least $3 billion, while small and medium-sized African businesses are seeking new openings. Members of Africaa€™s diaspora are spotting the market opportunities and returning home, joining African businesspeople like Tony Elumelu, the Chairman of Heirs Holdings whoa€™s here with us tonight. Or Josephine Okot who has developed her company, Victoria Seeds from a small enterprise into a business thata€™s now involved in research, production, processing and marketing. I met returning members of the Nigerian diaspora myself when I was in Lagos just a few days ago: men and women like Tayo Oviosu who runs the mobile payment service, Paga. Or Tokunboh Ishmael, who returned to Nigeria from the UK and now runs the impact investment firm, Alithea capital. And the changes in the business climate and opportunities are accompanied by other change too. Across the continent there are some inspiring stories of democratic and political progress. Twenty years ago, presidents could rely on being in post for life, never catching sight of a ballot box or polling station, and kleptocracy was the norm. Today, far more leaders are appointed through contested elections, not least thanks to the adoption of the Harare Principles by the Commonwealth Heads of Government in 1990 when John Major was Prime Minister. And in just the space of the past year alone wea€™ve seen: * credible elections in Africaa€™s most populous nation, Nigeria * the adoption of a new and improved constitution in Kenya and * the birth of a new nation, as voted for in a broadly peaceful referendum, just this weekend in South Sudan This is an important moment: Africa has reached a crunchpoint, because if it is to continue on this upward trajectory, its growth has to be intensified, broadened and deepened. And some of the people who can make that happen are sitting in this room this evening. ### Opportunity and choice So, if this is a moment of opportunity in many places across Africa, it is also a moment of huge opportunity for business. Opportunity and choice. The nature of that choice will define the future for generations to come. * I put it to you tonight that if youa€™re amongst the companies already investing in Africa and using local supply chains, helping develop the local workforce and thinking about the long-term - then you are in a very good place. You have the edge. This will be good for Africa and good for your annual returns. * If youa€™re a company working in Africa and not incorporating sustainability into your business model, then Ia€™m afraid you might just find yourself looking on enviously as your competitors streak ahead over the coming years. * And if youa€™re not there at all, or havena€™t gone beyond the propaganda that says all Africa is corrupt, unstable and unsafe, then a€“ well, youa€™re missing out altogether. As I say, a moment of choice. Scratch beneath the surface, go beyond CSR, and make a healthy profit for your shareholders while also creating lasting improvements for poor people. Or allow your companya€™s performance to be compromised so that it never reaches its full potential. As a Minister I know that my duty to taxpayers provides an imperative for the Government to help stimulate growth in Africa. Helping create a prosperous, stable and secure continent is not just a nice thing to do, though I do believe ita€™s the right thing to do. It is also firmly in Britaina€™s interests. That same logic applies to the options available to you. Invest in Africa, and do so in a way that generates deep-seated growth not just quick wins a€“ and youa€™ll find that your duty, to your shareholders, is fulfilled too. I spent many years in business. I understand bottom lines.  There is no single business model. Just as wea€™d be alarmed if people thought about Europe as just a single undifferentiated economy; so the model across the diverse continent of Africa will vary. And, of course, a blueprint for the private sector is a contradiction in terms.  I think of a recent visit to Sudan, where one of my most memorable experiences was attending a meeting with a group of African, European and American entrepreneurs to discuss the business opportunities in South Sudan. What united them was not the business model they were pursuing but their enthusiasm, their innovation and sheer can-doism. It was absolutely electrifying. Let me give you a few examples that illustrate the diversity of approach that businesses have adopted. Some have chosen to find their competitive edge in using local suppliers and creating a local market. SAB Miller, for example, is working with small-holder farmers in South Sudan to use cassava in the production of beer. By sourcing ingredients locally it will improve market opportunities for around 2,000 poor farmers. This is not altruism. This is a major industrial plant with a substantial turnover, using local supply chains because it makes business sense. The result for the company a€“ a healthy profit and a whole new market. The result for Africa a€“ employment, growth and consumer choice. Others have established partnerships with a range of local enterprises. In Tanzania, Unilever has worked with the Tanzanian Government to develop a wide coalition, including local farmers and businesses. As a result, theya€™ve been able to boost agricultural productivity among smallholder farmers and make sure that poor people benefit from increased investment. I want to see more of this sort of collaboration. I want to see companies going out of their way to find local producers, to create local supply chains, to engage local communities. And I want to see more partnerships with the indigenous business community within Africa. This approach is as good for business as it is for Africa. The more deeply enterprises can embed their practices locally and regionally, whether through jobs or partnerships or trade, the more sustainable a€“ and profitable a€“ those businesses will become. Others have made a profit out of finding sustainable ways to use scarce resources. In Ghana, Abellon CleanEnergy is using degraded land to plant biomass-rich crops, such as bamboo, palmarosa and sweet sorghum. They want to bring sustainable power to one million customers, reduce CO2 emissions by 200,000 tons a year, create 25,000 jobs by 2015 a€“ and leta€™s not forget a€“ because they want to make a profit. Yet others, have found a market in responding to basic needs. * Inexpensive water filters that promote the health of the local workforce * Solar-powered lamps - cheap enough to be within reach of Africaa€™s poorest people * Fertilizer sold in 1 kilogram bags at prices farmers can afford a€“ creating jobs and increasing yields, as I saw for myself in Nigeria Then therea€™s the hand-held technology that allows local traders to save money without having to spend time away from their shops. In Lagos, I met a businessman who was selling air conditioning units. Like other shopkeepers hea€™s just found it too difficult to take time out to go to the bank. Now, thanks to a system called E-susu a€“ which DFID part-funds - the bank comes to him instead. As a result, hea€™s been able to borrow £500 to develop his company and to send his two children to school. Ita€™s thousands of small businesses like these which can make such a difference to Nigeriaa€™s economy and help to provide a secure platform for its future prosperity. ### Government is helping business to invest I come now to my third message: that this Coalition Government is working to make it easier for companies to do business in Africa a€“ so creating more opportunities for poor people. We are absolutely determined to make this the defining message of the Coalition Government in this area. Take a step back for a moment and youa€™ll get a better perspective on the sheer scale of Africaa€™s potential. The opportunity is immense.  This Coalition Governmenta€™s commercial diplomacy agenda will help you identify those opportunities. Its 14 UK Trade and Investment offices and its missions across Africa are supporting British businesses. Wea€™re also supporting emerging African businesses because we know that small and medium enterprises are the key to job-creating growth. The new UK-South Africa Business Forum, agreed last month, will connect business leaders and deepen links between future generations of UK and South African entrepreneurs. At DFID, we are structuring support for business in three ways, in part through the new Private Sector Department. First, by addressing some of the blockages that are the biggest deterrent to investment. Secondly, by offering to share some of the risk and reforming and reinvigorating CDC. And thirdly, by setting the framework for more sustainable investment. (i) Blockages First then, the blockages. Here are just a few examples: Wea€™re investing in Africaa€™s most precious resource a€“ its people. By 2014, British aid to Africa will get another 5 million children into school, protect 30 million people from malaria, and provide 14 million people with access to clean drinking water. Sick people, mothers with sick children, cana€™t work and wona€™t be economically active.  Wea€™re working with governments to reduce start-up times, as in Ghana where instead of taking ten weeks to register a business it now takes under two. Wea€™re helping refine legal systems, providing support to the new commercial courts in Uganda and Nigeria. Indeed, wea€™re going further in Nigeria, helping to develop Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms so that investors can settle commercial disputes without wasting lengthy and costly periods of time in congested courts. We are tackling corruption head-on, improving public financial management, promoting transparency, and funding anti-corruption units within the Metropolitan Police and the City of London Police. We are addressing the vital issue of property rights, supporting the land reform that can unlock economic growth and empower women by enabling them to borrow. Women represent 70 per cent of agricultural labour across Africa but own only 1 per cent of the land. Wea€™re helping to provide secure tenure for the vast majority of adult Rwandans who own land a€“ a total of some 10 million plots. And wea€™re investing in Africaa€™s infrastructure: * helping to fund part of the North South corridor to link ports in South Africa and Tanzania with the copper-belt of the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia * investing in the one-stop border post between Zambia and Zimbabwe a€“ cutting crossing times from three days to three hours * working with the President of Nigeria whose top priority is boosting the power supply in a country with a population three times that of England yet which produces the same amount of power as the population of Bradford consumes - and * investing in transformative innovations like the SeaCom cable which has brought broadband to the whole of East Africa, boosting bandwidth supplies by 700 per cent in Kenya, 850 per cent in Mozambique and 1,000 per cent in Tanzania. Not bad. To sum up, we are helping Africa to do business. Piece by piece wea€™re dismantling the barriers.  Now, I want to dwell for slightly longer on trade. As a single market of one billion people, Africa could rival China or India. But Sub Saharan Africa is a jigsaw of countries, many of them landlocked, and the tariffs and regulations created by national boundaries get in the way. The geography isna€™t great but the solution is clear. African economies need to be more closely integrated with each other. Last month, governments from Cairo to the Cape opened negotiations to establish a Free Trade Area covering 26 countries and some 60 per cent of Africaa€™s total population and GDP. Just consider for a moment that one historic step: a new free trade area amongst 26 countries. This is a prize worth pursuing and through our work with a number of regional economic communities in East and Southern Africa we are determined to help Africa secure it. This push for free trade in Africa will, and must, be linked to efforts to integrate Africa more firmly into the global trading system. The UK is leading an aggressive push for the Least Developed Countries to access G20 markets, duty free and quota free, and for the locking-in of the benefits of the Doha trade talks.  So, as the Prime Minister has said, we will use all of our diplomatic and aid levers to support African Free Trade a€“ and our embassies will do far more to support trade in Africa. Why should this matter to you? Well, if, as some say world markets are reaching saturation levels, then Africa is the next, maybe even the last, big market. (ii) Sharing the Risk I know that investment decisions arena€™t to be taken lightly. But there are ways you can minimise your exposure, and where we can help.   A revitalised CDC with its new business plan and soon, a new CEO, is looking for businesses to co-invest with. Ita€™s committed to being the most pro-poor investor in development, considering the most speculative options, but at the same time managing those risks tightly. If infrastructure is your thing, the Private Infrastructure Development Group, the PIDG, that we support, can help to mitigate some of the associated risks and costs. It was involved with the SeaCom internet cable which I mentioned a few moments ago. Then there are our Challenge Funds that provide grants and loans to support innovative, high-impact schemes. In Kenya, for example, our collaboration with Vodafone on M-PESA, has helped 14 million Kenyans to have access to easy and affordable money transfer services. If you want to know more about M-PESA let me recommend Augusta€™s edition of a€œWireda€, no less. (iii) Responsible and Sustainable Investment The other key way in which the Government is helping the private sector is by setting the framework and incentives for deeper and more sustainable investment. So many of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are rich in oil, gas, coal or minerals. The potential for growth is immense. However, as the distinguished professor Paul Collier argues, if countries are to move from poverty to prosperity they need to make the right decision at every stage from the early days of discovery through to the wise investments of proceeds. We look at this issue of responsible natural resource management from many different angles: * The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative * The Voluntary Principles and * The Natural Resource Charter The Business Secretary and the Chancellor are pressing for a European agreement which matches new standards set in the US, to make it mandatory for extractive companies to disclose the payments they make to governments. The Chancellor also raised the issue of new international rules at the G20 earlier this year. Sustainable investment also means new ways of doing things that dona€™t degrade the environment for future generations. In Tanzania, for example, Unilever collects water that it stores in reservoirs and lakes during the rainy season so that it can use to it irrigate its tea estates in the dry season. And through its support for the Ethical Trading Initiative, DFID is bringing business together with trades unions and NGOs to tackle poor conditions in the workplace. Because how can you sustain and grow a business over the long-term if you dona€™t adopt policies that protect the vulnerable, including women and children, from exploitation? Wea€™re helping to blaze a trail for others to follow. CDC has its own code that sets out the environmental, social and governance standards it expects from the companies in which it invests. And wea€™ve passed the Bribery Act to make sure that businesses play fair, and do not win contracts through the back door. Our emphasis on raising standards and transparency should help to pull others along with us. We want businesses in other countries to meet these same standards too. We wona€™t allow British businesses to be at a disadvantage simply because they are playing by the rules. We want you to succeed. ### Conclusion So, Ladies and Gentlemen, I hope today Ia€™ve gone some way to showing you that Africaa€™s growth is your growth. That those of us who have a€œinternational developmenta€ in our job titles and those of you in the business community absolutely have similar interests when it comes to the development of Africa. In fact, let me invite you to consider this reality. When people talk about doing good in Africa, they tend to think of women and men in T shirts handing out food and medicine. Ia€™m the first to say that these are some of the heroes of the modern world. But so too, are the men and women of business who have the potential to help transform the continent. Africa still needs some help through aid, yes, but the power of your companies and the power of your ideas can also help Africa bank the moment of opportunity that it now faces. Well-directed action by people sitting in boardrooms can improve the lives of people in Africa just as much as aid workers and charity campaigners can. Over the next decade, you have the chance to contribute to a change in Africa that is as substantial as the one that has taken place over the last 10 years, while also fulfilling your responsibilities to your shareholders.  Now that, Ladies and Gentlemen, is a serious business proposition. Andrew Mitchell: Africa is open for business Andrew Mitchell's speech to the London School of Business looks at why trade, investment and business is on the up in Africa, 11 July 2011 2011-07-11 30 Good morning everyone and thank you very much for this opportunity. I particularly wanted to have the chance to come along and say a few words on this. I always enjoy coming to Chatham House. Chatham House always makes a big contribution to our thinking, we always listen very carefully to what you say. I think the most important thing I can start by saying is just to emphasise the way in which the Coalition Government have built on the past and changed the direction of development. What we try to do is to focus on three key points. They are first and foremost that it is conflict at the end of the day which condemns people to remain in deep poverty. And therefore tackling conflicts, stopping it starting and once ita€™s started stopping it, and once ita€™s over reconciling people, should be at the heart of any governmenta€™s development policy. Secondly, just as it is conflict that condemns people to remain poor, it is wealth creation, entrepreneurialism, economic growth which helps people to lift themselves out of poverty. Thirdly, if you are able to sustain support for a significant and growing development budget then you must be able to demonstrate to hard pressed tax payers and those youa€™re seeking to help, precisely why for every pound you spend you really are getting 100 pence of development value on the ground. Those are the three key things that inform Britaina€™s development policy but in all of this you cannot begin to understand development unless you place the position girls and women in the poorest parts of the world right at the heart and centre of everything you do. And, in a sense, that is the thought process wea€™ve brought to bear in our role at the World Bank on these World Development reports. Since the Coalition Government came to power wea€™ve had WDRa€™s on conflict, wea€™ve had a WDR on jobs which is coming up next year, and on the role of women which is the subject of your discussion today. Britain, which is one of the most significant funders of the World Bank, which exercises a lot of effort and thought process on what the World Bank is doing, the objectives which it is pursuing, the results it is securing. I hope you will feel that in those three WDRa€™s, most especially the one today, Britain has exerted its influence in getting the results from the World Bank that we need to see. ### Putting women at the heart of development Why do we say that women should be at the centre of everything we do? This is above all, and I dona€™t think you can understand development in any way at all, unless you are clear about the way in which women bear the brunt of international poverty. I think particularly about the young girl I met in South Sudan, just before that nation was born, who was more likely to die when she had a baby than she was to complete primary school education. For me she is a symbol of what we are trying to improve. Women bear the brunt because they so often do not manage to go to school, they often do not have access to contraception so they can choose whether and when they have children. They are often locked out of economic of opportunity which is so important, and perhaps worst of all, women are absolutely in the frontline when violence and conflict and dysfunctional societies affect them very directly. So what is the Government trying to do about this, let me just mention three or four things. First of all, we were one of the strongest supporters of the setting up UN Women. I saw Michelle Bachelet on her first day in office, indeed before she had an office and was operating out of a small room at the United Nations headquarters. We have offered support, we have helped them with their strategic plan, and we have been a very strong funder of UN Women. **Choices for women**  We are absolutely committed to ensuring the 215 million women who do not have access to contraception have that access. We are in the immediate future trying to ensure that 10 million couples who have not had access in the past have access to it. After all, these are very important issues of population and poverty. Large families and extreme poverty tend to go together and we want to extend to women choice, over whether and when they have children. That is something we take for granted in this country, but it is the very reverse in the poorest part of the world. And we think it is outrageous that over 70% of women have no proper access to contraception at all in sub-Saharan Africa. The British government over the next two years will seek to develop a wider strategy, which engages everyone else of good will who wants to pursue this strategy, in the wider world to try and make sure that all the women in the world have access to contraception. Secondly, we are seeking to tackle the scourge of maternal mortality. Our Prime Minister at his first G8 announced that this would be a particular target for the Government. It is terrible statistic that a thousand women die every day, mostly in the poor world, when they are giving birth. And what should be one of the happiest days of their life. For so many it is the most dangerous day of their life. That is why as part of Britaina€™s contribution to this, we said we would seek to save the lives of 50,000 women in childbirth and 250,000 children at the time of their birth. So a very significant effort on maternal mortality secondly, as the task of this Government. **Girls education** Thirdly, on education, we are absolutely determined to ensure we get as many girls as we possibly can into school. Educating girls, along with vaccinating children, are two of the most decisive interventions you can make in development. Educating girls has a chance over a generation to completely transform societies. There are nearly three million girls in school in Afghanistan today, and there were no girls in school ten years ago. We have committed to securing education for 11 million children over the next four years in the poorest parts of the world. Nine million to primary school, two million to secondary school at just two and a half per cent of the cost of educating a British child. And, I have recently launched the Girls Education Challenge Fund which will invite offers from all comers to try and get up to a million girls into school in some of the most difficult parts of the world. And indeed, we have conducted a pilot in Amhara in Ethiopia which has been extraordinarily successful at trying to hinder and stop child brides, child marriage, taking place. We will make sure the lessons from that pilot are rolled out to all of the British development programmes in the world. I think particularly of education, when I met a young girl in Uganda called Immaculate, whose father had died and she had to leave school. As a result of a British programme, she walked three days to seek to win financial support - a scholarship - to go back into school. She had won that support, shea€™d gone back into school. I met her at the age of 16, highly articulate, determined to become a teacher, to put back into society what she herself had been able to draw from it. It brought tears to my eyes when I met her and I could not have been more proud of the effort that Britain was making to help girls like her in one of the most challenged parts of the world. **Getting women into the economy** The fourth area is trying to get women and girls into the economy, to boost microfinance. Ita€™s a point Aung San Suu Kyi made to me last week when I saw her in Burma, saying that support for microfinance to enable women to take part in the ecomony was right at the top of her list of things that we could do to help. All around the world we are trying to boost the sinuse of microfinance so that it can have that beneficial effect. And of course, 70% of farmers in the poorest parts of the world are women, and enabling them to do more to feed their own families in their communities is essential as well. Again, if you look at the way in which women bear the brunt of food insecurity, where they seek to feed their families. I remember very well in Burma when the demonstrations took place some four years ago, that the people leading those demonstrations were not the usual suspects, students and others, they were middle aged women demonstrating because their children and their families were starving and they were bearing the brunt of that. So we are very conscious too of tackling food insecurity and starvation which is directly linked to this agenda. **Violence against women** Two final points on what we are seeking to do. We accept absolutely that women are in the front line when violence and conflict takes place. We want to do everything we can to make sure security and justice are built into our programmes that we conduct. As part of our commitments over the next four years wea€™re determined to secure for 10 million additional women access to justice and we are well on track to achieve that. And also, in promoting justice and security it is about ensuring that women have a voice and are able to project their aims and aspirations in a new political system. I think particularly of what is happening in Libya and meeting, when I visited Benghazi, a group of women who had organised a civil society organisation to assist their agenda, who made it very clear to me that they had been in the frontline during the Arab Spring of demonstrating for change and for an end of oppression and a growth in democracy. They expected to have a key and leading role in the new political systems that resulted from the changes. And I completely agree with them and Britain is supporting those women and others in a similar position through the Arab Partnership Funds where the Foreign Office and my Department are strongly engaged in precisely that agenda. **Conclusion** Perhaps I can just end on this note, in supporting this agenda we have also put our money where our mouth is by an absolutely splendid new collaboration with the Nike Foundation on the Girl Hub which is now housed in the basement of my Department. It is making a huge difference not only through their programmes around the poorest parts of the world, but also in reforming our thinking in driving forward this agenda. For those who havena€™t seen the workings of the Girl Hub and the Nike Foundation in this very important and innovative way, I strongly suggest you have a look at it and its huge and highly beneficial impact. So that was really why I wanted to come along. To wish you every success and a good session today, and in all the work you are doing. And to ensure that we have the closest possible contact together as we drive forward this vital agenda in the interest of international development, and in particular, in the interest in the centrality of women in that agenda. Thank you very much indeed. Andrew Mitchell: Putting women at the heart of development International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell's keynote speech at the UK launch of World Development Report on Gender Equality 2011-11-25 31 The drought has prompted the most serious food insecurity situation in the world today. Across the region, 18 million people require emergency assistance. The UK continues to be at the forefront of the worlda€™s response a€“ I can report that Britain was one of the first donors to step forward with significant funds. Following my announcement on 17 August of an additional £29 million for Somalia, our contribution across the Horn stands at £124.29 million, which we estimate will provide assistance to over 3 million people. We are the second largest bilateral donor behind the US. These funds have been reallocated from elsewhere in Britaina€™s Development budget. The British public, too, is showing incredible compassion and commitment, raising more than £57 million through the Disaster Emergency Committee East Africa appeal. Southern Somalia is the area of most concern. The first famine of the 21st Century was declared there in two regions in late July and further news from the UN earlier today means that 750,000 people face imminent starvation in the next 4 months. In places, malnutrition rates are more than three times the emergency threshold, and tens of thousands are thought to have already died. Many of those who are still strong enough have fled a€“ to Mogadishu, where I witnessed at first hand the depth of the crisis a few weeks ago a€“ and to camps in Ethiopia and Kenya. When I visited Dadaab in north-eastern Kenya in July, I saw how agencies have struggled to keep up with the flow of new arrivals. The camps there represent the biggest concentration of refugees anywhere in the world. While Somalia remains our chief concern, the situation in Ethiopia and Kenya is also deeply worrying. More people are affected by the crisis in Ethiopia than any other country in the region. According to government figures, 4.56 million people are in need of humanitarian assistance. Ethiopia hosts 240,000 refugees a€“ over 75,000 from Somalia arriving this year. In Kenya, the worst affected areas are in the northern and eastern arid and semi arid lands a€“ over 500,000 children and pregnant and breastfeeding women are suffering from acute malnutrition. Across the region, the crisis is made even worse by conflict and insecurity. Over the weekend, 20,000 Sudanese refugees crossed into Ethiopia fleeing violence in eastern Sudan. And in the worst affected parts of Somalia, insecurity means that many of those in most need cannot be reached. Officials in my department are working closely with a small number of well-established and trusted agencies that can deliver effectively on the ground, ensuring aid reaches those it is intended for. Let me be clear that across the Horn the situation will worsen before it improves, with the situation forecast to be at its most dire in October. Relief efforts are now reaching more people every week, but although donor support and the volume of assistance in the pipeline have increased significantly, there remain serious gaps. Diseases such as cholera, measles and malaria represent a growing threat to the weakened population. It is vital that increased support flows into the health and water and sanitation sectors. Although the situation remains grave, UK aid is working. Our support is already showing results: * In Somalia the UK will vaccinate at least 1.3 million children against measles and 670,000 against polio. Some 624,000 children will receive vitamin A inputs and at least 528,000 children will receive de-worming medication * In Ethiopia in June and July, the UK helped to provide food to 2.4 million people with 1.68 million people benefitting from UK funded food aid programmes in May * UK support has also provided over 45,000 people with food distributions or vouchers for food in Somalia. By the end of this week, an additional 35,000 will have been provided with cash to buy food * A further 18,000 of the most severely malnourished Somali children will have been treated with specially formulated food * A consignment of over 10,000 metric tonnes of specially formulated flour, rice, pulses, and oil for the prevention and treatment of moderately malnourished children is now en route to Somalia * Almost 160,000 mosquito nets have been purchased to prevent weakened children and their families succumbing to malaria Unfortunately, other countries have been slower to contribute. That is why, throughout the summer, we have relentlessly pushed donor governments across the world to dig deeper. This has yielded results and relief operations are now on a stronger financial footing. But acute humanitarian needs will persist into 2012 and Britain will continue to play a leading role in keeping the worlda€™s attention focussed, and pushing for sustained international support. Ultimately, we need to stop these crises happening. We cannot avoid droughts, but we can avoid famines. We are already investing in building the resilience of communities to shocks. There is clear evidence that these investments work, as we can see from the impact of the crisis in Somalia, compared to Ethiopia, where people were better able to deal with the shock. We must build on this success. In the long run, investing more effectively in reducing poverty and reinforcing resilience is not only better value for money than emergency relief, but will help those affected to break out of the cycle of disaster. In Somalia and the region, however, we need political progress to ensure aid can be used most effectively. Andrew Mitchell: Further update on aid to the Horn of Africa Andrew Mitchell's second written statement to the House of Commons on British intervention in the Horn of Africa food crisis 2011-09-05 32 I would like to inform the House of the outcomes from the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness, which I attended in Busan, Republic of Korea on 29 November a€“ 1 December 2011.   I am pleased to report that Britaina€™s three priority areas for Busan a€“ results, transparency and fragile states a€“ formed the core of the Busan Outcome Document, and that our goal of getting an agreement that the emerging economies could support was also met. A major achievement of the Forum was the establishment of a new Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation, which for the first time includes emerging economies like China and Brazil as participants in a development partnership based on recognised common goals and shared principles. This followed significant work by the UK to ensure China joined the partnership, including discussions I held with Chinese Minister of Commerce Chen Deming in Beijing immediately ahead of Busan. The Global Partnership also includes civil society, parliaments and the private sector, recognising the important role played by each in achieving development results. The Busan Outcome Document: 'Busan Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation' places the UKa€™s focus on results, transparency and fragility at the heart of the international development agenda. It includes agreement to a new shared principle to 'Focus on Results', aimed at ensuring our development efforts have a lasting impact on eradicating poverty, and reflecting UK-led work over the past 18 months to build international support for this agenda.  There was also agreement to a new shared principle on transparency, and further success in this important area with the US, Canada and CDC all signing up to the UK-led International Aid Transparency Initiative. This will significantly boost further the information available to citizens about aid, helping enable them to hold their governments to account. Another achievement in Busan was the launch of the 'New Deal' for ways of working in fragile and conflict-affected countries, which are often furthest from reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The UK has played a key role in developing this a€˜New Deala€™, which includes five new Peacebuilding and Statebuilding Goals aimed at making progress in areas where it is most urgently needed, including justice, security and jobs. I was pleased to announce in Busan that the UK will be partnering South Sudan and Afghanistan to implement the New Deal. I am determined to ensure that the agreements reached there are followed-up and that the new Global Partnership achieves the goals set out.  As part of this we will be working with others to maintain the clear focus on results needed to improve the lives of millions of poor people around the world, and to ensure value for money for the UK taxpayer. Andrew Mitchell: The outcome of the High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness Written statement to Parliament by the International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell on the recent summit in Busan, Korea 2011-12-07 33 > "The Coalition Government has today reaffirmed its commitment to the world's poorest people by confirming the UK will spend 0.7% of Gross National Income (GNI) on international development from 2013. We will be the first country in the G20 to keep this promise. > > "Our spending plans meant the UK was on course to exceed this target, so our budget has been adjusted accordingly." The Chancellor's Autumn Statement, released today, states: The Government will adjust the allocation for Official Development Assistance spending, in line with the OBR's revised growth forecast, so the the UK spends 0.56% of Gross National Income on Official Development Assistance in 2012, and 0.7% in 2013 and thereafter. Andrew Mitchell: The UK's commitment to 0.7% spending on aid Speaking after the Chancellor's Autumn Statement, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said: 2011-11-29 34 > "The evidence is clear: investing in girls and women is critical to fighting poverty. It is absolutely shocking that the biggest barrier to a healthy and successful life for millions of the world's poorest people is their gender. > > "'The Day of the Girl will help raise awareness of this inequality, reminding the world that giving girls and women better access to education, healthcare and jobs, and a voice in decision making, helps makes societies healthier, more prosperous and peaceful." The new day of action, adopted by the United Nations in a vote today, aims to promote girlsa€™ rights, highlight gender inequalities between girls and boys and address the various forms of discrimination suffered by girls around the globe. Andrew Mitchell: The UN's International Day of the Girl Welcoming the UN's designation of 11 October as the International Day of the Girl, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said: 2011-12-19 35 **Watch the video on YouTube or read the transcript of the speech below**   ## Full transcript This afternoon, I want to focus on three themes. Firstly, why what is happening in North Africa and the Middle East today matters to us here in Britain, why this is a singular moment in history and why our response a€“ and that of the international community a€“ is so important. Secondly, and more specifically, why the Coalition Government is right to be supporting the people of Libya in their quest for democracy. And thirdly, I want to suggest some of the challenges that face the wider Arab world as it breaks free from the oppression that has been a way of life for so many of its people - and to outline some of the ways in which Britain can support this crucial transition. Why does Arab Spring matter for Britain and the wider world? So, first, the context. Why are we taking an interest? What does the Arab Spring mean for the wider world? I dona€™t need to tell this particular audience that the events we have witnessed this year, in Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and elsewhere, have been truly momentous. Democracy is taking hold across the region. People who, for generations have been starved of freedom and a fair way of life are suddenly finding a voice. They are rewriting their future. And it is a future that is no longer predicated on the stark choice of repression or extremism. We can and should celebrate this incredible moment. We ourselves may have enjoyed the privilege of democracy for many centuries but that privilege was not earned without a struggle.  We know that governance without the mandate of the people is no governance at all. It has taken us many years to get to where we are, to put in place the freedoms, the rights and responsibilities that are the crucial foundations of a fair society.  But we have got there. Not for nothing did John Bright describe ours as the mother of all Parliaments. But the fact that we have history on our side does not make us an expert in governance in Egypt or Libya or in any other country beyond our shores. No, it is not for us or any other government to tell those countries the particular route they should take to secure the hopes and aspirations of their people.  Nor could we if we wanted to Just as there is no one recipe for economic growth neither is there any one single recipe for political emancipation. People across the Arab region may have found a voice but it is up to them how they make themselves heard. They and they alone must find a way to participate in the governance of their countries and to develop the systems and institutions which will create functioning and democratic states. But that does not mean that we cannot help them in this process.  Indeed, such a course of action is both morally right and in our national interest. Ita€™s morally right because as a country whose values are firmly rooted in the basic principles of freedom, fairness and equality we have a duty to help those who share those beliefs but who are struggling to give them life.  And ita€™s in our national interest too. Ita€™s in our national interest, first, because our own economy depends in part on our trade with these countries.  British exports totalled nearly £25 billion last year, and Gulf countries are amongst our biggest investors. Secondly, ita€™s in our interests because instability in the Middle East and the Gulf affects gas and oil prices here, hurting British business and British people.  And finally, ita€™s in our interests because this region matters in terms of security. As the Deputy Prime Minister has said, there is a greater risk of an Al Qaeda attack being planned and carried out from Yemen right now than there is from Afghanistan. A sobering thought on this, the day after the tenth anniversary of 9/11. Britain is well-placed to help. Not just by providing conventional aid, although in the immediate aftermath of revolution there is a genuine need for humanitarian support, but also by applying other levers. By engaging politically, by advocating freer trade, by providing the technical assistance that is so vital . By working closely and productively across Whitehall, as the Foreign Secretary, Defence Secretary and I already do. Be under no illusion, this is a seminal moment in history and we must help the Arab world to seize it.  Future generations will not look back and say Britain was found wanting.   ## Libya Let me now turn to Libya, a country whose people, along with those in the Horn of Africa, have been at the forefront of our thoughts in recent months. The people of Libya have shown immense strength, determination and dignity in reclaiming their country and their destiny for themselves and their children. For those of us who take for granted the trappings of freedom: the ballot box or the courts or a functioning police service, the sight of young men and women gathering in their thousands on the streets of Tripoli following the downfall of Qadafi was humbling. The credit for that victory belongs to them and them alone. And just as it was right that they succeeded in achieving that victory, it was right that Britain and the international community did what we could to help. It was right because we could not stand by and watch as Qadafi prepared to slaughter his own people. Right because we share the values the Libyan people are seeking. And yes, right because we could not afford to let a failed state on Europea€™s southern border threaten our own security. But there is still more to do. Not because Libya is a poor country that needs our financial help. It isna€™t and it doesna€™t. Ita€™s rich in human and natural resources: with a population of 6 and a half million people and proven oil reserves that are the ninth largest in the world.  So, Libya is more than capable of building its own future. And it is already beginning to do so. The new authorities have produced a far-reaching roadmap and constitutional declaration that sets out a clear vision for a new democracy. It is planning for a new constitution and elections within 20 months.  But this is just the beginning of a very long road. The role of the international community is to support Libya as it makes that journey a€“ while never forgetting that support in the absence of reform is ultimately in no-onea€™s interests at all. Wea€™ve played a leading role in the humanitarian effort, focussing, in particular, on the four key areas of: health, water and food.  Through our recent support to the International Committee of the Red Cross, we are helping to: * provide additional food supplies for nearly 700,000 people and; * through the International Committee of the Red Cross we are providing surgical teams to treat up to 5,000 war-wounded patients Of course, challenges remain and undoubtedly, new ones will arise. Britain will continue to play its part under the leadership of the NTC working alongside the UN Humanitarian Co-ordinator Lady Amos and other humanitarian agencies. We are also working in partnership with the NTC and the UN as Libyaa€™s people adapt to political and economic change and lay the foundations of a functioning democracy. The NTC has clear plans which set out the steps needed to bring about a stable, secure Libya.  We stand ready to respond to requests for assistance to support a Libyan-led transition and are already doing so in the area of policing. We will continue to work with the UN and others to ensure a timely, co-ordinated international response. Ultimately, however, Libyaa€™s future lies in Libyaa€™s hands. Its people have succeeded in taking power away from Qadafi, now the NTC must find a way of putting that power into the hands of the people so that it can be exercised for the good of all. ### Wider region I want now to turn to the wider region. What happened in Egypt and Tunisia and of course, Libya, earlier this year, brings hope across the whole of North Africa and the Middle East. And in Jordan and Morocco whose people have spoken with a quieter voice but with equal clarity, there have been subtle but no less important moves toward reform. Reform, however, doesna€™t happen overnight. It takes time. And that in itself isna€™t easy. When the momentum of revolution fades, those who seek lasting change have to deal in the currency of processes, procedures and systems.  The challenges are many and varied. Its these challenges that I now want to explore. ### Challenges First, economic stability. Across North Africa and the Middle East there is a tremendous opportunity to move beyond the old state-controlled economic systems of the region which so patently failed to deliver for ordinary people.  But at the same time we have to avoid replicating the chaos that befell countries like Russia in the aftermath of the Cold War. The transition has to be managed and managed carefully. Part of the solution lies in fixing the global economy. In getting the right conditions for macro economic stability, for secure public finances and strong growth policies. This is perhaps the biggest and most compelling challenge of all. Secondly, governments are not born with the trust of their people. They have to earn it. Democracy and accountability are essential. When people have a voice they have a stake in their future. They may not always like whata€™s being done but they know they can do something about it at the ballot box. Transparency is crucial as well. People need to be able to see where and how their money is being spent.  Although many of the countries in the region are rich in resources, the revenue has not always been fairly distributed. Thata€™s why, for example, wea€™ve been encouraging the NTC in Libya to sign up to the Extractives Industries Transparency Initiative in respect of its oil revenues. Thirdly, after years of being ruled by fear rather than law corruption and cronyism in the private sector have become rife. This has to be addressed. Business has an immense potential to play a part in the future of this region but unless investors feel confident to engage and unless the benefits of economic growth are shared equitably, lasting reform will remain a noble aspiration. Finally, there is a crying need for more jobs a€“ especially for young people a€“ across the Southern Mediterranean countries.  Two thirds of the region are under 24 years old. They are better educated than their parents, healthier and more connected to the global economy. They have legitimate expectations and those expectations are not being met. Frustration and futility are powerful catalysts. Why else was it the voice of disaffected young people that was the first to be heard on the streets of Egypt, Tunisia and Libya? They have grown up in a world where they have seen others living lives of opportunity and choice and they want that for themselves.  Long-term reform must then, factor in the needs of the young, and in particular, their need for employment. ### Britaina€™s response So, if these are the challenges, what are we, here in Britain doing to help? Wea€™re focussing our efforts on participation: political participation and economic participation. And wea€™re doing this in three different ways. First, through the Deauville Partnership. This partnership as many of you will know, was initially set up by the G8 earlier this year and now includes countries such as Turkey, Kuwait and the UAE. And ita€™s working. This weekend the international multilateral banks, including those from the region, made the important commitment to double the amount they are offering to £25 billion to support the plans for building inclusive growth and democracy in the region.  The Chancellor and I have strong expectations that the European Bank of Reconstruction and Development will play an important role in this process,  along the lines of that which it played in supporting the former Soviet Union countries.  Secondly, at EU level wea€™re pushing for reform of the European Neighbourhood Policy. Britain has already led the call for better market access for reforming countries. Now, we want to see a revised Neighbourhood Policy that will lead to deeper economic integration across the region. The third arm of our response is being spearheaded by a new and expanded UK Arab Partnership. We want this partnership to promote economic growth and strengthen political participation across the region.  To help it achieve these goals wea€™ve set up a dedicated Partnership Fund.  It is already producing encouraging results in terms of broadening political participation. I give you just three examples: * In Tunisia, a new BBC World Service Trust is helping the state broadcaster to become independent * In Egypt, an NGO is preparing women to stand in elections and use social media to debate issues * And in Cairo none other than Chatham House is running pre-election debates on subjects of political and economic significance On the economic front, the new fund will help countries to develop and diversify their economies. The sort of areas we envisage supporting are: First, boosting entrepreneurship, for example, by working with the African Development Bank in Tunisia to provide young entrepreneurs with seed funding, mentoring and a platform for sharing ideas. Secondly, tackling unemployment, by working with the Islamic Development Bank to give young people across the region the skills they need for the workplace. Thirdly, working with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Finance Corporation in Egypt to help provide the business services a€“ marketing, financial management and export skills a€“ that are so badly needed. Or by working with the same partners in Egypt and Tunisia to help banks and lenders to provide the financial services that are so vital for micros and SMEs. And finally, wea€™re providing crucial international leadership by making sure that the IMF, the World Bank and the UN work in partnership with countries across the region to deliver the reform that will stand the test of time.  I particularly welcome the International Monetary Funda€™s recognition of Libyaa€™s National Transitional Council as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people.   ## Conclusion and prospects for the future Ladies and Gentlemen, the changes that have taken place across North Africa and the Middle East are historic. Historic not just for the people of those countries but for us here in Britain. Our own peace and prosperity are linked to the stability of those countries that are in transition. These people have shown that if you believe in something strongly enough you can achieve change even in the most hostile of environments. This is something from which we can all take heart. Yes, the situation is fluid and fast-moving and it would be foolish to suggest we can be certain what will happen in individual countries. Syria looks increasingly fragile. We will have to deal with the reality of engaging with new political movements, including Islamic-based parties and we must be ready to tailor our response to specific circumstances. But above all, this is a moment for optimism and hope. Men and women in our time are writing a new chapter in their history. We here in Britain applaud them. We are proud to be part of their story. Andrew Mitchell: Why the Arab Spring matters for Britain and beyond Andrew Mitchell's speech at Chatham House looked at why the UK is supporting the rise of democracy in the region, 12 September 2011. 2011-09-13 36 Mr Speaker, with permission I should like to make a statement about the Governmenta€™s Bilateral and Multilateral Aid Reviews, which are published today. The Coalition Governmenta€™s decision to increase the UKa€™s aid budget to 0.7% of national income from 2013 reflects the values we hold as a nation.  It is also firmly in Britaina€™s national interest. But this decision imposes on us a double duty to spend this money well. On my first day in office I took immediate steps to make our aid as focussed and effective as possible.   I commissioned reviews of DFIDa€™s bilateral programmes in developing countries, and of the UKa€™s aid funding to international organisations.   These Reviews have been thorough, rigorous, evidence-based, and scrutinised by independent development experts.  They will fundamentally change the way aid is allocated. Recent events in North Africa and the wider Middle East have demonstrated why it is critical that the UK increases its focus on helping countries to build open and responsive political systems, tackle the root causes of fragility and empower citizens to hold their governments to account. It is the best investment we can make to avoid violence and protect the poorest and most vulnerable in society.   ### Bilateral Aid Review The Bilateral Aid Review considered where and how we should spend UK aid. Each DFID country team was asked to develop a a€˜results offera€™ setting out what they could achieve for poor people over the next 4 years. Each offer was underpinned by evidence, analysis of value for money and a focus on girls and women.  The results offers were scrutinised by over 100 internal technical reviewers and a panel of independent experts. Ministers then considered the whole picture deciding which results should be prioritised in each country.  Consultation with civil society and other Government Departments was undertaken throughout.  As a result of the Bilateral Aid Review: We will dramatically increase our focus on tackling ill health and killer diseases in poor countries, with a particular effort on immunisation, malaria, maternal and newborn health, extending choice to women and girls over when and whether they have children; and polio eradication. We will do more to tackle malnutrition which stunts childrena€™s development and destroys their life chances; and do more to get children a€“ particularly girls a€“ into school. We will put wealth-creation at the heart of our efforts, with far more emphasis on giving poor people property rights and encouraging investment and trade in the poorest countries. We will deal with the root causes of conflict and help to build more stable societies, as people who live amidst violence have no chance of lifting themselves out of poverty. And we will help the poorest who will be hit first and hardest by the effects of climate change - floods, drought and extreme weather. As a result of the Review we have decided to focus UK aid more tightly on the countries where the UK is well placed to have a significant long-term impact on poverty. By 2016 DFID will have closed significant bilateral programmes in 16 countries. This will be a phased process honouring our existing commitments and exiting responsibly. The countries are: China, Russia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Moldova, Bosnia, Cameroon, Lesotho, Niger, Kosovo, Angola, Burundi, the Gambia, Indonesia, Iraq and Serbia. This will allow us to focus our bilateral resources in the following 27 countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burma, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nepal, Nigeria, Occupied Palestinian Territories, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Together, these countries account for three quarters of global maternal mortality, nearly three quarters of global malaria deaths and almost two thirds of children out of school. Many of them are affected by fragility and conflict so we will meet the commitment made through the Strategic Defence and Security Review to spend 30% of UK aid to support fragile and conflict-affected states and to help some of the poorest countries in the world address the root causes of their problems. We will also have three regional programmes in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, and an ongoing aid relationship with 3 aid dependent Overseas Territories namely St Helena, the Pitcairn Islands and Montserrat.  ### Multilateral Aid Review The Multilateral Aid Review took a hard look at the value for money offered by 43 international funds and organisations through which the UK spends aid. The Review considered how effective each organisation was at tackling poverty. It provided a detailed evidence base upon which Ministers can take decisions about where to increase funding, where to press for reforms and improvements, and in some cases where to withdraw taxpayer funding altogether.  The 43 multilateral agencies have fallen into four broad categories. First, I am delighted to tell the House that nine organisations have been assessed as providing very good value for the British taxpayer. These include UNICEF, The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation - GAVI, the Private Infrastructure Development Group, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. We will increase funding to these organisations, because they have a proven track record of delivering excellent results for poor people. But of course there is always room for improvement and we will still require strong commitments to continued reform and even better performance. Funding for the next group of agencies a€“ those rated as good or adequate value for money, such as the United Nations Development Programme and the World Health Organisation - will be accompanied by specific pressure from the UK for a series of reforms and improvements we expect to see in the coming years.     We are placing four organisations in a€œspecial measuresa€ and demanding they improve their performance as a matter of urgency. These organisations are UNESCO, the Food and Agriculture Organisation, the development programmes of the Commonwealth Secretariat and the International Organisation for Migration. These organisations offer poor value for money for UK aid but have a potentially critical niche development or humanitarian role which is not well covered elsewhere in the international system or contribute to broader UK Government objectives. We expect to see serious reforms and improvements in performance. We will take stock within two years and DFID's core funding may be ceased if improvements are not made.    The Review found that four agencies performed poorly or failed to demonstrate relevance to Britaina€™s development objectives.  The Review therefore concluded that it is no longer acceptable for taxpayersa€™ money from my Department to continue to fund them centrally.  So I can tell the House today that the British Government will withdraw its membership of the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation, and that DFID will stop voluntary core funding to UN HABITAT, the International Labour Organisation and the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction. This will allow over £50m of aid money, to be redirected immediately to better-performing agencies. We are working closely with other countries to build a coalition for ambitious reform and improvement of all the multilateral agencies. ### Conclusion As a result of these Reviews, over the next 4 years, UK aid will: * secure schooling for 11 million children a€“ more than we educate throughout the UK but at 2.5% of the cost * vaccinate more children against preventable diseases than there are people in the whole of England * provide access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation to more people than there are in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland combined * save the lives of 50,000 women in pregnancy and childbirth * stop 250,000 newborn babies dying needlessly * support 13 countries to hold freer and fairer elections * help 10 million women get access to modern family planning I believe that these results a€“ which will transform the lives of millions of people across the world a€“ will make everyone in this House and this country proud.  They reflect our values as a nation: generosity, compassion and humanity.   But these results are not only delivered from the British people; they are also for the British people.  They contribute to building a safer, more stable and prosperous world which, in turn, helps keep our country safe from instability, infectious disease and organised crime.  Aid can perform miracles but it must be well spent and properly targeted. The UKa€™s development programme has now been reshaped and refocused so that it can meet that challenge. I commend this statement to the House. Statement by the Secretary of State for International Development: the Bilateral and Multilateral Aid Reviews Oral statement to the House of Commons None 2011-03-01 37 Ladies and gentlemen a€“ it is a pleasure to contribute to today's Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Change. From Dr Arvind Khare's summary, it sounds as if it was a lively debate. Before I add a few words of my own, I wish to reiterate the warm welcome extended this morning by my colleague, Greg Barker, Minister of State in the UK's Department of Energy and Climate Change. I know that many of you have travelled very great distances to be here, and I am grateful for all of the effort that has gone into making the Dialogue a success. Today's Dialogue comes at a key time with the launch last week by Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon of the International Year of "Forests for People". This year, of all years, will give us the opportunity to demonstrate how forests matter a€“ domestically and internationally. The discussions today and the new report launched by the Rights and Resources Initiative, are yet further evidence of the importance of forests a€“ not just to the people who live in and around them a€“ but to all of us. Arvind's summary points to (a) the need to focus on what is really happening on the ground and base our decision on that reality; (b) that forest governance is key, and (c) we need to fill some of these gaps before the next climate meeting in Durban. The Dialogue sets us two challenges as we move into 2011. First, can we find new ways to reconcile the many competing demands on forests a€“ for wood, for food, for fuel, as well as for biodiversity and reduced emissions from deforestation.   And second, as forests and forest land increase in value, how to ensure that poor, forest-dependent indigenous and local communities are not at risk of losing out? Communities successfully manage forests in many places. In Guatemala, as the Director General Juan Manuel Torres Rojo of Mexico is aware, the Peten is the largest area of sustainably certified tropical forests managed by communities in the world. They - the Peten-dwellers - have clear rights over valuable forest resources a€“ wood, ornamental leaves, fruits, gums a€“ and they trade these with international business partners. Because the forest has a daily value, the communities also protect the forest's biodiversity from fire, illegal logging and deforestation. And they protect the carbon it stores, with management practices that are preserving the forest's potential to absorb more carbon from the atmosphere. The Peten-dwellers form part of a huge "corridor" of forest communities stretching from Central America down to the Amazon, who have organised together to take advantage of the benefits forests can provide, including from the scheme for Reduced Emissions from Degradation and Deforestation a€“ REDD+ But protecting forests where rights over resources are insecure or unclear is a risky business.  I come from a private sector background my self, and was in the manufacturing industry before becoming a politician. I was born in Tanzania and raised in Kenya so I know that clear property rights provide certainty for enterprises and poor communities in developing countries. This is important when it comes to accessing finance or making investments that generate returns over the long run a€“ and forests will generate significant returns if they are well managed and under secure tenure. The Dialogue today has covered important issues about risks. I would like to focus our attention jointly on tackling the underlying causes of risk.  That way we can sustain progress.  There are three key areas on which we need jointly to focus our attention. One is improving the way forests are governed, to bring greater opportunities for those that depend on forest resources for a living. For example, in Nepal 40% of households are members of well organised forest user groups and, as a result, have increased their incomes by over 50% over the past 5 years. The UK has supported this effort. Sustained commitment over two decades by the Government of Nepal and the user groups has also been critical to success. The second area of focus must be legal systems: it is only when forest laws are coherent, clear and publicly disclosed that they can be understood by all. But they will only be complied with, if all stakeholders understand what laws mean for them.  If compliance with forest laws is independently monitored, with mechanisms for resolving disputes, this creates conditions that are good not just for forest communities, but also for business. In Indonesia the UK is supporting independent forest monitoring or "legality assurance" by civil society as well as government. If the laws that regulate the use and clearance of forests are not clear, then it is difficult to establish projects or enterprises to sell forest carbon, timber or tourism. This constrains livelihood opportunities. It leads to illegal logging and forest clearance. It means governments, local as well as national, lose out on revenues and taxes from legal forest enterprises. A recent report by Chatham House shows that as illegal logging reduced $6.5 billion tax revenue was saved in countries with cash-strapped exchequers where forest governance has improved. Reduced illegal logging has also reduced greenhouse carbon emissions. The UK has been in the vanguard of efforts to build forest governance. We are working in Ghana, Liberia, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo and Indonesia to help them strengthen their forest governance. We are looking to expand our support further. This is because improving forest governance is a cost effective way of cutting greenhouse gases. At a cost of £2 or less per tonne of carbon, it is one of the cheapest methods. Forest governance will be the keystone to delivering all kinds of benefits from forests a€“ including, as my colleague Greg Barker from DECC indicated this morning, successful reductions in emissions from deforestation and degradation. This brings me to the third area where we all need urgently to be focusing attention a€“ trade.  In 2011 progress on forest issues will not just be about development policy or about forest nations it will also, crucially, be about trade. Consumers will play a role. Buyers' markets are changing and demanding standards. They wish to be confident that the products they buy are legal; that they are not produced using dodgy and damaging practices; that they do not undermine the rights and livelihoods of indigenous and local communities; and that they are sustainable and do not drive deforestation. To this end, the UK is working, not just with the timber trade, but also international companies investing in paper, palm oil, soy, beef and leather, to review the business practices that drive deforestation. The new European Illegal Timber Regulation that recently came into force in December makes first sale in the EU of timber that has been illegally harvested elsewhere, an offence. The UK is supporting Indonesia to develop a Timber Legality Assurance System a€“TLAS a€“ that will reduce the risks that any timber it exports is illegal. The palm oil sector is looking at what lessons it can apply from this approach. By tackling underlying causes we "safeguard" the livelihoods of local communities who depend on forests for their food, fodder, fuel, wood and medicines. We also ensure that investments, domestic as much as foreign, whether in agriculture or forest conservation or REDD+, are based on the principles and standards of sound business. Not  risky business. We are far from the forests here. Dialogue brings those of us with a stake in forests together, to freely exchange views and information, and build understanding across different parties.  Today's event is part of an ongoing Dialogue that will allow us to focus on all the areas which require urgent attention, if we are to protect the worlda€™s forests and improve the livelihoods of communities that rely on forests. I'll end here, and thank you all again for your contributions. I'm looking forward to a successful 2011 a€“ the International Year of Forests for People a€“ something this Dialogue has been all about. Thank you. Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate Speech by International Development Minister Stephen O'Brien at the 9th Rights and Resources Initiative Dialogue on Forests, Governance and Climate change on 8 February 2011 None 2011-02-09 38 Good afternoon. It's a great pleasure to speak here today at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, an organisation that has long been at the forefront of informed global debate. And a particular pleasure to come to Chatham House, formerly home to two previous Prime Ministers, one none other than William Pitt the Elder. Pitt was no stranger to change a€“ so it's appropriate that it's here in his old home that I explain why I believe this is a time of great change for international development a€“ of change and of potential. A seminal moment when our generations can reach out across the world. When the UK can help to broker an age of cooperation where countries unite in new alliances to tackle shared challenges. A moment when we can begin to build a different style of international development. One that is based not on rigid structures but on dynamic partnerships which reflect the networked world in which we now live. I believe the UK has a major role to play in ushering in this new era. Indeed, given our very public commitment to poverty alleviation, I suggest that people across the world rightly look to us to be at the forefront of that change. I don't make this assertion from any misplaced belief that the UK has some unique right to lead. No, my argument is that, having demonstrated our development credentials, having built and supported many of the alliances that were so important in the past, we now have a responsibility to help and shape the relationships that will be important in the future. So today, I want to suggest how we might go about advancing that goal. I will: * Examine how the world has changed over the last twenty years. How we've moved from the old bipolar axis to a place where emerging economies are becoming ever more influential * Suggest how we might work with these new powers in tackling poverty amongst their own people * Explore how together we can create the partnerships that will allow us to help reduce poverty in the poorest countries faster than ever before * I'll argue that we can use those same relationships to tackle some of the biggest issues affecting todaya€™s world  * I'll propose some basic principles that will define our new partnerships and;  * Finally, I'll set out how we will take this vision from theory to reality. **Changing World** I am not the first - and I won't be the last - to say that in the space of a few short decades the world has become a different place. A new order of power has asserted itself or a€“ for the historians amongst you - re-asserted itself. Broadsheet headlines proclaim the rise of the BRICS, the Asian Dragons, the Tiger economies, the Gulf Giants. Indeed, it has been said that the growth of these economies is as significant for Africa as the fall of the Berlin Wall was for Europe twenty years ago. The statistics bear out the rhetoric. China is now the second largest economy in the world, with some predicting that it will overtake the US by 2027. As the economic stock of these countries grows, so too does their political power and their ability to influence world affairs. As the Foreign Secretary has said, politics today are shaped not by the old players and their cosy clubs but by the many informal and non-traditional groupings that have emerged. Anyone who thinks otherwise need only look to the G20 - or the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change - or the Doha trade round. Not only have the rules of the game changed, but so too have the players. And of course, these changes are reflected in the way we do business in government. You can't shake just one bit of the kaleidoscope and expect everything else to stay the same. The Trade White Paper, published last week, explicitly refers to the need to engage emerging economies. So too does the National Security Strategy. For international development these changes mean a picture that has become more complex and more crowded. Historically, the global debate on poverty was dominated by the rich, OECD donors. Today, it's an issue that's often championed by emerging powers. Take China. According to the Financial Times, China's Development Bank and its Export-Import Bank committed more loans to developing countries over the last two years than the World Bank. Or Saudi Arabia a€“ the second largest bilateral donor to Pakistan in the aftermath of last year's floods. There's a similar trend at the global level where emerging powers are now indispensable players on the big issues, including trade, conflict, climate change and financial stability. The development community has also changed. What was once a small elite, where like talked to like, has become a truly global conversation, involving: faith groups, companies, local NGOs and community leaders. Chinese investors, Brazilian social entrepreneurs and Indian bloggers now rival Oxford and Oxfam in setting the development agenda. Faced with such an array of talent, we have an unparalleled opportunity to seek out new partnerships, to create dynamic new alliances, both formal and informal. This is a completely changed landscape in which to galvanise our efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and to drive yet harder the eradication of global poverty. Now, there are some who feel distrust, even trepidation at the prospect of working with new partners, arguing that we risk diluting the core principles of democracy, human rights, accountability and transparency. I disagree. Let me be clear. We will always stand up for human rights and for these fundamental values. But that doesn't mean we shouldn't put our global heads together, work for development and where we agree, cooperate. In summary, I believe that the fact that the world is changing is a cause for immense celebration not regret. For the first time in recent history more countries than ever are seeking solutions to the most pressing questions of our age. This is an incredibly exciting time, a time when we can marshal that collective energy and a€“ together a€“ begin to change history. **Working in Emerging Powers to Achieve Development Outcomes** This is also the perfect time for us here in the UK to reconfigure our development efforts. We have nearly completed the root and branch review that I commissioned on taking office, and we will be announcing the results at the end of this month. So we start with a clean sheet of paper. One of the themes of our new narrative will be a relentless focus on results. We owe that to the hard-pressed British taxpayer - and to the people for whom our aid is intended. Our energies and resources will therefore be concentrated where we believe we can make the greatest impact for the world's poorest people. So, where it's appropriate, we'll change the way we work with countries as they make the transition to economic stability. Next month, for example,  DFID's aid to China will be finally wound down. China is a country that over the past 25 years has achieved growth that has been truly staggering.  The richer world has been right to support China a€“ indeed, it has been one of the main beneficiaries of China's success. But after several decades of dramatic progress we must now focus our efforts elsewhere. Now, we should never be tempted into assuming that emerging powers share a common economic history. Each has achieved growth in different ways, some, in part, through deregulation, or a freer market economy or stronger governance. They have mixed the growth cocktail in a way that worked for them. But, crucially, having achieved growth and having succeeded in bringing so many of their people out of poverty they are well-placed to share their experience with those countries that are still developing. Of course, we can't ignore the fact that many of these emerging powers, despite recent growth, still contain significant levels of extreme poverty themselves. In many of these countries we will remain partners in poverty reduction, recognising that our mandate is to create opportunity for the worlda€™s poorest people. The nature of these partnerships, however, will change. Relationships will become less rigid and more equal. We will focus on what works a€“and we will be creative about how we achieve it. Aid will be but one of our tools. We will trade in ideas and in expertise too, and we will broker political support and create coalitions to tackle specific issues. Nowhere will our partnership be more multi-dimensional than India, as the Prime Minister's extremely successful visit there last year made clear. The world's largest democracy and one of the world's great civilisations, India is now at the top table in world affairs. Its views carry an enormous amount of weight on issues such as climate change, trade and better governance in international institutions. This reflects the changes in India over the last decade: growth lifting people out of poverty and generating the resources to pay for some of the world's largest and most successful anti-poverty programmes, like the primary education scheme that has got 60 million children into school since 2003. Some people - in both the UK and India a€“ have been asking whether the time has come to end British aid to India. In my view, we are not there yet. The whole rationale for my Department is, eventually, to work ourselves out of a job. But having discussed this with the Government of India, I believe that, for the next few years, it is in both India's interest and in Britain's interest for us to continue our highly successful collaboration on development, not least so we can support the Government of Indiaa€™s own successful programmes in the poorest priority areas. The pace of India's transformation to date is remarkable. But India's poorest states a€“ each of them larger than most African countries a€“ still face huge development challenges. More than half of girls in Madhya Pradesh don't yet go to secondary school; more than half of the young children in Bihar are undernourished. India values our support. And my department's work in India is some of the most effective I've ever seen. I saw for myself the difference our support can make a€“ helping India's poorest states to improve their schools and clinics, upgrade their slums, and get electricity to their villages.  And helping particularly vulnerable groups a€“ like the remarkable group of Dalit women I met in the village of Kothri in Madhya Pradesh, who had recently banded together to stand up against caste discrimination. I am convinced that India's economic transformation means that we need to transform our development relationship too. We need to bring our development partnership up-to-date, reflecting the huge changes India has seen in the last decade. We are discussing this with the Government of India and I envisage a new approach a€“ one focussed much more tightly on India's poorest states and poorest people. We will help these States to unlock more funds from the private sector and reinforce the impact of India's own programmes. Our goal will be to help the poorest women and girls get quality schooling, healthcare, nutrition and jobs as the key to breaking the cycle of poverty for the next generation. India commands respect around the world for the impact of its economic reforms. But India's private sector miracle has not yet reached some of its poorest areas.  Over the next few years we want to help unlock the potential of the private sector to deliver jobs, products, infrastructure and basic services in areas which desperately need them. We have already been supporting poor women to get access to loans a€“ women like Omvati Bai, whom I met last year in the slums of Bhopal. Her life was transformed by a loan of £70, which helped her set up a flourishing fruit and vegetable stall. Before the loan she was worried about feeding her children; now she can send them to school as well. But I think we need a much bigger vision of how we can work with India to support this kind of wealth creation and entrepreneurship; and I want to see a serious and steadily-increasing proportion of our aid used to support entrepreneurs willing to take the risk of starting and scaling-up private investment. We want to work in close partnership with the Government of India on how best to achieve this.  The next few years will see further transition.  With all the countries I have mentioned today, our aspiration over time is to transition from aid-based development relationships into meaningful and mutual partnerships for global development. **Working with Emerging Powers to Achieve Development Outcomes** If the first dimension of our changing relationship is about working with emerging powers to tackle their own poverty, the next is to work with them to reduce poverty in other developing countries. We will approach this not with any preconceived notions of superiority but with due humility. It took Britain more than 150 years to reduce poverty by 50 per cent. China cut the proportion of its people living below the poverty line from 84 per cent to 16 per cent in just 25 years. South Korea has gone from aid recipient to OECD donor in one generation. The Gulf states have been providing 1 per cent of GNI as aid for decades, with little, if any, public recognition from the West. There is no monopoly on success, neither is there any blueprint. Every country has its own experience. What unites them is the fact that they have introduced policies that generated growth and poverty reduction and then used the proceeds of that growth to drive social progress. By sharing those experiences and by learning from the innovation that newer economies have pioneered, we can achieve life-changing results. Take social protection, where for example, great strides have been made by Brazil, Mexico and Chile. The Bolsa Familia programme in Brazil now covers around a quarter of the entire population and has contributed to lifting some 20 million people out of poverty. Building on their success we are now working with Brazil to share expertise with Kenya - one of a number of African countries which is establishing its own programme. India again, has been equally creative in piloting a publicly-funded insurance scheme that allows patients to access healthcare at any accredited health centre. Its near neighbours are now showing a real interest in adopting this model. Just pause for a moment to consider the impact that could  be made by sharing these ideas with countries in Africa, Asia and other places where endemic poverty still exists. Or what we  might achieve by pooling our respective skills, policy experience and resources. Let me give you just a few examples of what is already happening. Together with India, the UK is working with the Clinton Foundation to help local businesses to improve the availability of low cost, high quality drugs for AIDS and malaria across the developing world and particularly in Africa. Last year, this initiative helped to improve the lives of more than two and a half million people. DFID is seconding a member of staff to the Islamic Development Bank to work on results and aid effectiveness. The Bank has an annual spend of around 7.5 billion dollars. In DRC, China and the UK are supporting a vast road-building scheme. China is the biggest investor in the physical infrastructure, while DFID's funding is not just building roads but is also helping the government of DRC to introduce important social and environmental  safeguards. Three countries a€“ one very successful outcome. Comparative advantage at its best. **Working with Emerging Powers to achieve Global Outcomes** But the trajectory doesn't stop there. If we can make these sort of gains by working in partnership in emerging and developing countries, then imagine what can be achieved by taking this approach to a global level. This, I believe, is the logical conclusion, the answer to many of the problems that we have struggled with for so long. The really big strategic issues that don't readily lend themselves to single country solutions. Because the truth is that there are few, if any, big development challenges that we can hope to tackle without the help of new partners. Polio will never be eradicated without Nigeria's support. Food security will remain an aspiration without India's  buy-in. We'll never solve climate change without China. But it really doesn't take a huge leap of imagination to see how we could achieve these strategic goals. Countries like Brazil, India, China, the Gulf States are already making very significant contributions. On conflict, Brazil leads the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti. South Africa has been central to the peacekeeping effort in DRC. Qatar has played a key role in opening channels of communication between the government of Yemen and the Houthi rebels in the North. On wealth creation, South Africa is playing a key role in championing intra-Africa investment for the North-South transport corridor, a project that the UK is supporting financially and technically. China is building infrastructure in Asia and Africa. The impact of these emerging powers opening their markets to goods from poor countries will have a transformational effect on entrepreneurs in Asia and Africa. And there's a huge amount of activity on climate change. India and the UK are jointly funding research into solar energy technology. South Africa is hosting the next United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference later this year. China plans to implement one hundred new clean-energy projects across Africa. Korea is hosting a Green Growth Institute to support the development of a low-carbon economy for the world. Brazil is a world leader in forestation and climate-resilient agriculture. If this is the sort of work that's already happening, how much greater the impact if we were able to harness that drive and energy coherently in a new peer partnership? These emerging powers, Ladies and Gentlemen, are natural allies in pressing for long overdue reform of international institutions. The five BRICS will have a seat on the UN Security Council this year as Brazil, India and South Africa join China and Russia. This should be just the beginning. We want to see a range of institutions whose membership and ways of working reflect the world in which we live today not the world that we lived in fifty years ago. They should be fair, transparent and accountable. We need them just as we need our existing bilateral relationships. Our new partnerships will complement existing arrangements not replace them. So, in future, meetings with the Swedes and the World Bank, for instance, are now likely to include Brazil, South Korea and South Africa too. It's through these grittier, more inclusive alliances that we will build the consensus the world so badly needs. **A Partnership Contract** So, what might these partnerships look like? What are, the rules, if you like, of engagement? First and foremost, our partnerships will be based on mutual respect and added value. What matters will be the experience and expertise that colleagues can bring to the table. However, I'm not too shy to say that working with the UK on development should be an attractive proposition. Why? Because we're one of the world's most important centres of innovation, creativity and scientific discovery. Because we respect country priorities. Because our government is one of the most open and accountable a€“ and is taking transparency to a new level in everything we do. Because we are members of the Security Council, the G8, the G20, the EU and the Commonwealth, as well as having seats on many governing bodies and executive boards of development agencies. Because we are known and respected for our very public commitment to international development a€“ including keeping our promise to spend 0.7 per cent Gross National Income as aid from 2013  - to be enshrined in legislation. Because of all these things and more, I believe the UK is a natural partner, a development hub in the global network. In return, we will seek a shared commitment to the Millennium Development Goals. We remain 100 per cent committed to our core values. And we expect the same of others. I'm not just referring to emerging powers, here. I'm referring to some of those donors who have talked the talk when it suited them but have proved themselves somewhat reluctant to walk the walk once out of the media spotlight. Trust and respect are qualities that will be writ large in our new partnerships. As I've said, there are so many areas where we have worked successfully with emerging partners. We will combine our talents, whether money or skills or ideas a€“ a human jigsaw of different but complementary pieces. Yes, there will be occasions on which we will disagree. What partnership doesn't? And where those disagreements challenge core British values we won't compromise our beliefs. For as the Foreign Secretary has said "it is not in our character as a nation to have a foreign policy without a conscience." He described that foreign policy as one that "seeks to inspire others with our values of political freedom and economic liberalism, that is resolute in its support for those around the world who are striving to free themselves through their own efforts from poverty or political fetters." So, when we are faced with human rights abuses or with public uprisings such as we saw recently in the Middle East, we will hold fast to those values. But in cases where our disagreement is rooted in detail rather than fundamental values we will be pragmatic - a peaceful and prosperous world is in all of our interests.  Rather than turn our back and walk away we must be prepared to face these challenges head-on and to find a way of dealing with them. And to those who are waiting for me to address the issue of raw materials in Africa, I say that engagement is surely sensible and logical. When we work with people, we promote openness and, in a modern world, we all learn very quickly that everyone benefits from transparency and accountability. **Looking Ahead: How will we Take this New Agenda Forward?** How then, do we turn the theory of closer partnership into reality? First, we're matching our words with some internal changes. In future, there will be a dedicated team responsible for ensuring that my department, together with colleagues in the Foreign Office and other government departments, works much more closely with the emerging powers on development. The new team will coordinate DFID's input into the G20 but it will also draw together our work with China, Brazil, India and others on the key global challenges that I have outlined today. I expect the most senior members of staff across my department to contribute to the work of this team so that it is, from the outset, a quintessential part of the department's DNA. I want this team to be pioneers of reform, charting new territory and with a mandate to take bold decisions. Secondly, we will harness our new relationships to achieve results on the ground. * We'll work with the G20 to ensure that Africa and the Least Developed Countries gain more from trade * We'll host with the OECD, a conference of Arab donors this summer, to agree how to improve the results and impact of our collective aid resources * We'll ensure that the innovation of the private sector, whether here in Britain or in emerging powers, is used to help reduce poverty  * We'll invest in the agriculture that will help end famine and in the green growth that will leapfrog a generation in the creation of clean energy * And we'll cement relationships with think tanks, academics and NGOs in the emerging powers; and * We will launch an advocacy fund later this year to help the very poorest developing countries participate in international negotiations on trade and climate change. Thirdly, we will continue to make the case for reform of international institutions, a cause which Britain is proud to champion. We stand for governance that is fair and inclusive, in which everyone has a voice. It is these principles that have defined us as a nation and it is these principles that should define us as a world. Fourthly, we will extend our reach across government in Britain. The fact that DFID has a seat on the National Security Council means that it is hard-wired into the Whitehall architecture. We will work with colleagues in the Foreign Office, in the Ministry of Defence, in the Department of Energy and Climate Change and with an array of other partners to make sure that our new alliances are truly diverse and representative of all our interests. Ladies and Gentlemen, in conclusion, I believe that these new partnerships that I have described today can drive a change throughout DFID and throughout Whitehall. They will be about commitments, not committees; about what is working on the ground, not who is in a working group; about delivery not doctrine. Because the defining characteristic of these emerging partners is that they're not just talking about changing our world, they're actually doing it. I want Britain to be part of that change, to be a beacon of influence for rich and poor alike. By working together, by pooling our respective strengths and experience, we can do more to reduce poverty in the world in the next 50 years than we have in the past 500 years. Emerging powers Speech by Andrew Mitchell, International Development Secretary, at the Emerging Powers and the International Development Agenda at Chatham House on 15 February 2011. None 2011-02-15 39 Ladies and gentlemen - it is a pleasure to make some opening remarks at the launch of the Forest Footprint Disclosure Review of 2010. Let me start by giving some context for todaya€™s discussion. Forests are fundamental for the jobs, incomes and livelihoods of 90% of the one and a half billion people who live in extreme poverty around the world. About 17% of all carbon emissions are caused by deforestation in the tropics and subtropics a€“ more than from the whole of the global transport sector. In the past 50 years, the world has lost a third of its tropical forests, and continues to lose some 13 million hectares each year - an area larger than Switzerland, the Netherlands and Denmark combined. I used to live and work in places like Tanzania and Indonesia and have seen the damage at first hand. And we know that the pressure on forests worldwide is not lessening, ita€™s actually increasing. The challenge we face today is to find new ways to reconcile the competing demands for wood, for food, for fuel, as well as for biodiversity conservation and reduced emissions from deforestation. Crucially what can we do to prevent the global demand for cheaper food and fuel from driving unsustainable agricultural expansion? What role can investors and the private sector play? What role can we play, as consumers, in reducing the demand for goods which rely on deforestation for their production? And what is my department also doing to help make a difference directly on the ground in developing countries? As we go forward, there are, I believe, four key areas on which we need jointly to focus our attention. First, we need more secure rights governing who can control, use and benefit from forests. Unclear rights are bad for business and, when this leads to forest clearance, bad for the local communities who depend on forests. It is also bad for global climate change. Civil society groups in Indonesia, for example, have demanded a halt to all new palm oil plantation deals until their forest land rights are protected in legislation. The Government of Indonesia has recently placed a moratorium on further conversion of peat forest to palm oil as part of its efforts to reduce its carbon emissions from deforestation and help tackle climate change. We, governments and private sector, can work with local communities to help them get back control of their livelihoods and improve their access to markets, while making strides in investment and in contributing to the broader good. For example, the UK is supporting the international Rights and Resources Initiative (RRI) which seeks to advance regulatory reforms in the forest sector. Second, protecting forests is actually hardest where governance is weak. That is why we are building the capacity of producer countries to formulate and enforce better laws and regulations a€“ this will help protect forests and also create a better climate for investment and sound business practice.  Only one percent of tropical forests in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania have been certified as sustainably managed since the early 1990s.  Most of the 320 million hectares of the worlda€™s forests that have been certified are in Europe and North America. So clearly we also need to take that certification process a lot further. UK is supporting producer countries like Ghana, Liberia, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Indonesia through the Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade programme (FLEGT) to develop better regulation and law enforcement of their forest and natural resource sectors. For example, helping them put in place a€œchain-of-custodya€ systems that trace timber as it is transported from forest to port. This reduces opportunities for trafficking. It builds transparent and accountable government by shedding light on who cuts forests and how forest revenues are collected and used. It provides evidence on whether timber is from legal sources - an essential first step to achieving sustainable management of forests. A report last year by Chatham House showed that every £1 we are investing in tackling illegal logging results in £6 of additional revenue that can be used for the public good by countries with cash-strapped exchequers.  And improving the way forests are governed also results in reduced carbon emissions and helps fight climate change. The same report mentions reductions in deforestation and degradation that avoid 14.6 billion tonnes of carbon emissions - that is two and a half times the UK emissions over the same 10 year period. Emerging economies are also taking action. Brazil reduced its rate of deforestation in 2009/10 compared with the year before. It brought more of its Amazon area under clearer jurisdiction, in particular for traditional communities living directly from forest resources. It monitors the use of its forests. Furthermore, the City and State of São Paulo have, like the UK, established procurement policy which favours certified timber products. UK is looking at expanding its support to countries beyond law enforcement and governance on timber to other commodities that drive deforestation. For example, we are supporting Indonesia in reviewing the laws it has for governing its palm oil sector. This means developing laws, policies and incentives that are less bureaucratic and facilitate market access for businesses, smallholder producers and workers. That help businesses meet sustainable and legal standards - standards for safer working, based on more sustainable ways of farming, on clearly titled land. This brings me on to the third area I wish to highlight.  The buyersa€™ market in the UK and Europe, and elsewhere, is also changing. New regulation at home will reduce the risks for consumers, as well as for buyers.  UK is one of the worlda€™s biggest importers of tropical timber, for example. The European a€œIllegala€ Timber Regulation (ITR) came into force last December. This will make first sale in the EU of timber and wood products that have been illegally logged, an offence. Similarly last April the USA amended its Lacey Act, making it unlawful to import plants and a range of wood and plant products illegally obtained in the country of origin. Japan, China and Australia are considering similar action.  This kind of risk-based regulation provides some guarantee to consumers. It will inspire them with greater confidence that the wood products they purchase are sustainable and legal. The fourth area where we need to focus attention, is due diligence in the private sector. I will be interested to hear today how businesses are becoming more informed and discerning about their impact on forests, and what actions they have taken over the past year to reduce their forest footprint. Improved due diligence for forestry investments by banks such as JP Morgan Chase, Citigroup and Bank of America has already had a significant influence on investment in the pulp and paper sector in Asia through tighter lending conditions that are based on the sustainability of supply chains. Marks and Spencer launched its Plan A a€“ Doing the Right Thing a€“ four years back. It committed to sourcing all its palm oil, soy, cocoa, beef, leather and coffee only from the most sustainable sources by 2015 and all its timber products from the most responsibly managed sources by 2012.  I hope we will hear more about progress with initiatives like this. Unilever and other members of the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) have committed to using only palm oil from sources that are certified as being sustainable. British Airways is committed to helping partner companies reach a€œOne Destinationa€ - the name of BAa€™s responsible air travel endeavour - and is the first airline to declare its forest footprint. I hope great progress is being made against all these commitments! The UK government backs the Forest Footprint Disclosure project. It is an innovative initiative. It helps companies identify more clearly the implications of their investment and their marketing decisions on deforestation. But not just on forests. In the end it is about the billion or so poor people that depend on forests for their livelihoods. Being part of this initiative means we can work together a€“ business, government and non-government organisations a€“ and make a difference to the indigenous and local communities who live at the sharp end of poverty and climate change. Forest Footprint Disclosure Review 2010 Speech by International Development Minister Stephen O'Brien at the launch of the Forest Footprint Disclosure Review on 27 January 2011 None 2011-01-27 40     ### Secretary of State for International Development, Andrew Mitchell: I want to start by acknowledging the generosity of the British public through the Disasters Emergency Committee appeal. Throughout the country, people have supported that, and nearly £60 million has been raised. That, together with the efforts of the British Government and other governments around the world, seeks to address the crisis in the Horn of Africa and to stop a disaster becoming a catastrophe. The House will be aware of what is happening in the Horn of Africa. The rains have failed. Enormous numbers of people are moving first from the centre of Somalia down to Mogadishu and then from Somalia out across the borders into Kenya and Ethiopia. The Dolo Ado camps in Ethiopia now contain 120,000 Somalis, 80,000 of whom have arrived there in the last few weeks. In Mogadishu, which I visited just three weeks ago, camps have sprung up all over that city. The World Food Programme is today feeding some 327,000 refugees there, in particular in therapeutic feeding. In Dadaab, which I visited earlier in the summer, huge numbers of people have come across the border into Kenya. I saw a sight that one rarely sees in Africa a€“ large numbers of mothers and their children waiting in the early morning in complete silence. I was able to talk to some of them; they told awful stories about being attacked and beaten as they came with their children out of Somalia. Many had lost children on that march, and their feet were cut to pieces by that long march. I pay tribute to the Kenyan Government who are housing 430,000 people in Dadaab, the largest refugee camp in the world, which was built originally for 90,000. I also visited Wajir, where I was able to see the brilliant work that has been done by British non-governmental organisations a€“ in particular Save the Children, but many others a€“ in trying to cope with the crisis. The people in those camps are in many ways the lucky ones. Inside Somalia we are probably reaching about 1.2 million of the 3 million people who are in serious jeopardy at this time. Those who have followed these things will have seen that the global acute malnutrition and the serious acute malnutrition rates in Somalia are horrific. We have not seen such rates since the 1992 famine. It is not often starvation that kills people who are caught up in famines; it is disease. When the rains come, the immune systems of large numbers of people, already shredded by hunger, will not be able to withstand the waterborne diseases that will cut like a knife through that very vulnerable population. Cholera is already endemic in Somalia and Mogadishu, and measles and malaria will also affect huge numbers of very vulnerable people when the rains come. ### Britain's reponse to the food crisis Let me set out what we in Britain are doing to help: First, in Somalia, Britain will be vaccinating more than 1.3 million children against measles and 670,000 children against polio, and providing mosquito nets for 160,000 families. During the last week, we think that we have managed to reach an additional 40,000 families inside Somalia, and 10,000 tonnes of food to treat and prevent moderate malnutrition have now arrived in the country. In Kenya, we are providing clean water for more than 300,000 people in Dadaab, and in northern Kenya more generally, we are helping 100,000 who have received 600 tonnes of UK-funded food aid during the last month. We have been working in Ethiopia for many years and it is for that reason that since 1992 the prevalence of malnutrition has fallen by about 50%. That shows the difference between working in a country where development can take place and Somalia, where it is very difficult. In Ethiopia we are feeding more than 2.4 million people. We recently provided 50 tonnes of seeds and 60 tonnes of fertilizer, and we are helping to vaccinate 300,000 livestock, which is important in enabling people to continue with their livelihoods when the famine is over. We are working extremely hard to persuade others to support that effort, with some success. Around £400 million has been pledged for Somalia since 1 July, and I will be working on that, along with other Ministers, at next weeka€™s meetings of the United Nations and the World Bank. Progress is being made, but insufficient progress. ### Building up resilience and improving food security I come now to the central importance of trying to ensure that these crises are addressed upstream and that food insecurity is replaced by food security. At the end of last week, I visited an extremely important project, run by Britain and the World Food Programme, that seeks to build food security in Karamoja in northern Uganda. It encapsulates the old proverb, a€œGive a man a fish and he will eat for a day; teach him to fish and he will be able to feed himself.a€ We are engaged in a project that hitherto has spent £28 per person on securing food aid. Over the next three years we will spend £33 per person. As I saw for myself, that food security is developing well. In 2009 more than 1 million people in Karamoja were receiving food aid and the region was suffering from deep food insecurity, but by the end of this year we believe the figure will be below 140,000. In looking at that programme we saw all the things that need to happen. We saw effective irrigation, the harvesting of water through reservoirs, families growing food for themselves and market traders turning up on the sites where that food is being grown and buying the surplus. We saw feeder roads developing and warehouses springing up, which is very important. That is the way ahead to ensure that deep food insecurity is tackled. That is what we have been doing in Ethiopia, and the approach has helped to ensure that Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda are not now experiencing famine. Somalia is a different matter, where there is deep insecurity and ungoverned space. I underline our strong admiration and support for the brave people who go in to try to deliver life-saving aid and support there. An announcement was made last week by the Transitional Federal Government of Somalia on political developments and their intention to hold elections of some sort in a yeara€™s time. I do not hide from the fact that there are very great difficulties in achieving what needs to be achieved. All this emphasises the importance of the work on resilience. I wish to end by making four points: * There are 400,000 people, mainly children, in danger of dying as a result of the famine in Somalia * Britain has set out clearly what needs to be done * People across all parts of our country, as well as the Government, have given their money and support * We cannot put a price on a life, but we can put a price on saving one. It is time for other countries to recognise that fact and reach deeper into their pockets. [Read the full transcript of the debate on Hansard]( Horn of Africa debate: food security and famine prevention Watch the full cross-government debate in the House of Commons from 15 September 2011, plus highlights of Andrew Mitchell's speech below 2011-09-16 41 Dear Friends, Asalam-o-alaikum, With Ramadan now underway, we extend our warmest wishes to all Muslim communities in the United Kingdom and around the world. This year the holy month of fasting, devotion and charity comes at an especially poignant moment. A famine has been declared in parts of Somalia, and across the Horn of Africa 10 million people are in desperate need of emergency relief. We are proud that Britain is leading the way in responding to this awful situation. The British taxpayer is providing life-saving help to 2.6 million people across the region, including access to drinking water and treatment for starving children. Members of the public have themselves donated £42 million to the Disasters Emergency Committee Appeal, demonstrating the typical generosity of our country even in difficult economic times. And we know that diaspora communities here and around the world are also providing crucial support to their friends and families in the region. But far more needs to be done and we are strongly pushing other countries to do more. Our united action can save hundreds of thousands of lives, and help people to rebuild their futures in the wake of disaster. Britaina€™s response to last yeara€™s devastating floods in Pakistan shows what we can achieve together. Just 12 months ago, a staggering 14 million people were forced to flee their homes when ten years' worth of rain fell in one week. The public donated over £70 million to the emergency appeal. And as the waters subsided, British support helped people to rebuild their lives and become self-sufficient again, providing shelter to 1 million people and healthcare and clean water to millions more. The same spirit of Zakat will save lives in Somalia, and the rest of the Horn of Africa, this year. We are proud of the contribution the UKa€™s Muslim communities are making, and offer you our heartfelt thanks. Wishing you and your families Ramadan Kareem.   _David Cameron, MP, Prime Minister_ _Andrew Mitchell, MP, Secretary of State for International Development_ _Baroness Varsi, Minister without Portfolio_ Joint letter from David Cameron, Andrew Mitchell and Baroness Warsi to UK mosques None 2011-08-11 42 Despite the economic downturn, global official development assistance has grown by 35% since 2004. New development actors including from emerging economies and the private sector have increased both opportunities and complexities for poor countries. Poverty, unemployment and lack of social and economic opportunities are still widespread.  The Busan conference is our chance to produce a new more inclusive consensus for development results, improve the way aid is delivered, and create a broader partnership for development effectiveness with all new actors. Bringing together emerging economies, the private sector, and civil society, Busan provides an opportunity to build a global partnership for development and help further to enable partner countries to exercise leadership for their progress. We believe that key priorities for Busan are focusing on better development results, increasing transparency, strengthening democratic governance and accountability, mobilising the potential contributions of the private sector and other actors to development effectiveness, and finding new ways to engage fragile and conflict-affected states.  We will work persistently to increase our accountability to partner countries, as well as to our respective taxpayers, while helping to get the best outcomes to improve the lives of people living in poverty.  While we firmly believe that the responsibility and accountability for sustainable and inclusive development ultimately lie with our developing country partner governments, we emphasise accountability as a responsibility for all development actors. We approach Busan confident that all participants will be ready to engage in this important milestone with us. **Canada** - Beverley J Oda, Minister of International Cooperation **Denmark** - Christian Friis Bach, Minister for Development Cooperation **Germany** - Dirk Niebel, Minister of Economic Cooperation and Development **Netherlands** - Ben Knapen, Minister for International Cooperation **Sweden** - Gunilla Carlsson, Minister for International Development Cooperation **United Kingdom** - Andrew Mitchell, International Development Secretary **United States** - Rajiv Shah, Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development Letter: Development Ministers call for aid to become more transparent and effective Joint letter at the start of the Fourth High-Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness at Busan, Korea, 29 November - 1 December 2011 2011-11-29 43 Richard Olver Chairman BAE Systems 6 Carlton Gardens London SW1Y 5AD United Kingdom   I promised to set out the details of the proposal that the Government of Tanzania prepared with the help of DFIDa€™s highly experienced development professionals in Tanzania. The proposal attached suggests that a one-off payment be made to top up the 'education capitation' grant. In the Government of Tanzania's budget for 2010 the capitation grant was £40 million, the equivalent of £5 per student.  However, this budget line has been consistently underfunded in recent years, so that only around £2.50 per student has actually been paid.  It is my firm belief that BAE should consider adopting the proposal in full. Far from being a political donation to a party (the Government of Tanzania is freely elected by the people of Tanzania), the proposal would use government financial systems to buy specific benefits for Tanzanian school children. It is entirely in keeping with spirit of BAEa€™s settlement with the Serious Fraud Office when it said the payment should be a€˜for the benefit of the people of Tanzaniaa€™. The results would be very tangible: 4.4 million textbooks, syllabi for teachers in every primary school, 200,000 desks for kids and more than 1000 houses for teachers in remote areas.   In this way, the payment would also be transparent, auditable and could be independently monitored. It would avoid the losses associated with multiple contributions via many intermediary organisations. As a lead donor in Tanzania, DFID would be in a position to help verify that the money was being used for the intended purpose, as we do with the utmost rigour when it comes to British taxpayer routed through Tanzaniaa€™s budget. And because it enjoys the support of the Government of Tanzania, it is likely to enable the episode to be concluded swiftly, justly and without needless acrimony between the UK and Tanzania. [Handwritten] It would also underline your successful and credible 'new broom' approach and enable us to support and praise BAE for drawing a line under all this.  With every good wish, Yours ever, Andrew Mitchell Letter from Secretary of State to BAE Systems None 2011-07-03 44 Richard Olver Chairman BAE Systems 6 Carlton Gardens London SW1Y 5AD United Kingdom   Dick Olver                              Thank you for your letter of 20 July following the IDC evidence hearing. I very much welcome your decision to accept the Government of Tanzaniaa€™s proposal for the use of the payment from BAE. As I said in my previous letter, the proposal is designed to deliver tangible results in the education sector, benefitting a large number of children as well as the countrya€™s future development. This is something that we can all welcome. As I have offered, DFID officials can assist if requested with the monitoring and evaluation of the use of the funds to ensure maximum results. In this way, we will be able to ensure complementarity with the broader reform of the education sector that the UK is supporting. Regarding the routing of the payment, I do not see an obvious need for the payment to be channelled through DFID, though DFID officials in Tanzania can of course provide assurances that funds transmitted by BAE to the Government of Tanzania have been received in the proper accounts and paid onwards to end beneficiaries for the intended purpose. DFID officials also stand ready to provide advice on the mechanics of the payment. This arrangement may well result in additional costs for DFID that we would look to BAE to cover, to allow the maximum benefit to the people of Tanzania from this payment.  As you know, we do not think that there are legal obstacles to a direct payment to the Government of Tanzania from BAE, as this would not be a political donation. However, you will want to assure yourselves of the technical nature of the payment, taking advice as appropriate. The Treasury Solicitors have offered to discuss this with your legal advisers if that would be of assistance, and officials can help facilitate contacts. It seems to me that it would be useful at this stage for BAE, the Government of Tanzania and HMG, through DFID, to agree a short Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to provide for the payment and use of funds, as per the Government of Tanzaniaa€™s proposal, and to set out the roles and responsibilities of each organisation. DFID will be happy to provide some facilitation and professional advice to assist the process. The MoU would include a clear timeframe to ensure progress remains on track. If BAE are agreeable to this approach I will ask my officials to initiate discussions. Finally I would like to take this opportunity to clarify a point about the role of DFID in this matter. I want to assure you that a€“ as Richard Alderman stated in his evidence to the IDC a€“ DFID involvement came at the request of Serious Fraud Office, when the Department was asked if it would make its international development expertise available to provide advice about how funds could be used for the benefit of the people of Tanzania. In providing this assistance, no HMG officials have ever sought to raise expectations on the part of the Tanzania Government and have not given any undertakings on how the funds would be provided or used. I am pleased that we are moving towards a resolution of this issue, and am confident that DFID, BAE and Government of Tanzania can work together to ensure the very best of outcomes.  I think it will be especially important to work together on the communications of what we are doing, so that all three parties are giving the same messages and avoiding future confusion.   Andrew Mitchell Approved in person and signed electronically Letter from Secretary of State to BAE Systems None 2011-08-01 45 Thank you very much indeed Mr President and good afternoon. It is an honour to address this Assembly which, in 2001 and 2006, agreed that no one should go without HIV prevention, treatment, care and support - and set itself the ambitious goal of universal access.  The UK was proud to be in the forefront of this agenda then; and we are proud to be there again today. We have made great progress since those days. Who would have thought that over 5 million would now be on treatment? That new infections, in many parts of the world, would be levelling off? I would like to commend the Secretary General for his excellent report a€“ summarising that progress a€“ which forms the basis of this meeting. I thank the Ambassadors of Botswana and Australia for their hard work, in facilitating  the outcome document. And I wouldd also like to thank UNAIDS and its cosponsors for their continued leadership of the global HIV response. We see the UNAIDS Strategy as our guiding document as we enter the next phase of the HIV epidemic, and call on countries and on all parts of the UN system to deliver their responsibilities under it. But despite progress, it is clear we have a long way to go against an evolving epidemic. In some parts of the world, particularly parts of SubSaharan Africa, AIDS remains an over-riding emergency a€“ particularly for women and particularly when combined with the TB epidemic. In all parts of the world, it is the vulnerable and the marginalised who are most at risk. This may be an adolescent girl unable to secure her sexual and reproductive health and rights and protect herself from infection.  Increasingly, as the epidemic develops, it is also men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, sex workers, transgender people, prisoners and others on the margins of society a€“ who cannot access the services they need because of stigma, discrimination or violence.  When we deal with HIV, we deal with issues that are difficult for many people a€“ intimate issues of sex and drugs, involving our own personal ethics, religion or morality. The UK respects the right of sovereign states to make their own laws and of people to live according to their own cultural standards. But to make progress against this epidemic we must take a pragmatic, public-health orientated approach a€“ based on what we know works in the world as it is a€“ not as some think it ought to be or even, would like it to be. And we know that what works is to respect human rights and the human rights of these groups and enable them to access services. That is why the UK has pressed for the needs of these groups to be recognised and will continue to do so. We have also put women and girls, particularly vulnerable in this epidemic, at the front of everything we do. We also need to be innovative in our solutions as the epidemic changes. For many, HIV is now a chronic condition a€“ which means a long term investment in care and support is what is needed including for carers. The UK is exploring innovative methods to provide this support, such as cash transfers and the UK has set out its continuing commitment to make progress against the challenges of HIV in a position paper, published last week. This summarises the HIV outcomes from a year of intensive review at DFID, the Department for International Development in the UK. This summarises the HIV outcomes from a year of intensive review at DFID.  Even in tough economic times, very tough economic conditions, the UK has stood by our commitment to spend 0.7% of Gross National Income on international development by 2013.  We are keen that our investments deliver not just for HIV a€“ but for development in general. And in the current climate, I a€“ like any politician a€“ have to justify every single penny of our spending to the public in terms of the impact it has. I can certainly assure you every Friday evening I am given the fifth degree by my constituents who insist that I justify every single penny of that spend. That is why the UK Coalition Government has conducted a root and branch review of all its aid programmes to ensure what we spend makes a difference and we can show it.   That is also why, in the discussions leading up to this event, we have argued for an approach that is rooted in the evidence base and the need to deliver value for money.  The price of treatment has come down by 99 % in ten years. But it can, and it has to, come down further, especially second and third line treatment. I am delighted that the Clinton Health Access Initiative, with UK support, has managed to lower the cost of the drug Tenofovir. We calculate the benefits from our support alone equates to half a million people on treatment. We also continue to support the Medicines Patent Pool and strongly urge pharmaceutical companies to join.  Resources are key. The UK will do its bit, including through our 0.7 commitment and our increased support to the Global Fund. Others must follow. We are clear that prevention is the cornerstone of an effective and sustainable response. And we know a lot about what we need to do here. There is no reason for children to be born with HIV a€“ as we know treatment for the prevention of mother to child transmission  works. There is equally no reason for injecting drug users to contract HIV a€“ as we know that harm reduction works.  There is no reason for young people a€“ especially girls a€“ to contract HIV when we know comprehensive sexuality education works. But we still need to work on the evidence base - particularly for prevention.   Evidence based prevention remains at the heart of our response to HIV within the UK. As a result of sustained prevention over the last 25 years, the UK remains a low prevalence country through the use of condoms. Treatment has transformed the outlook for people with HIV and today many people are living near normal lives. It is increasingly clear that treatment has prevention benefits as well. But challenges remain including the need to diagnose early, deal with the challenges of ageing with HIV and reducing stigma. We need to guard against complacency. And we know that infection is influenced by a variety of social and behavioural factors and needs a combination, multi-sectoral response a€“ but we need to get better at identifying exactly which prevention interventions work in which contexts. We need to better understand how we fight stigma and discrimination and change behaviour. And we need to continue the investment in research and development, to develop new products, such as microbicides and keep the hope of a breakthrough in vaccine research. This high level meeting is poised to sign off on an ambitious political declaration which takes us through to 2015. Negotiations were hard and we all had to compromise a€“ but it has been worth it. The UK is pleased, in particular, with the following critical areas of agreement: * A recommitment to universal access with agreement to a goal of 15 million people on treatment by 2015 and a recognition that prevention must be at the heart of the response.  * Agreement that the key populations at higher risk of infection must be targeted if we are going to defeat this epidemic. * A reassertion of the need to use TRIPS flexibilities for the benefit of public health * And strong language around women and children, human rights, care and support and stigma and discrimination. And of course prevention as much as treatment.    Ladies and gentleman, we didna€™t get there by 2010. But a world with zero new infections, zero AIDS deaths and zero stigma and discrimination is a world worth fighting for. Now more than ever, we must do all we can to make it a reality. The outcome document is a testament to the continuing high level political commitment and support from the international community to finish the job we started a decade ago. The three zeros are possible; we have the tools a€“ we just need the leadership and the will to deliver and the UK as committed as ever to provide these and urge others to do this as well. Thank you Mr President. Stephen O’Brien: AIDS - towards zero infections None 2011-06-09 46 I am delighted to be here with you again today to mark World Population Day. If I recall, this event last year was one of my first engagements as a DFID Minister. Thanks to the APPG and its Chair, Baroness Tonge, as well as its Vice-Chairs who are here this evening, Geoffrey Clifton-Browne and Richard Ottaway. And thanks too to IPPF and Gill Greer, and all the other organisations here tonight working to improve sexual and reproductive health for such a warm welcome. Special thanks are in order for Gill, as she steps down later this year as Director General of IPPF. The theme this year is a€œ7 billion reasonsa€ which is a strong reminder to us about how we cannot ignore the importance of population growth when talking about development. We all know that the United Nations estimate that the world population will pass 7 billion this October, and continue rising a€“ more than likely - to more than 9 billion by 2050. Almost all - 99% - of this growth will occur in the high fertility developing countries. Which means that most of the countries of sub-Saharan Africa will see continuing and rapid population growth for the next several decades. Some people say that population is too difficult or too sensitive a subject to tackle or even to talk about. The fact is that many development agencies shy away from discussing population, in case they are accused of removing free choice or forcing individuals to have fewer children. Let me make two things absolutely clear: * First - the Coalition Government does not support programmes that coerce individuals and couples to have fewer children. Population control, in the sense of government edicts and targets on fertility levels, has no ethical place in contemporary rights based development policy making. * And secondly, we will not shy away from talking about population a€“ about global population growth and its impacts. We are proud to be giving more women the choices they crave. To choose whether, when and how many children they have. We know that 215 million couples who want to delay or avoid a pregnancy do not have access to effective methods of contraception. We believe it is high time their needs were met. We are proud to be playing a leading role in meeting the unmet need for family planning. As the largest generation of adolescents in human history enters their reproductive years, the demand for basic services like water and sanitation, education and health will steadily rise. Kenya will have seen a 60% rise in the number of school children aged between 5 and 14 by 2050. But it is not just basic services that will feel the strain of rapid population growth. Natural resources like water and fuel wood, and land for growing food, will all come under increasing pressure. The poor, those most reliant on the natural environment for their basic survival, will feel the greatest impact. Working for gender equality and the empowerment and education of women and girls will help. We know that the more time spent in school correlates with later marriage and lower fertility. Better water and sanitation, and better health and education services will increase peoplesa€™ confidence that their children will survive into adulthood a€“ and thus also help lower desired family size. Thata€™s just one of the reasons why this government has pledged to vaccinate over 80 million children over the next few years. We are also working with the NIKE foundation to help 200,000 girls in Northern Ethiopia to delay marriage and stay in school. We are training an additional 3,700 health workers in Liberia to provide essential health care services for women and children. We all agree - women need better access to sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning. Both, short-term, reversible methods for those who want to delay or space a pregnancy, and safe longer acting or permanent methods for those who have decided not to have any more children. Meeting the unmet need is crucial. The figure of 215 million couples is really incredibly important. The UNa€™s medium population projection to 2050 of 9.3 billion is firmly based on the assumption that the unmet need a€“ the family planning gap - is closed, by giving people the services theya€™re demanding. If we do not work harder and put renewed emphasis on reproductive health, especially family planning a€“ if we dona€™t invest in better and more accessible family planning services a€“ then some people argue that the higher UN projection of around 11 billion people by 2050 begins to look like the more realistic number. What will that mean for basic services? The Coalition Government is working on plans for improving reproductive, maternal and newborn health in developing countries. We will start to close the gap for family planning because it is what women say they need; because it saves womena€™s and childrena€™s lives; because it can help us reach the Millennium Development Goals and because it offers incredible value for money. As many of you know, we are committed to doubling our efforts for womena€™s health to save the lives of 50,000 women, enable 10 million more women to use modern methods of family planning and prevent more than 5 million unintended pregnancies. One element of this involves working with the private sector to increase access to contraceptives. And here I do want to recognise the efforts of the team at DFID, and particularly Julia Bunting, for their work with colleagues at the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition and Merck. In Addis Ababa last month, I am delighted that Merck were able to announce their commitment to reduce the price of their long-lasting implant, IMPLANON. This will make a massive difference to the lives of 14.5 million of the poorest women between now and 2015. The UK Government remains committed to playing a full part in championing reproductive and maternal health, in championing womena€™s rights and empowerment, and in championing the benefits of family planning. But we will also be championing the importance of global population growth and ensuring it is recognised in discussions on development in an open, honest and constructive way. Rapid population growth will only slow and begin to fall when women are educated and empowered to take control of their sexual and reproductive lives a€“ In short by being enabled to take control of their lives, they give us the best chance that the world does not lose control of all our lives. Stephen O'Brien: In a world of seven billion people Stephen O’Brien's speech on World Population Day to the All Party Parliamentary Group on Population, Development and Reproductive Health and International Planned Parenthood Federation, 11 July 2011 2011-07-12 47 TO BE CHECKED AGAINST DELIVERY Ladies and Gentlemen, I am delighted to be here with you this afternoon to discuss the UK Governmenta€™s priorities for the forthcoming Earth Summit in June next year. Ideally, of course, I would have been joined by Secretary of State Caroline Spelman a€“ as she is leading the Governmenta€™s strategy for Rio+20. However, she is currently in Durban for the climate negotiations, so she cannot be here. But she and I are both of the same mind on this area a€“ so what you would have heard from two people you can now hear from one. In any case, todaya€™s event is a personal priority for me. Having been a Director of a FTSE 100 company myself prior to my parliamentary career, I am convinced that the private sector is crucial to all of the major global issues we face, and in particular sustainable development. Today I will set out why I believe that is the case, and three ways in which we a€“ governments and the private sector a€“ can use Rio+20 as a launch-pad for action. But before I get into the detail of that, let me first outline why the UK Governmenta€™s believes the Rio+20 Earth Summit is an important global event, and give you a sense of our priorities for it. Just under 20 years ago, at the first-ever Earth Summit, a young girl called Suzuki Severin, aged just 13, delivered a powerful speech. In that speech, she urged governments around the world to take action, and declared "Losing my future is not like losing a few points on the stock-market". The people in this room know the importance of the stock-market, and what it means to gain and lose points on the market. It actually means a great deal. It can determine the whether a business will fail or thrive, and the employment prospects for hundreds of people. The stock-market, and the global economy more generally, is already facing significant global threats. We need to address them head on. The actions the UK Government is currently taking domestically a€“ such as supporting new business and infrastructure development a€“ are about doing just that. Taking difficult decisions. Yet, twenty years on from Ms Suzukia€™s speech, we are seeing that the stock-market is already being driven by trends in our natural environment. The report just a few days ago by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated that the estimates of annual losses from weather and climate-related disasters since 1980 have ranged from a few billion to above 200 billion US dollars in the case of Hurricane Katrina in 2005. There have been other estimates that 40% of the worlda€™s economy relies on biological resources. Natural resources are deeply intertwined with our economy. Their sustainable use is integral to growth over the long term. And it is often the poorest people that rely on natural resources for their livelihoods. Ms Suzukia€™s speech reminds us that as we take steps to generate a lasting recovery, we must at the same time address the even more significant future threats from the effects of climate change and the unsustainable use of natural resources. This Earth Summit, twenty years after Ms Suzuki made her speech, offers a one-time opportunity to do so, in a stronger and more innovative way than ever, through green growth a€“growth that recognises that sustainable businesses and environmental sustainability are two sides of the same coin. In Rio+20, the UKa€™s focus will therefore be on the green growth a€“ also known as the "green economy" a€“ agenda item. But why is green growth a priority? And why do we believe it is important for development? Growth is crucial for development, and I am of the belief that green growth could provide an opportunity to help meet poverty reduction goals, for instance by delivering higher productivity in agricultural and industrial sectors, and expanding innovation and entrepreneurship through new green business models. A new study from Mckinsey Global Institute suggests that over 70 percent of the worlda€™s resource productivity opportunities are in developing countries. Taking such opportunities could also help countries build resilience to climate and other supply-side shocks, by increasing economic diversification and reducing their reliance on natural resources. But the big question is, how? There are many ideas circulating at the moment on what outcomes at Rio+20 could help deliver green growth. From big new ideas such as Sustainable Development Goals, and the provision of universal energy access, to more specific ideas focused on key natural resources such as water, forests and land. We have been studying the recent submissions to the UN and are examining which ones we think will have the most impact and deliver the most results. But I can tell you now that I and Caroline Spelman both agree that one of the most important outcomes at Rio+20 could and should be around the private sector a€“ because the private sector is the engine of growth. But before I say what this might look like, let me be clear about one thing. The private sector is not one entity. The private sector ranges from entrepreneurs, small and medium enterprises, to large multinational corporations and investors. We have this kind of wide range of actors in this room today a€“ insurers, banks, industrial firms, and more. At Rio+20, we will need to recognise this wide range of actors, and bring them in. By doing so, we can maximise the potential to fire up the engines of innovation, entrepreneurialism and job creation at the same time as protecting natural resources and avoiding climate change. So what might private sector-focused outcomes look like in Rio+20? Today Ia€™m here to hear your views, but let me provide a three-pronged framework for those outcomes a€“ with some initial ideas a€“ which I hope will stimulate your ideas. First, we need outcomes whereby Governments undertake to support the private sector in delivering green growth. This means providing policy certainty, simpler regulation, new policy instruments; incentives for R&D and innovation. Here in the UK, the Green Deal, our Climate Change Agreements and the EU Emissions Trading Schemes are all key examples of our efforts to provide this kind of framework. Globally, I know that ideas around fossil-fuel subsidy reform, sustainable public procurement, vehicle standards, and more are on the table. We need to know from you which are your priorities and which ones can make the greatest impact on sustainable development. Second, we need new public-private partnerships. These could include instruments such as challenge funds, risk guarantees, advance market commitments a€“ instruments that we commonly use to address other development challenges. PUSS added the example of pharmaceuticals and importance role of government in making advance market commitments. The UK is already looking to support the development of a number of these in the climate change area, particularly to incentivise the uptake of renewable energy. Agriculture, forestry, water, waste and land may be other areas ripe for this joined-up kind of approach. Again, we need to hear your ideas, and work out which can have the greatest impact. And last but not least, we need bold, independent action from you. I know a huge number of companies and investors are already reporting and measuring their environmental impacts and risks. I have heard about the Aviva-led proposal for how to further improve corporate sustainability reporting. I welcome this kind of voluntary action strongly and the activities of organisations like the UN Global Compact in stimulating it through the principles they advocate. It can lead to higher profitability a€“ through its Plan A initiative Marks and Spencers saved over 70 million pounds last year, and 50 million pounds the year before. But I am also aware that a growing number of companies are realising that their own success is directly linked to sustainable, green growth. Others are using eco-standards and labelling a€“ such as water and carbon footprinting, zero-waste commitments a€“ to attract new markets. They are providing new sustainable products and services. For instance, in India, the company SELCO has developed a business model to provide cheap solar electrification to slums in Bangalore, meaning the people living in those slums have light to study and run their businesses. Thata€™s a direct impact on development. DFID's Business Innovation Facility is supporting a microfinance business in Nigeria to enable 2 million low income households to replace existing polluting solid fuel stoves with clean burning gas cylinder stoves in an affordable way. Thata€™s supporting livelihoods, safeguarding health by improving air quality, while reducing deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions. Again, a direct impact on development. We need the private sector across the world to be inspired a€“ at and beyond Rio+20 a€“ to seek out these kinds of new opportunities, new products and innovations, new investment and markets. Caroline Spelman has already begun to receive substantive proposals from UK and other businesses worldwide on how the private and public sector can work together to seek new pathways to growth and wealth creation that do not involve the twin threats of climate change and resource scarcity. I hope this three-pronged framework that I have set out today will help you in putting forward even more proposals. Credible, high-impact ideas will need to be brought to the table if we are to protect the future of young Ms Suzuki, who made that powerful speech in 1992. We need to generate a lasting recovery; and ensure sustained progress for all people in the broadest sense. I hope we will use Rio+20 as a means to articulate those credible, high-impact ideas together, and, more importantly, implement lasting solutions. Stephen O'Brien: Making green growth a priority Speech by Stephen O'Brien at the UN Global Compact event, looking at the role of the private sector in driving sustainable development 2011-12-06 48 I'm delighted that I am here with you all this evening. I'd like to express my appreciation and on behalf of the Government to Plan UK and the sponsors Credit Suisse for organising this event and more generally to their continued commitment to this really important - and evidence-based - cause. The exhibitions and displays here tonight are genuinely inspiring. I think they are the things we have to do. It is a real testimony to people's lives who are being transformed and all the opportunities being granted because of a combined effort by so many people. So in addition to saying a really good evening to all of you, I feel like I should be saying good evening to India and Cambodia, El Salvador and Ghana and all the people that are represented here tonight because it is what makes us one world and truly global citizens. These stories also express the complexities well. If it was straightforward it would all be done very easily. The fact that equality for girls and boys, and women and men, is not just about investing in girls and women. It is about investing in boys and men too. That equality will not happen simply by putting the right laws in place, important of course as that may be. It is - crucially - about working with every citizen to change social norms and behaviours which perpetuate exclusion. I'm delighted to be here today to celebrate the launch of the fifth 'The State of the World's Girls' report about the critical role of boys and men. I commend Plan UK for its work in producing this valuable series of reports since 2007. And I know just how much work goes into them. When I was not a Minister when I was in opposition, I spent, if not 35 years then but certainly the last ten years, producing a series of reports on malaria and neglected tropical diseases. And there is an enormous amount of work that goes into getting what ultimately sits within these reports for people like me, a policy maker, a law maker, someone who has to go an answer to my constituents about why we're spending so much of their money on things a long way from our shores. It is the important authoritativeness that comes from these reports, where the logic and the force of the argument can come through because that helps defend against those who say you can't justify using our money for that. As you well know, in DFID we are pleased to be able to commit on your behalf to the Government's policy to meet our pledge to spend 0.7 per cent on overseas development by 2013 despite the tough economic times here. As an MP, it's a routine, scary place to be when people say "We don't think that's a good idea". We have to stand up courageously and defend it. It is people like you tonight who help us do that, so make sure you're out there being the champions for this as much as anybody else. We need to get this to be the norm in our way of working as much as the social norms and behaviours we're talking about in other countries tonight. So I am of course delighted to be associated with the focus in this year ' s report on educate, campaign and legislate chimes well with my Department for International Developments work towards more equal societies in 27 of the poorest countries. I would also like to commend Plan for the work it is taking forward in partnership with DFID to raise awareness of gender equality, improve sexual and reproductive health, and increase girls' and boys' participation in decision making in their communities and societies. Last month in Washington, the World Bank published the World Development Report on Gender Equality and Development 2012. This is an important call to action for Governments, donors, multilaterals, civil society and the private sector. We all have a role to play in promoting gender equality. I am pleased to see representatives from such a diverse group of organisations here today. DFID is firmly committed to expanding our partnerships to promote a fairer world. The WDR sets out that, despite progress on improving the lives of girls and women, huge challenges remain. Almost two thirds of the 750 million illiterate people in the developing world are women. 60 million girls are sexually assaulted at or travelling to or from school every year. Every year over a third of a million girls and women die in pregnancy and childbirth. Yet we also know that investing in girls and women has a transformative impact on growth, poverty reduction and the MDGs. Where girls and women have more access to education, healthcare and economic opportunities, their children and their societies are healthier, more prosperous and more peaceful. In short, investing in equality for girls and boys, women and men, is good for everyone - and very good for development. That is why the UK has put girls and women at the heart of international development. DFID's Strategic Vision for Girls and Women, launched in March, identifies four priority areas where we want to see real change happen for girls and women: * Delay first pregnancy and support safe childbirth * Get economic assets directly to girls and women * Get girls through secondary school and * Prevent violence against girls and women. I can tell from going to Nigeria - what is the best thing to get girls to stay in school? Build a latrine so she doesn't have the fear and embarrassment of not having the necessary privacy, just at the point where she is moving from primary to secondary. We know that we will never end global poverty until we begin to challenge inequality and discrimination. We must give girls and boys the same opportunities to flourish. And we know that raising adolescents' awareness in particular about gender issues is vital, because interventions during this formative period can alter life outcomes dramatically. I agree with Marie that education is absolutely critical. That is why, the UK will help more than nine million boys and girls attend primary school and two million to attend secondary school. And that is why we have recently announced the new Girls Education Challenge to support up to 1 million more girls go to school. As the Plan UK report highlights, violence and discrimination do not happen in a vacuum but within an established system of power in which men are predominantly the power holders and which is condoned by wider society. Our Strategic Vision recognises that we will only achieve greater equality if we invest our efforts in both direct action and a positive enabling environment that seeks to improve girls' or women's relations with the boys and men around them, and enhance their status within their family and wider society. When you visit Sierra Leone, the discussion has always been how do you deal with the local chiefs and the control that is centred throughout society. I will continue having these conversations. These factors determine the importance placed on her attending school or a health clinic, her ability to make decisions that affect her life, to control household resources, and to take an active role in her community and beyond. So whilst we believe that gender equality is key to breaking the cycle of poverty, we realise that this cannot be tackled by focussing on girls and women alone. We need to understand what it means to be masculine - and how this can reinforce inequality between women and men. We need to educate boys and men about girls' and women's rights and the benefits of more equal positive relationships. As a result our programme interventions will be more effective, for example in preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS. We can see positive examples from all around the world about the proactive role which boys and men have played in creating more equal societies. Let me reflect on a few examples which have been supported by my Department: In Uganda, 1000 men joined together to campaign through door-to-door discussions, drama and outreach to sports and film centres to reduce gender-based violence. DFID is now developing a new programme advocating for the implementation of the Domestic Violence Act to the benefit of Ugandan women and men. Across South Asia, we are supporting programmes to change the attitudes and behaviours of boys and men. In rural Nepal influential men have been recruited to become advocates to tackle unequal power relations preventing women from participating in decision making. This has helped to speed up improvements in police responses to domestic violence. In Nigeria, DFID is developing a new programme to challenge harmful traditional practices such as early marriage through: innovative and dynamic media and communications; working with traditional and religious leaders; and raising awareness through boys' and men's community clubs and training DFID has also supported the development of a resource kit for teaching sexuality and HIV education with a strong gender and rights perspective, entitled 'It's All One Curriculum'. There has been overwhelming demand, with 12,000 copies already being disseminated to 103 countries. But today, I would like to focus on three particularly inspiring examples: South Africa, Ethiopia and Jamaica. DFID has been supporting great work with boys and men in each of these countries, and there is clear evidence about the impact these programmes have had on improving the lives of girls and women. Building on this evidence, DFID is scaling up new ambitious programmes. In South Africa, the figures are stark...42% of men have perpetrated violence against a partner, and 1 in 4 have raped. DFID has been a strong supporter of the 'One Man Can' Campaign in three provinces in South Africa. The programme runs workshops for boys and men to prevent domestic and sexual violence, reduce the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS and promote both gender equality and social justice. And the result? * Over 2000 boys and men attended the workshops * 25% of them accessed Voluntary Counseling and Testing within a few weeks of attending the workshop * 50% reported having witnessed acts of gender-based violence in their communities following the workshops * 61% reported having increased their own use of condoms, and * More than 4 out of 5 participants reported having subsequently talked to friends and family about HIV and AIDS, gender and human rights. Building on these successes, DFID is now planning a new 4 year programme in South Africa to prevent physical and sexual violence. This will continue to work with boys and men to address violent masculinities and provide alternative role models for them. Now, consider this simple fact: in some parts of Africa, half of all girls are married by the time they reach the age of 15. Parts of Ethiopia have the highest rates of child marriage in Africa. But early marriage doesn't have to be inevitable, as the results of a DFID pilot project in northern Ethiopia has shown. That project helped a whole community to come together to have a 'community conversation' about the consequences of young marriage. When project staff spoke to the young men in particular, they were struck by the difference in their attitudes compared with the older generation. Several of the boys said that they did not want to marry child brides. They wanted girls to speak up for themselves. Over the course of the 18 month pilot, not one of the 376 participating girls married. Instead, they stayed in school. Building on this successful pilot British aid will now help 200,000 girls directly - and many more indirectly - to delay their marriages and to stay in school. And we will work with men and boys to achieve that by continuing 'community conversations' which lead to a collective decision by the community to end the practice. Finally, I would like to reflect on a personal case of a former notorious gang member in Jamaica. For this man, the need for a change in lifestyle only dawned on him after the birth of his son, when he enrolled in a DFID supported vocational skills training programme. He was interested in learning but he struggled with feelings of anger and aggression. During training, he was exposed to weekly Life Skills sessions which allowed for reflection and introspection on his life. During one session he shared that his mother died when he was seven years old and his father had played no role in his life. The Life Skills support helped him to redefine his life. He went on to complete level two of the vocational training. He has subsequently been recruited by the Men with a Message initiative which uses former gang members to promote non-violence in schools and communities across Jamaica. I'm proud to say that, in Jamaica, where young men are 10 times more likely to be a victim of homicide than in the rest of the world, DFID is supporting a new Citizen Security and Justice Programme over 2011-13. The new programme builds on clear evidence which showed that targeting violence prevention programmes at male youth can reduce gender-based violence and will provide personal and material security for girls and women in communities which suffer from high levels of poverty and violence. The programme will improve security, and deliver basic services and economic opportunities to 50 of the most volatile communities in Jamaica. DFID support will help to establish community development committees; provide parenting education programmes for over 11,000 at risk families; and provide training for over 11,000 women and men on violence prevention, anti-violence and conflict-resolution. These examples are just a few which highlight the importance of engaging boys and men to build happier, more prosperous and fairer and safer lives. They also illustrate that investing in equality not only benefits girls and women, but boys and men also. Understanding what it means to be boy or a man in different societies, and how that can have positive and negative consequences is the basis for working them as partners to improve their lives, and the lives of girls and women. I completely and fully endorse on behalf of Her Majesty's Government Plan's report: boys and men must be seen as a crucial part of the solution, not simply as part of the problem. Thank you. Stephen O'Brien: On the role of boys and men in improving gender equality Stephen O’Brien's speech at the launch of Plan UK's State of the World’s Girls report, looking at the inclusion of boys and men in gender work 2011-10-13 49 In a meeting in London with the Joint Special Representative of the UN-AU Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) and Interim Joint Chief Mediator, Ibrahim Gambari, the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for International Development, Stephen Oa€™Brien, today condemned the ongoing violence in Darfur which has resulted in the death of four UNAMID peacekeepers in the last two months. On 6 November a UNAMID patrol came under attack in Nayala, resulting in the death of one Sierra Leonean peacekeeper and serious injury of two others. Just one month previously three peacekeepers were killed in Zam Zam camp just outside El Fasheer. The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State expressed his gratitude for the work done by UNAMID peacekeepers, and sent his condolences to the families of those killed. He said: "I salute these men, who work to improve the life of the people of Darfur despite continuing to face acts seeking to undermine this role." The Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State assured Mr Gambari of the UKa€™s support for the mission and urged the Government of Sudan to do everything possible to bring the perpetrators to justice. Stephen O'Brien: On attacks against peacekeepers in Darfur None 2011-11-10 50 I am delighted to be here with you to mark the opening of this conference. I travelled here last night from Mali where I had the opportunity to see for myself the realities that women and young girls face in getting access to comprehensive reproductive health services. And this morning here in Dakar, I visited an Association SÃ(C)nÃ(C)galaise pour le Bien-Étre Familial (ASBEF), an International Planned Parenthood Federation member association, to see women receiving reproductive health information, services and supplies. There I met a woman called Jan. Jan told me how she had wanted to have two children. Having now had 10 children, she was at the clinic to get family planning so she would not face any further unintended pregnancies and would be able to return to her studies and support her family. It is for Jan and the 215 million like her who have an unmet need for family planning that this conference is happening. And it is also the reason that the UK is committed to doubling our efforts for womena€™s health to save the lives of at least 50,000 women in pregnancy and childbirth, enable 10 million more women to use modern methods of family planning and prevent more than 5 million unintended pregnancies by 2015. ### Why are we doing this? For two key reasons: Firstly, we know that women and girls hold the key to development. The UK has reorientated its aid programme to put women at the heart of its development efforts, empowering women to make choices for their own and their familiesa€™ health and lives, deciding for themselves: whether, when and how many children to have. Secondly, it is time to put Family Planning back at the forefront of reproductive health and development. Investing in reproductive, maternal and newborn health is excellent value for money and, family planning is a "best buy" in global health due to its low cost and far reaching benefits. Of course, I must also mention the challenge of population growth and its impacts on countries. This is an issue that the UK Department for International Development (DFID) will not shy away from. However, let me make one thing absolutely clear: the British Government does not support programmes that coerce individuals and couples to have fewer children. Population "control", in the sense of government edicts and targets on fertility levels, has no ethical place in contemporary rights based development policy. In practice taking this agenda forward means a wide variety of work for DFID. DFID is providing £100 million over five years to the United Nations Population Fund's (UNFPA) Global Programme for Reproductive Health Commodity Security that is supporting National Governments to improve their supply chains for family planning and other reproductive health medicines. I also visited this programme whilst in Mali and was impressed to see women at clinics outside of Bamako supported by Marie Stopes International being given access to contraceptive implants that will protect them for up to five years from unintended pregnancy. I also visited the central medical stores where I saw newly arrived shipments of implants and other commodities procured by UNFPA with DFID support. My hope is that next time I return, these supplies will have been replaced by further shipments and that the commodities I saw would be saving the lives of women across Mali. And it for this reason, that I am pleased to announce that we have just agreed to provide an additional £35 million through that programme. Our funding will increase method mix by enabling at least 1.6 million more women to have access to contraceptive implants. Our funding will also support the Co-ordinated Assistance for Reproductive Health Supplies (CARHs) Group - a rapid response -style unit which will procure and deliver up to 6 months worth of contraceptive supplies to countries where stocks are running out to give local providers an opportunity to find lasting solutions. Empowering adolescent girls is another key part of our strategy. In Rwanda, the Ministry of Health, Nike Foundation and DFID are working to make a real difference to the lives of 10 -12 year olds. The programme provides young girls with a mentor and safe space to learn about their bodies and reproductive health in a fun and creative way. We also recognise that the barriers to a healthy life are often social or financial so the girls in this programme also get training in finance and literacy. I believe that by working together, we can transform the lives of women, their families and communities, now and for generations to come. The opportunity is now. The challenge before us is clear. Leta€™s make sure we use these next few days to really advance our collective cause. I wish you a successful conference. Thank you. Stephen O'Brien: Family planning to transform women's lives Parliamentary Under Secretary of State Stephen O'Brien speaks at the opening of the International Conference for Family Planning in Senegal 2011-11-29 51 Let me start my remarks today, on World AIDS Day, in joining with you all to pay tribute to those who have relentlessly led action against the epidemic, particularly those living with HIV, and also to remember the millions of people who have lost their lives to AIDS. These efforts have delivered successes over the last decade: * nearly 7 million people are now on treatment, * the epidemic has stabilised in most regions with a 17% reduction in new infections in 2008 compared to 2001, * and the price of first line AIDS drugs has fallen considerably. For example, the Clinton Health Access Initiative, with UK support, has managed to significantly lower the cost of one life-saving first-line AIDS drug. We calculate the cost savings from the UK's investment alone will enable an additional half a million people to access treatment. But there is of course a tremendous way to go, particularly for women who bare a disproportionate burden of the disease. Globally AIDS is one of the leading causes of death among women of reproductive age - and a major cause of maternal ill health, particularly in high prevalence settings. That is why it is highly significant that World AIDS Day coincides this year with the International Family Planning Conference. It is important that the dual issues of HIV and family planning are discussed together, and I want to highlight three reasons why. ## Choices for women and men  Firstly, it is about a comprehensive approach. Women and men, including those who are living with HIV and AIDS, need access to a comprehensive range of affordable and quality information, services and supplies that will empower them to make informed reproductive health choices. Choices that will protect their right to health and prevent infection of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).  Choices that protect their right to have the number of children they desire at the timing of their choice, as well as access safe abortion services if needed. A comprehensive approach will meet the needs of individual circumstances and preferences. For example, some people may choose to use condoms - evidence tells us that correct and consistent use provides significant protection against unwanted pregnancy and STIs including HIV. For women unable to persuade their husband or partner to wear a male condom, the female condom is an important female-initiated option which gives women greater control. But globally in 2009, only one female condom was available for every 36 women!  That is not enough! We need to considerably increase access to affordable, quality female condoms and do this more effectively than we have to date. ### Female condoms That is why I am delighted today to be able to announce that the UK Government will be providing an additional £5 million to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security. At current prices this will enable UNFPA to procure at least 13.5 million female condoms. By committing our resources up front and working with others to negotiate with manufacturers, we can leverage price reductions which will enable even more commodities to be bought - saving even more lives. And yet for many other women, condoms are not a realistic long-term option. For those who are married, who want to conceive, or those at risk of sexual violence - for these women, there is a critical need to develop female initiated HIV prevention options, such as a safe and effective microbicide. Once developed and shown to be safe, microbicides will provide women with a new method of protecting themselves from HIV, without restricting their choices to bear children.  For women who want to avoid pregnancy, advances in microbicide development could, in the longer term, support new dual protection technologies a€“ a ring to act as a microbicide against HIV and also as a contraceptive to prevent unplanned pregnancies. ### Family planning and HIV services  So firstly we need a comprehensive approach to family planning that incorporates HIV. Secondly, we need to improve how sexual and reproductive health and HIV services are integrated so that clients are better provided for. This means making a number of different services available 'under one roof', without compromising quality of care. For example, we have seen successes in integrating the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV within antenatal and delivery care. Providing pregnant women living with HIV with antiretroviral prevention and treatment reduces the risk of a child being born with the virus to less than 5%a€”and just as importantly keeps their mothers alive to raise them. Although international consensus on the value of integrated services is strong and growing, vertical programming is too often the reality on the ground, usually reflecting the structure of organisations and funding mechanisms. And we need to admit that gaps remain in the availability of skilled and experienced staff needed to translate integrated services into practice. ### Reaching those most at risk of HIV  But thirdly, we must also recognise that particular vulnerable groups at higher risk of pregnancy and infection, such as adolescent girls, women living with HIV, and sex workers, may also need tailored services. These groups are sadly often subject to considerable stigma and discrimination in health care settings.  In order to improve services, we need greater understanding of how to best meet sexual and reproductive health and HIV prevention, treatment, care and support needs of these key populations in specific contexts. And we must not forget men, and men who have sex with men specifically, who are underserved by both HIV and sexual and reproductive health programmes. Because of these three reasons a€“ the need for a comprehensive approach to contraception, the need to improve the integration of quality HIV and sexual and reproductive health services, and the need to reach those most vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection a€“ the HIV and sexual and reproductive health communities must work together. Before ending I will briefly touch upon the issue that you will be discussing further after this plenary ends - the recent research findings which have raised concerns about the potentially higher risk of HIV acquisition and transmission, among women using hormonal contraceptives. Most experts agree that the evidence remains inconclusive, and the policy implications potentially confusing.  I would like to take this opportunity to let you know that like our colleagues in USAID, we in DFID urge cautious interpretation until further consultation and conclusive research is undertaken. In the meantime, we continue to promote the use of male and female condoms alongside highly effective methods of contraceptives to ensure dual protection. ## Conclusion DFIDa€™s commitment to increase access to reproductive, maternal and newborn health services with access to family planning and safe abortion, offers important opportunities for integration, particularly in countries where creative collaborations between HIV and other services are urgently needed. I look forward to the outcome of your important discussions on these issues this afternoon. Stephen O'Brien: Integrating HIV and family planning services Parliamentary Under Secretary of State Stephen O'Brien speaks at the International Conference for Family Planning in Dakar, Senegal 2011-12-01 52 Let me start by saying what a privilege it is to be here in Senegal and to be with you all at this important and timely international conference. And particularly to thanks the US Ambassador for hosting this reception and allowing me to give say a few words. The British Government is proud to be giving more women the choices they crave. To enable them to choose whether, when and how many children they have. We know that 215 million couples who want to delay or avoid a pregnancy do not have access to effective methods of contraception. We believe it is high time their needs were met. We are proud to be playing our part in meeting the unmet need for family planning. Many countries, especially those with high fertility rates in sub-Saharan Africa, face considerable challenges - but also, with the right policy choices and investments - potential opportunities. At the end of last month, the world marked the birth of the 7 billionth person. Some people say that population is too difficult or too sensitive a subject to address or even to talk about.  Many development agencies wona€™t discuss the causes and consequences of rapid population growth, in case they are accused of removing free choice or forcing individuals to have fewer children.  I want to make three things crystal clear: * First - the British Government is proud to be increasing our investment in voluntary family planning programmes that protect and respect rights. * Second, we do not support programmes that coerce individuals and couples to have fewer children. Population control, in the sense of government edicts and targets on fertility levels, has no ethical place in development policy making. * And third - we will not shy away from talking about population a€“ about global population growth and its impacts on development. Where fertility is very high, ita€™s inevitable that national governments will feel the strain of providing even basic services, and may struggle to cope with increasing demands. Natural resources - water and fuel wood, food and land, are also likely to come under increasing pressure. And poor people, those most reliant on the natural environment for their basic survival, are likely to feel the greatest impact.  Is that right and fair? In meeting the unmet need, we are protecting and respecting rights. ### Challenges and opportunities But I do want to return briefly to the challenges and opportunities we discussed at the high level meeting today, particularly those presented by changing population dynamics, and how they impact on economic growth and development. The main challenge and opportunity is whether Governments can a€“ or will a€“ achieve the demographic dividend a€“ that small window of additional economic growth which can be achieved from a changing age structure brought about by declining fertility. But there are some warning notes to sound: * The demographic dividend is not guaranteed a€“ but the more rapid the fertility decline, the more likely countries that will realise it. * Other prerequisites are also required a€“ investments in human capital a€“ especially education and training for girls and women, job creation, open trade policies, incentives to saving and capital accumulation a€“ are all needed. Expanding access to a comprehensive range of quality contraceptives is one of the most cost-effective investments a country can make to accelerate its demographic transition. We need to work together, including with private sector and civil society organisations, to ensure quality reproductive health supplies are affordable and accessible a€“ particularly to meet the meet the needs of the poorest and most marginalised women. All of us attending this Conference agree - women need better access to sexual and reproductive health information, services and supplies, including family planning. Both, short-term, reversible methods for those who want to delay or space a pregnancy, and safe longer acting or permanent methods for those who have decided not to have any more children. And this also means a greater focus on the needs of young people. This includes adolescent girls who all too often arena€™t able to set the terms for when they have sex, when they get married, and when they start having children. We need to work towards a shared vision of a world where women and girls are empowered to make these choices for themselves. Providing access to family planning to the 215 million women who have a current unmet need is crucial.  The UNa€™s medium population projection for 2050 is a world population of 9.3 billion a€“ but it is based on the assumption that the family planning gap is closed.  We must work harder and put renewed emphasis on reproductive health, especially family planning. If we dona€™t take collective action now and invest in better and more accessible family planning services a€“ then the higher UN projection of around 11 billion people by 2050 begins to look more realistic. And what will that mean for the provision of basic services?  What will that mean for sustainable growth and development? Of course, the opposite is also true, too. If we do, collectively, get our act together and make real progress towards Universal Access then the lower UN projection seems less out of reach and the other, broader benefits possible through the demographic dividend, are become closer too. ### Women at the heart of development So Universal Access has to be our goal: women want and need it; it saves womena€™s and childrena€™s lives; it can help reach the Millennium Development Goals and drive broader economic growth and development and it offers incredible value for money.  The UK is committed at the highest level to providing international leadership to achieve Universal Access to family planning. We are also working to ensure that population is recognised in discussions on development in an open, honest and constructive way. Rapid population growth will only slow and contribute to economic growth and development when women are educated and empowered to take control of their sexual and reproductive lives. That is why the UK Government has put women and girls front and centre of our development efforts. And that is why we are committed to working with all, including not least our colleagues in the US Government through the Alliance for Reproductive, Maternal and Newborn Health, to improve womena€™s reproductive health. Thank you. Stephen O'Brien: Challenges and opportunities of family planning and population growth Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, Stephen O'Brien, speaks about the challenges and opportunities of family planning and population growth at the International Conference for Family Planning in Senegal 2011-11-29 53 I would like to thank the APPG for organising this event and for their review, which the Government welcomes. I think it makes a compelling case for action. We need to make still greater progress against HIV and TB co-infection - and the double cruelty it can represent. Every year there are 9 million new cases of TB, including one million cases amongst people living with HIV.  Alarmingly, we are seeing half a million cases of multi-drug resistant TB.  And every year there are nearly 2 million deaths.  Likewise, AIDS is one of the leading causes of death of women of reproductive age globally and there are still more than 7,400 new infections every day. 10 million people are not getting the treatment they need.  Only 140,000 TB patients living with HIV received ART in 2009. We have made progress on both these fronts.    Incidence of TB has been declining slowly since a peak in 2004, and there is an 86% treatment success rate when the WHO recommended approach is used.  HIV infection rates are also levelling off globally, with over 5 million people now accessing AIDS treatment, which is a 10-fold increase over five years.  Front line challenges for tackling TB include drug resistance and the need for more research and better drugs and diagnostics.  On the HIV side, we need to scale up successes in prevention and find sustainable ways meet the need for treatment, care and support in an accessible and affordable way.  These challenges are compounded by co-infection.  Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death among HIV infected people.  In 2009, cases of co-infection accounted for 23% of all TB deaths and 22% of all deaths among people living with HIV.  Nelson Mandela made it clear back in 2004: a€œWe cana€™t fight HIV unless we do much more to fight TB.a€ As is so often the case, people in Africa bear the brunt of both diseases, as is also too often the case, a double dose of stigma and discrimination as well, which in turn inhibits people getting tested and seeking help.  But both TB and HIV are global problems, and both disproportionately affect the most vulnerable and marginalised of society.  For example, TB amongst injecting drug users, or prisoners, in the concentrated HIV epidemics is of particular concern.  That is the problem.   What are we going to do about it? I am proud to serve in a Coalition Government that, even in tough times, has protected the aid budget and the pledge to reach the target of 0.7% of Gross National Income spent on development.  Ia€™m also proud to serve in a Parliament where we have cross-party consensus that this is the right thing to do.  Our Secretary of State has said we will not balance the budget on the backs of the worlds poorest.  That includes those living with HIV and TB.  We are equally clear about the responsibility that comes with these resources, the responsibility to spend taxpayersa€™ money well; to deliver aid that is accounted for transparently; to ensure our support delivers value for money and gets where it is most needed.  That is why on 1 March we published a€˜UK Aid a€“ Changing Lives, Delivering Resultsa€™- setting out the results of our Multilateral and Bilateral Aid Reviews, which we commissioned immediately after we took office.   This document builds on our commitment to put the health of women and girls front and centre of our development effort a€“ and, specifically, to scale up improvements in the areas of reproductive, maternal and newborn health and malaria.  The results we will deliver in these two areas are set out in two Frameworks for Results, published in December. The results as summarised in a€˜UK Aid a€“ Changing Lives, Delivering Resultsa€™ are necessarily high-level.  The detail will follow as DFID country offices develop their operational plans for taking results forward.   We have also committed to set out our objectives on HIV and TB by May.   But I can tell you today we remain committed to the global goal of halving deaths from TB by 2015 through delivery of the revised Global Plan to Stop TB.  And to the goal, which was reiterated at Muskoka, to come as close as possible to universal access to HIV prevention, AIDS treatment care and support. To address TB- HIV co-infection, I think we need to drive forward progress in three areas: The first is to increase access to and use of effective diagnosis and treatment of TB, including TB-HIV co-infection.  DFID will do this through our bilateral and multilateral support, as well as through our investment in research and product development into more effective treatment and vaccines. DFID invested £10.7 million on TB-related research through our bilateral research programme alone in 2009/10.  UK government research support includes a focus on developing drugs and vaccines for HIV and AIDS, TB and malaria and other diseases that most affect poor people. We support TB research through multilateral and bilateral research programmes a€“ for instance the Tropical Disease Research special programme to gain better evidence about how to best combine therapy for HIV and TB co-infection, which is receiving £14 million UK government funding for 2008-13.   The government is also providing £20.5 million for 2008-13 to the Global Alliance for TB Drug Development, which has the largest single portfolio of potential TB compounds ever assembled, with two drugs in late stage clinical development.  The TB Alliance is developing new drugs which can be used by people who are also infected with HIV with minimal drug-drug interaction for people and who are on anti-retroviral treatment.  The Alliance is also developing novel methods to test combinations of new TB drugs, rather than testing each drug individually.  They have identified a few regimens that are better than standard therapy and should be active in treating drug resistant TB.  The first clinical trial to test multiple new TB drugs was launched in November 2010 and the preliminary results are expected later this year.  They offer promise in treating both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant TB, potentially making scale-up of Multi-Drug Resistant treatment worldwide much cheaper and easier than anything available to date.   A new, improved TB vaccine is an essential part of the global strategy to curb the epidemic of TB and TB/HIV co-infection and disease.   DFID is supporting Aeras and its partners (with £10.5m for 2009-2014) to test vaccines to see if they are safe and effective in preventing TB in HIV positive people.  So Ia€™m delighted that this yeara€™s World TB Day focuses on innovation in research and delivery.  This Government is committed to finding innovative solutions to challenges in development, including harnessing the creative energy of the private sector.  Secondly, we need to support health systems, including in particular, the integration of HIV and TB services.  Coordination between the services for the two diseases is improving, but much remains to be done.  Improvements in prevention and treatment of HIV and AIDS will benefit TB control. We will continue to focus on both HIV and TB, and on strengthening the underlying health systems in order to improve the way health services diagnose and treat illnesses, including TB and TB-HIV.   Strengthening health systems in DFID partner countries helps to support and deliver TB programmes by building the long term capacity across health services in partner countries to enable them to identify and address TB, especially in poor areas.  We do this through supporting national health plans directly or through support to multilateral organisations such as the World Bank. Finally we need to address the underlying poverty and social drivers that put people at risk of infection and once infected of becoming sick: poor housing, poor working conditions, drug use and poor nutrition.  Integration of nutritional support with HIV services is also essential.  We also need to address the factors that make people, and women in particular, vulnerable to HIV, including harmful gender norms and gender based violence.   We are already contributing to this agenda in a number of countries.   For example, DFID is working with the Government of South Africa to expand the quality and access of public sector services including tuberculosis control, and increasing the speed with which new ART/-TB drugs get registered as they become available elsewhere. In South Africa, reducing the levels of HIV and improving the quality and reach of public health services are key objectives of DFID support. They are central to reducing the burden of TB in the country Our support for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis (TB) and Malaria will also be important to reaching a range of countries most in need.  In the Multilateral Aid Review, the Global Fund was assessed as providing very good value for money for UK Aid. Our future funding will still be conditional; we want to see evidence of progress against a suite of reforms designed to improve the way the Fund does business and maximise its impact, and we want to see these reforms implemented with pace and urgency.  The UK will also encourage other partners to meet their commitments to the Fund. The UK government has made a 20-year commitment to UNITAID of up to a‚¬60 million per year. UNITAID aims to triple access to rapid test for multi-drug resistant TB and reduce the price of drug resistant TB medicines by twenty-five percent. I see our partnership with civil society as the final piece of the jigsaw.  The commitment of people in this room to keeping both HIV and TB high on the international agenda is invaluable.  It would be all to easy to say that the progress we have made is the best that can be achieved; that it is time to turn to other priorities.   Instead, in partnership, let us finish what we have begun. TB and HIV in Africa International Development Minister Stephen O’Brien’s speech to the All Party Parliamentary Group on Global Tuberculosis meeting on TB and HIV in Africa, Tuesday 22 March 2011 2011-03-22 54 At a recent debate in the House of Commons to celebrate the centenary of [International Women's Day](/Stories/Features/2011/International-Womens-Day-2011/), I was delighted to celebrate the great strides which have been made in the recognition and promotion of womena€™s rights over the last one hundred years.  Yet despite these advances we are still faced with enormous challenges. Every year over a third of a million women die from avoidable deaths in pregnancy and childbirth.  Globally, 10 million more girls are out of school than boys.  And as we face new and increasing challenges of climate change and the global financial crisis, it is girls and women in the poorest countries who are hit the hardest.  Girls and women continue to bear the disproportionate burden of global poverty. Yet evidence shows us that investing in girls and women makes sound economic sense and is critical to achieving the MDGs. Better educated women earn more, have lower fertility rates and healthier children - benefiting girls and women themselves, their families, communities and economies. We must seize each and every opportunity as it arises.  New opportunities such as the innovative use of mobile phones and the internet are now playing an important role in enabling girls and women to do business more efficiently, get the skills and information they need and hold decision makers to account.  The creation of UN Women is an important step in enabling the international system to deliver for girls and women.  At the launch of UN Women on 24 February, the UK Government welcomed the agency and set out its high hopes for this new body.  We are already providing transitional support to make sure it gets off to the strongest possible start. We are all part of the global Big Society and it is as much in our interests as it is our moral duty to get involved in tackling the tremendous challenges which face girls and women in developing countries.   Ia€™m delighted that so many of you are doing this through participating in the Women Reaching Women project. I know that many of you, in partnership with Oxfam and the Everyone Foundation, have been involved in developing learning resources and leading or taking part in training days. Crucially, you have also been learning what actions you can take to contribute to improving the lives of some of the worlda€™s poorest women, and sharing this knowledge with your communities.  My Department has put girls and women at the front and centre of all of our business. On International Womena€™s Day last month we launched a new Strategic Vision for Girls and Women to drive forward action that will bring transformational changes to the lives of girls and women in the poorest countries.  Wea€™ve identified four areas where we want to see dramatic changes.  We are committed to: * Delaying first pregnancy and supporting safe child birth, * Getting girls through primary and secondary school, * Getting economic assets directly to girls and women, and  * Preventing violence against girls and women.   In all of our work, we are giving new priority to adolescent girls.  We know that if girls have choice and control over decisions during adolescence, their life chances improve a€“ they are better able to delay pregnancy and marriage, complete school and gain life skills.  This creates  a virtuous circle that helps to prevent the transmission of poverty from one generation to the next, driving lasting change within societies. Tackling violence against girls and women is a top priority for us and for the whole of Whitehall. Here in DFID, we have produced a strategy for tackling this issue at home and abroad.  Meanwhile, the Prime Minister has appointed Lynne Featherstone as the Governmenta€™s Ministerial Champion for Tackling Violence Against Girls and Women Overseas a€“ an indication of our commitment at the highest levels to tackle this abhorrent human rights abuse.  Our strategic vision also highlights our commitment to delay first pregnancy and support safe child birth.  I am pleased to receive copies of your Muma€™s Matter campaign petition. You can be sure of the coalition government commitment to improve maternal health. We are determined to tackle the scandal of women dying in childbirth. In December last year, following the Millennium Development Goals Review Summit, we launched, a Framework for Results for improving reproductive, maternal and newborn health, called a€œChoices for women; Planned Pregnancies, Safe Births and Healthy Newbornsa€. The framework sets out how we will: * save the lives of at least 50,000 women during pregnancy and childbirth and 250,000 newborn babies by 2015 * enable at least 10 million more women to use modern methods of family planning by 2015, including up to 1 million young women * prevent more than 5 million unintended pregnancies * support at least 2 million safe deliveries, ensuring long lasting improvements in quality maternity services, particularly for the poorest 40%. We recognise that to achieve these results we also need to increase the power of girls and women to make informed choices and control the decisions that affect them. We need laws that protect their rights, and we need to increase the value given to girls and women by society and by the boys and men around them.  For example, in Uganda our support to the Centre for Domestic Violence Prevention has resulted in 1000 men joining together to prevent domestic violence through forming action groups to promote girlsa€™ and womena€™s rights.  We also need to work directly with girls and women to understand the difficulties they face.  DFID is working with the Nike Foundation, through an innovative partnership called the Girl Hub, to provide adolescent girls with a means to communicate what matters to them and to support decision makers and donors to do more for girls and to do it better.   In Rwanda, Nigeria and Ethiopia, the Girl Hub has undertaken research to learn more about girls' ambition and the realities of their lives.  This research is helping the Girl Hub in Ethiopia to work with the BBC World Service Trust to bring girls' stories to audiences across the country, and to build a national conversation about the issues faced by girls. My Department will also work with all UK-funded multilateral organisations to step up progress for girls and women. And we will keep a close eye on the implementation of the European Union commitments on gender equality and women's empowerment in development. How will we know when wea€™ve succeeded?  We will know we have succeeded when girls are routinely going to secondary school in the countries wea€™re supporting.  When maternal mortality rates and the age at which adolescent girls and women first give birth are falling. When girls and women have access to economic assets, including land, and are able to make productive use of them.  When fewer women suffer violence.  And, most importantly, when women and girls themselves tell us that their lives have improved. Women Reaching Women Conference International Development Minister Stephen O’Brien’s speech to the National Federation of Women's Institutes – Women Reaching Women Conference, Tuesday 12 April 2011 2011-04-12 55 In [my statement of 22 July 2010](/News/Latest-news/2010/Airport-to-revitalise-British-St-Helena/) I confirmed the Governmenta€™s willingness to finance an airport for St Helena on condition that: * an acceptable contract price is achieved * the risk of cost and time overruns after the award of the contract is addressed * the airport design using Engineered Material Arresting System (EMAS) is approved by Air Safety Support International * the St Helena Government undertake to implement the reforms needed to open the island's economy to inward investment and increased tourism. I am pleased to announce that these conditions have now been met. A Design Build and Operate (DBO) contract for the St Helena airport will be signed with Basil Read (Pty) Ltd. today. The airport will end five centuries of isolation for this UK Overseas Territory, which to date has been accessible only by sea. It will provide its British population with the means to build a future which, in the long term, is expected to lead to financial self-sustainability and an end to UK budgetary aid. This vision of a more vibrant, self-sufficient Territory would not be possible if we were to provide a replacement ship. Continued sea access as the only way to get to and from St. Helena would consign the island to a bleak future of further emigration and economic decline. The contract will be in the amount of £201.5 million for the design and construction of the airport, with an additional amount of up to £10 million in shared risk contingency, and £35.1 million for ten years of operation. We are confident that both the negotiated price and the allocation of risk represent value for money for the British taxpayer. In the long run, and including the investment cost, the decision to proceed with the airport is expected to save money for the UK taxpayer. The contract represents a better deal for the taxpayer than that negotiated in 2008, a saving of more than 20% in real terms, taking into account inflation and the value of the pound. Andrew Mitchell: Building an airport for St Helena Written Ministerial Statement to Parliament by International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell: 2011-11-03 56 The Secretary of State for International Development (Mr. Andrew Mitchell):  In October 2010 I informed the House of the Governmenta€™s decision to reconfigure CDC in order radically to increase its development impact. In my previous statement I set out the objectives of this reform and announced a public consultation, as well as the commissioning of a number of independent studies.  The results of that consultation and the four studies have been published on the DFID website. The International Development Committee of this House has since conducted an inquiry into the future of CDC.  Its report was published on 3 March 2011, and the Governmenta€™s response was given on 4 May. I can now inform the House that the Government and the CDC Board have agreed a new High Level Business Plan, published during the Whitsun recess on 31 May, which sets out how CDC will carry through the reforms I proposed last October. CDC will be more focused on the poor than any other Development Finance Institution, building further on its strong concentration on the poorer countries in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.  In future, all CDCa€™s new investment commitments will be for the benefit of these two regions, where over 70% of the worlda€™s poorest people live.  In India, CDC will move to a concentration on the 8 poorest Indian States.  CDC will not invest in regions or sectors which are already well-served by private investors, such as large-scale mining in many countries. Otherwise, it will be responsible for selecting, on the basis of the strongest anticipated development outcomes, investments from across a wide range of sectors.  CDC will aim to reduce the proportion of its portfolio held in other countries outside the new focus regions over time to 15-20 % by 2015.  It will not invest in the better-off developing countries, unless for the benefit of poorer countries in the relevant region.  There will be a new performance framework for CDC, focused on development impact rather than CDCa€™s own profitability.  It will be a development-maximising, not a profit-maximising, enterprise.  CDC will measure the impact of its investments on generation of incomes and tax revenues, broader private sector development, mobilising private capital, and improving socially and environmentally responsible management in beneficiary companies.  Stretching targets will be set for these indicators for CDC to meet and they will be reviewed annually.  CDC will become bolder and more pioneering in its approach to innovation and risk: being more creative and accepting higher financial risks where these are justified by greater development benefits.  It will reach the parts that other emerging market investors too often dona€™t.  But it will still ensure that it remains sufficiently profitable to offset the cost of the taxpayersa€™ money invested in it, as defined by Her Majestya€™s Treasury.  Whilst development impact will be the driver, CDC will also look to build the companies in which it invests into commercially sustainable enterprises.  CDC will no longer exclusively operate indirectly, through private equity funds managed by others, but will work through a wider range of intermediaries - and importantly build up its own direct investments.   It will do this gradually and initially only through co-financing with other lead investors, as it redevelops its capacity to seek out and manage direct investments.  Likewise, it will offer lending as well as equity financing, with the aim of increasing the share of loan instruments in its portfolio.  CDC will continue to make new commitments to private equity fund managers, and to support and develop suitable local investment management firms, but with the aim of reducing the fund of funds share of its assets to some 60% by 2015.  In running down this part of its portfolio, the realisation of full value for money for the taxpayer will remain the primary consideration.  The Remuneration Framework agreed for CDC by the previous government, which aimed to align CDC remuneration with Private Equity Fund of Funds firms in the City of London, has led to inflated remuneration.  A study by independent consultants has indicated that in comparison with other publicly owned development finance institutions, and with private foundations doing similar work, CDC remuneration has risen far above the median levels elsewhere.  We must bring pay and bonuses down to a level that is fair and appropriate, but not excessive, for a publicly owned body whose very purpose is to reduce poverty. The CDC Board will take immediate action to cut bonus levels by 50% for this year.  Once a new CDC Chief Executive is in place, the government will agree with CDC's Board how to restructure pay to attract, motivate and retain people with the attitude and skills necessary to take part in this exciting new phase of CDC's existence.   The new remuneration framework will prioritise development results rather than profitability and any performance-related pay will be largely deferred and based on long-term performance.  In response to the public consultation on CDC, CDC will publish a new disclosure policy aimed at making its work as transparent as possible.  While observing the constraints of commercial confidentiality and the Data Protection Act, CDC will publish more information on the businesses using its capital, the funds investing it, and the economic impact of investments; and on CDCa€™s remuneration and operating costs.  More of CDCa€™s evaluations will be conducted independently, going beyond the current 50%; and as much evaluation material as possible will be published that does not jeopardise commercial confidentiality.  CDCa€™s Investment Policy, agreed with DFID, will also be published.  CDC will update its Investment Code to reflect the latest international standards and best practice and will continue to ensure, by means of independent external audit, that its compliance and implementation is properly monitored. CDC has strengthened its policy on taxation: where it is within CDC's discretion as originating or sole investor, CDC will not make new investments in or through harmful tax regimes, or regimes which do not comply with international tax transparency and exchange of information standards (as defined by the OECD and Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes).  Where CDC does not have such discretion, CDC will make a judgment on the merits of the proposed new investment against the nature of the tax regime - and be transparent about that judgment.  CDC will also be transparent in its dealings from a tax perspective. Information will be published on taxes paid within CDC's portfolio and, if specific information cannot be published, CDC will explain why.  DFID will work more closely with CDC, both at country level and at the centre. CDCa€™s business plan will be reviewed annually and CDC will report annually to the Secretary of State on achievement against its targets, which we will publish.  The Board of CDC has responded willingly and constructively to the recent scrutiny of its work and to the changes that the Government has proposed.  There is now the opportunity to strengthen CDCa€™s role as a leading instrument in the UKa€™s policy for accelerating poverty reduction in the poorer countries through enterprise and economic growth. Andrew Mitchell on the reform of CDC Group plc Written statement from the International Development Secretary to the House of Commons None 2011-06-07 57 Ladies and gentleman. Your Excellencies. Fellow colleagues [from the House of Commons and Lords]. It is a pleasure to be with you this evening and learn about WWF's work. As my colleague [the Right Honourable] Malcolm Bruce [is aware] [has mentioned], the Department for International Development  is a "WWF supporter", one of the many across the world. So it's been a wonderful opportunity to hear from David Nussbaum, Denise Hamu from Brazil and Jo Fox about what Brazil has been doing to promote the sustainable management of forests in partnership with WWF, Sky and other partners, like HSBC. This has given us a taste a€“ with a Brazilian Amazon flavour -  of what can be done in reality on the ground to protect and manage forests for the benefit of poor people. It seems that success needs us to take two approaches. The first focuses on the underlying causes that drive illegal logging and illegal conversion of forests to other uses a€“  with "legality" based on the sovereignty of each forest nation. The second, is to strengthen the positive and direct market incentives for people who depend upon and manage natural resources so they can improve their lives. Brazil is in the vanguard on both. On the first, tackling the underlying causes of illegal logging and deforestation. Brazil has assigned clear responsibilities amongst different agencies and levels of government -Federal, State, Municipal - for forests, for enforcement of forest laws and for monitoring their compliance, including, as we have heard, in the State of Acre. Acre's "System for Incentives for Environmental Services" - the SISA law - came into force last October. It lays out clearly what new institutions  will be required for regulating, rewarding and monitoring  enterprises that sustainably manage forests  -with the water, carbon and biodiversity services that forests provide. However, to implement this system _effective_ institutions will be key. This means insitutions with technical capacity, but _also_ which involve private sector and forest-dependent people in some way. And for a system of incentives like this to _benefit_ poor people, clarity on who has exclusive rights over which natural resources will also be important. People that depend on forests  for rubber or asai fruit or fish often find their livelihoods are at risk because production of commodities like soya bean, palm oil and beef drive deforestation. However, Brazil has taken great strides in tackling this problem and is rolling out its forest monitoring and transparency system, which in turn should ensure that poor people living in and around forests are not deprived of their livelihoods. I am happy that DFID's support to WWF has contributed to work in this area. On the second approach, bringing people to markets and markets to people. This can be tricky for poor people living in remote forest areas far from market centres. But by helping rubber tree tappers improve their practices and make better quality sheets suitable for local shoe sole manufacturing, the WWF partnership has helped Amazonian peoples regenerate their livelihoods. Markets _are_ changing a€“ locally and globally. Buyers markets in particular. Consumers in Europe and elsewhere wish to know that the products they purchase comply with sound  business practice and are from sustainable and legal sources. The new European Illegal Timber Regulation that recently came into force in December is a case in point. It makes first sale in the EU of timber that has been illegally harvested elsewhere, an offence. This will give consumers confidence that the tropical wood they buy is not from dodgy sources.  Making life better for the poor people who live in and around forests a€“ 1.2 billion of them a€“ is about _more_ than development policy. It is also about trade and market incentives whether for rubber, timber or carbon. So - congratulations to WWF, its partners and supporters in UK. It has been a wonderful evening of lessons from the Amazon - a "Brazilian cocktail" of experience. WWF 50th Anniversary: Viva Amazonia Speech by PUSS Stephen O'Brien at the WWF 50th Anniversary 'Viva Amazonia' event at Portcullis House on 15 February 2011. None 2011-02-16 58 Every country has the right to defend itself. Indeed, it is the first duty of government to protect its citizens.  Over the last few decades, global efforts to prevent and reduce violent conflict and civil wars have grown and strengthened. International peace operations a€“ often based on new alliances between the North and the South - have played a vital role in bringing stability to fragile states. But for many countries, conflict and instability remain intractable problems, fuelled by the unregulated and irresponsible trade in arms.  This year, the world faces a new opportunity to prevent and reduce violent conflict as nations come together in New York in July to try to conclude negotiations on a new arms trade treaty.  Over the last forty years there have been many negotiations dealing with aspects of arms and defence. There were the series of negotiations aimed at reducing the bloated armouries built up during the cold war. There were then a series of nuclear anti-proliferation discussions. More recently there have been conventions that have addressed specific aspects of the arms trade, such as the Ottawa Convention that bans the sale of landmines, or the UN Programme of Action on the Illicit Trade of Small Arms and Light Weapons. The latter has commendable aims and has begun to address the problem of small arms and light weapons but is limited in its focus, is non-binding, and has been hampered by disagreement.  Through the Arms Trade Treaty we now have the chance to agree a mechanism which comprehensively regulates the trade in all conventional weapons, big and small. This is a development issue just as much as it is security issue. Without security, children cannot go to school, hospitals cannot function, farming cannot take place and commerce cannot thrive. In short, violent conflict and insecurity engrain poverty. They threaten our chances of setting this world on a path to peace and prosperity. We have witnessed time and time again conflict and violence being fuelled by the illicit trade in weapons. It is the small arms - the guns and rifles - that have empowered armed groups, and which have escalated armed violence, resulting in millions of deaths. ### The illegal trade in arms costs lives and blights futures. More than 740,000 men, women, and children die each year as a result of armed violence. Two thirds of these deaths occur in countries that are not in conflict. What does this show us? It shows us that easy access to portable weapons is a major factor in causing these deaths.    This Government is determined to do everything within its power to make sure that the most rigorous international standards are applied to the export of, and trade in, arms. It is the only way to stop weapons falling into the wrong hands. Britain already operates one of the strongest arms control systems in the world, demanding the highest standards from our defence industry so that we can be sure that we are not fuelling these dreadful trends. It is encouraging to see that the world community is now planning to come together and agree legally binding, international high standards for the trade and transfer of arms. Internationally, there is now a strong will to make an Arms Trade Treaty a reality. The UK has been promoting the Arms Trade Treaty from the outset. The UK introduced the initial Resolution in the UN in December 2006 calling for an Arms Trade Treaty. The Resolution was co-authored with six countries: Australia, Argentina Costa Rica, Finland, Kenya and Japan. Negotiations began in 2010 and the final Negotiating Conference will be in July this year. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office will be leading the negotiations and the Departments for International Development, Defence, and Business Innovation and Skills will be represented on the delegation. Achieving consensus by the end of the Negotiating Conference on a Treaty text which meets our objectives will be challenging. However, we are very determined and will make every effort to attain this goal. Between now and July, the UK Government will be working to raise the profile of and support for this Treaty. We will be working with our counterparts across the world to bring them on board. We will be demonstrating to our public why we believe this is so important. I want today to explain just why we feel so strongly about this and why we are pushing for global standards. First I would like to examine the scale of the problem. Second I want to look at how unregulated arms transfers affect development.  Third I would like to offer some thoughts as to what an arms treaty should look like. ### Why do we need a Treaty? Currently a variable patchwork of regulation exists across the world. Some Governments have very robust arms trade control systems in place, but other Governments are fuelling the illicit and irresponsible trade in arms by not having any control systems at all, or by only having weak systems. Overall, there are no common international standards for the arms trade. This results in gaps and loopholes which can be exploited. So, first, leta€™s look in a bit more detail at the impact of unregulated and irresponsible arms sales. Every year, armed violence kills nearly three quarters of a million  people. To pick a few examples: * In the Democratic Republic of Congo, close to 4 million people have died in armed conflict over the last decade. * In Nepal, ten years of conflict has left more than 12,000 people dead and hundreds of thousands displaced. * In 2011 an estimated 70,000 people were displaced from eastern Darfur in a wave of ethnically targeted attacks.  Corrupt or irresponsible dealers are selling and diverting weapons into war zones, fuelling conflict.  For example, in Uganda armed groups are known to have previously operated surreptitiously to obtain weapons from Sudan a€“ these weapons ultimately led to an enormous cost in human life. The suffering caused by the illicit market in arms was immense. In Uganda, at least 23,000 children and adults were abducted by the Lord Resistance Army, the LRA. Young boys were trained as child soldiers. Young girls were taken to work as slaves, while others were raped and abandoned. Some children have been killed or injured in cross-fire, armed attacks and cattle raids. In Sudan, a similar picture emerges. Women and children are the most vulnerable in Sudana€™s internal conflict. Not only are they caught in the crossfire of conflict, but they are targets of inter-community raids. They are most affected by a lack of access to clean water, food, healthcare and education in areas where conflict persists. The groups who perpetrated these atrocities would not have been able to operate without access to a constant source of weapons and ammunition. Just because a weapon is small and light does not mean it is not a vicious driver of conflict and suffering. Easily transported, small arms and light weapons account for an estimated 60 to 90% of conflict deaths as well as tens of thousands of additional deaths outside actual war zones.  It is estimated that more than 95 per cent of small arms in Africa, for example, come from outside the continent. Another example is Yemen, where 60% of families report ownership of weapons. With approximately 10 million small arms for a population of 23 million people, Yemen is considered among the most heavily armed countries on earth. The availability of weapons in Yemen is frequently linked to the rapid escalation of armed violence, as witnessed during the instability sparked by the Arab Spring, and to the aggravation of disputes over land and water resources, in which up to 4,000 people are reported to die every year. The end effect is hindrance to the countya€™s development in both rural and urban areas. I believe an Arms Trade Treaty can make a major contribution to reducing and preventing this sort of conflict.  It will make it much harder for armed groups and governments that commit human rights abuses to acquire a ready flow of arms.    As if violent conflict was not bad enough in itself, it also has a significant bearing on a countrya€™s potential for development. It is clear that armed conflict and armed violence prevent countries from benefitting from the social and economic development they might otherwise enjoy. The internationally agreed Millennium Development Goals range from halving extreme poverty to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target date of 2015. While progress is being made in areas such as the fight against communicable diseases, conflict has now become one of the greatest enemies of development. About two thirds of the countries least likely to achieve the MDGs are in the midst of a€“ or emerging from a€“ conflict. Even when conflict is simmering and not quite exploding, how can governments provide universal health care or primary education when their budgets are being diverted to corrupt or irresponsible arms purchases? There is no way a State can build up a comprehensive health system when there is no stability and security and where they are being forced to address the challenges of bloodshed and injury caused by armed violence ahead of other healthcare demands. How can a State provide universal primary education when armed violence is preventing or deterring children and teachers from simply getting to school? Economic growth is the route out of poverty but violence and conflict is a fast route back into it. It is estimated that each year Africa foregoes wealth creation to the sum of 18 billion US dollars, as a result of armed conflict. ### Vulnerable hit hardest Make no mistake, the irresponsible trade in arms hits the most vulnerable the hardest. Of course, the problems do not stop when the fighting stops. Taking the experience of many countries which have faced conflict, it takes 20 years for an economy to recover after the actual conflict has ended.  To understand this picture fully we have to ask what is driving this phenomenon. At one level, the defence business is one of the most technologically pioneering and inventive sectors of industry. But we have to be honest - in addition to the legitimate arms business, the arms trade is subject to some of the most unscrupulous, greedy and immoral practices of any industry. So many times we have heard of arms dealers who are criminals, selling illicitly, and often getting away with it. A recent example is that of the Viktor Bout, convicted on terrorism charges after being accused of planning to smuggle arms to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). It has been reported that over many years Bout supplied arms to some of the most brutal regimes and civil wars of the last two decades. We cana€™t allow this to continue in an unregulated, tacitly authorised way.  There are many defence companies and States a€“ those with good controls and good practices - who support an Arms Trade Treaty.  The Treaty will establish a fair and equitable foundation for legitimate arms trading.  I am today appealing for all countries to push for an Arms Trade Treaty, so we can ensure that no more arms deals take place outside a framework of global standards. ### What could the Arms Trade Treaty look like? So let me now turn to what an Arms Trade Treaty could look like. An International Arms Trade Treaty will ensure the global trade in arms is subject to high standards. The Treaty will be a legally binding agreement, supported by monitoring and reporting mechanisms, that sets out very clear standards for arms transfers across international boundaries. Before exporting arms, States will have to assess and consider an important list of criteria. This list must include the risk of the exported arms being used in human rights abuses, or to fuel conflict, the potential impact of the export on sustainable development, and the risk of the trade being subject to diversion or corrupt practices. To be effective and worthwhile the treaty must be broad in scope, covering all elements from fighter jets to ammunition. Small arms and light weapons must be in the scope of the Treaty; if they are not, the opportunity to regulate a major contributor to conflict and suffering will have been missed. The UK, working hand in hand with most of the world's developing nations, will push to ensure small arms and light weapons are in the scope of the Treaty. Leaving them out would be an act of negligence. Under the terms of the Chaira€™s document and under the terms of the treaty we want, States will need to demonstrate transparency in their arms trade and they will be required to introduce reporting and transparency measures. This should include publishing a National export control list and detailed national reports on arms exports. States will also need to demonstrate their progress on implementing the Treaty requirements by submitting regular progress reports.  Reporting will enable our citizens to hold us to account for the arms transfers we make. Corruption is a major problem in the arms trade. The unregulated, covert trade in arms, conducted by corrupt individuals or companies, leads to the diversion of weapons into the illicit market or to dangerous end-users. Corruption also undermines the ability of nations to ensure they are paying a fair and uninflated price for the weapons. Corruption allows individuals to profit from a nationa€™s pain with impunity. I will push for the Arms Trade Treaty to address the issues of corruption, bribery and the lack of transparency that allow these practices to continue unnoticed. One of the ways I want the Treaty to do this is by including measures to control arms brokering.  This could be achieved by all States having a register of arms brokers. Such measures will close loopholes by ensuring brokers are accountable to the law wherever they are operating.  States will have to prosecute brokers and all other individuals involved in corrupt practices. I believe the Treatya€™s provisions must also recognise the impact of irresponsible and illegal arms transfers on the most vulnerable, including women.  Strong provisions on human rights will assist in this respect. However, considering the disproportionate impact armed violence has on women we also hope to see reference to this included in the Treatya€™s preamble.  This is an ambitious project. Many States do not have export control systems at all and it will be a significant commitment for these States to establish systems which adhere to the strong standards of the Arms Trade Treaty. It will therefore be important that the international community recognises and responds to the need for international cooperation and assistance, including technical and financial assistance to countries which will need help in effectively implementing an Arms Trade Treaty. The UK believes that this must be a strong, effective Treaty. However, we also realise that compromises will have to be made. Whilst many States are as supportive of a Treaty as we are, there are others who have their reservations. I will be working with international counterparts to try and overcome such doubts. I am concerned that some do not see the value of having criteria on sustainable development in the Treaty, or they mistakenly interpret this as threatening developing Statesa€™ sovereignty, and their right to defend themselves and to spend their budgets as they see fit.  Others do not want ammunition or small arms and light weapons in the scope of the Treaty. I believe the inclusion of these weapons is critical.  If small arms and light weapons were not included in any agreement, it would dangerously undermine its impact. In our view a countrya€™s record and approach to human rights should determine whether or not it is a fitting buyer of weapons and we want to see this provision contained in the Treaty. I am concerned that some States are still resisting this inclusion. Do not misunderstand me. We are encouraged to see the breadth of support that does exist for the Treaty. The EU, sub-Saharan Africa and much of the Caribbean are vocal supporters. The co-authors of the Treaty resolution are continually pushing for the most ambitious scope and provisions. The P5 [five permanent members of the Security Council] have come a long way and issued a supportive statement last July. The majority of UN Member States want to see criteria regulating the export of arms, they want most conventional weapons in the scope, and they believe that States must retain some record of their arms transfers. Meanwhile, UK civil society and industry are demonstrating their support, showing the world that all in the UK are united in their support for the Treaty.   ### Our opportunity In July, all the States of the United Nations will meet in New York for four weeks of negotiations. The UK will be at the forefront of these negotiations, working hard to ensure the Conference ends with a robust Arms Trade Treaty which the majority of Nations will sign. The UK fully believes in the value of such a Treaty and is determined to agree one which will achieve real change. We cannot have a Treaty that does not introduce legally binding regulations, or that does not include those weapons that are causing the most human suffering. Let me stress, a treaty will not prevent any country from being able to defend itself. Indeed, a statea€™s security force, when properly trained and resourced, can play a valuable role in ensuring stability and creating a climate in which development can flourish.  An internationally agreed treaty will, however, close loopholes and gaps in legislation and it will ensure that globally high standards are in place to prevent irresponsible arms transfers taking place. It is long overdue. Let no one be in any doubt about our determination. I hope that all countries will share our view. The world will be watching to see who refuses to sign up to the Arms Trade Treaty. Alan Duncan: No arms trade without an arms trade treaty Speech by International Development Minister Alan Duncan at the International Institute for Strategic Studies on the need for an ethical treaty for the arms industry. 2012-05-17 59 British aid to the DRC is helping to pull people out of poverty - providing clean water and sanitation for 3.7 million people, helping to tackle malaria, building and improving roads and getting hundreds of thousands of children into school. Britain is also supporting projects to stop the illegal exploitation of minerals and tackle public financial mismanagement. The DRC's mineral resources are key to its long term prosperity and the British Government is adamant that its mining industries must be run transparently for the benefit of its people, as I made very clear to the President myself in Kinshasa last month. Andrew Mitchell: British aid to the Democratic Republic of Congo None 2012-04-29 60 Whether ita€™s to run the computers of City workers, or to power the sewing machines of Ghanaian seamstresses, we all need energy. But, handled carelessly, energy can be our enemy as well as our friend. The more fossil-fuelled energy we use the more CO2 we produce. And the more CO2 we produce the greater our vulnerability to climate change.  Climate change will hit the worlda€™s poorest people first and hardest - as we see so clearly around the world today - with droughts, floods and famines set to increase in frequency and intensity. The numbers of people at risk of hunger as a result of climate change are projected to increase by between 5% and 20% by 2050, while in Sub-Saharan Africa, 10 million more children are expected to suffer from malnutrition. Climate change will also affect us here in Britain. The renowned economist, Lord Stern, estimates that the economic cost of unmanaged climate change could be between 5% and 20% of global GDP. That contrasts with a 1-2% cost if we keep emissions at safe levels and support developing countries to adapt.  We're pushing hard to secure an ambitious global deal on emissions, one that prevents global warming from rising above a global average of 2 degrees while also protecting poorer countries as they adapt to the impacts of climate change. But we shouldn't sit back and wait for a global deal we argue. There are things that we need to do now if we are to protect the world's poorest people and help them to access the energy that will allow them to transform their economies. **Sustainable Energy for All Initiative and action agenda** I believe that the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative, and the action agenda launched today, can play a critical role in accelerating progress on this issue. No country a€“ especially not our own which led the first Industrial Revolution a€“ has grown without increasing energy. But the benefits arena€™t just economic: for women and children in poor households, access to a clean, affordable and reliable energy supply lifts the burdens of drudgery, and the ill health imposed by cooking on open fires. British aid is helping. We have set up a cross-Government International Climate Fund, with resources totaling nearly £3 billion. The Sustainable Energy for All Framework will enable us to better co-ordinate with our partners the investments which the Fund is making in clean energy. **Fresh thinking** One of the themes which will bring us closer to sustainable energy for all is innovation. My department, the Department for International Development, is exploring how Innovation Prizes might be used to reward fresh thinking in this area.  We also see an important role here for Climate Innovation Centres, and are supporting them in countries including India and Kenya, helping local entrepreneurs to turn ideas and technologies into viable businesses. The goals of the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative will not be achieved of course by public finance alone.  We need to unlock much greater amounts of private investment. Here again, the International Climate Fund has a vital role to play. Take just one example: the Fund contributes to a multi-donor Climate Investment initiative that is now helping 45 developing countries to pilot low-carbon, climate-resilient development. This includes the Scaling-Up Renewable Energy Programme (SREP) which promises to deliver electricity to more than 2 million people in poor countries.  The additional contribution which the Deputy Prime Minister announced on Tuesday, could, for example, help mobilize finance to add another 500,000 to the electricity grid in Africa.  **New Results-Based Financing facility**  I can also announce today that Britain will be supporting a new Results-Based Financing facility, working in Low Income countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.  We expect at least 2.5 million poor people to benefit from expanding markets in climate-friendly products, such as solar lanterns or cleaner cookstoves, or by local electricity grids driven, for example, by hydropower. We are supporting these initiatives because we recognise that sustainable energy for all is a central element of our common future. The Framework being launched today offers us a clear set of actions to achieve this goal and to tackle the twin challenges of climate change and development. We in Britain will deliver on our commitments, so too, must the wider international community. Thank you. Andrew Mitchell: Climate change - delivering on our commitments International Development Minister Andrew Mitchell's speech at the joint press conference on Clean Energy Ministerial and Sustainable Energy for All today at Lancaster House. 2012-04-26 61 Thank you Rowan and thank you to Willis Re for hosting us all this evening. Ita€™s wonderful to be able to address you here. Willis Re has a proud history that spans nearly two centuries. During its lifetime, it has seen the world change beyond recognition. The most fundamental and far-reaching of those changes have been man-made. I think, in particular, of the Industrial Revolution and all that has been achieved since then. And I think too of the emergence of climate change as one of the great challenges in human history. How do we keep growing, continuing to raise living standards but in a way that protects, not threatens, the worlda€™s poorest people? It is this question that I want to address tonight. ### Coping with the impacts of climate change As Secretary of State for International Development it is clear to me that we have to face up to the reality of climate change by preventing global warming rising above a global average of 2 degrees. This will be a real challenge. Even if we succeed, we know that it is already too late to change some things, and we will need to deal with serious consequences for the foreseeable future.  These consequences will hit the worlda€™s poorest people first and hardest. Building their resilience to more frequent and intense extremes in weather is essential. The alternative is unacceptable: more people without access to water, more people going hungry, and more people at risk from droughts and floods. Tackling climate change is not only the right thing to do ita€™s also in our own interests. The renowned economist, Lord Stern, estimates that the economic cost of unmanaged climate change could be between 5-20 per cent of global GDP. That contrasts with a 1-2 per cent cost if we keep emissions at safe levels and support developing countries to adapt. The economic sense is plain to see. ### Disaster risk and climate impacts As we will hear, the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Changea€™s Special Report on extreme events suggests rising temperatures could mean more floods and more droughts a€“ damaging critical infrastructure and prospects of growth for all. The recent review of DFIDa€™s humanitarian and emergency response work includes predictions that climate-related disasters could affect up to 365 million people every year by 2015 a€“ an increase from 263 million in 2010. This matters not just for poor people and poor countries, but for Britain too. We cannot have food security, water security, energy security a€“ or any form of national security a€“ without climate security. The UK government is seized of this issue and wea€™re as ambitious as we are restless. Wea€™re responding with significant, focussed and effective programmes that will achieve real results. Wea€™ve already approved significant programmes through our International Climate Fund. At the same time, wea€™ve put building resilience at the core of all our country office work and shown real leadership on the international stage. In Bangladesh, for example, wea€™re helping at least 15 million poor people cope with the impacts of climate change and natural disasters through improving early warning systems. When I visited Bangladesh in January I saw for myself how we are piloting the use of text messages from mobile phones to warn people of cyclones or floods and help them take steps to protect their families. I saw how wea€™re helping to build dozens of multi-purpose cyclone shelters. These serve as primary schools by day, but offer vital protection during and after disastrous weather events, and the area underneath can be used as a market place. Innovative design also means rainwater is harvested to provide safe drinking water, and solar power provides energy for lighting. I spoke with families, who lost their homes in a cyclone in 2009, and have been living in temporary shelter ever since. With UK support they are now moving in to newly built cyclone resilient houses, raised on platforms above the flood level. This is an innovative approach, working with a whole community and seeking to protect lives and livelihoods when disaster strikes. These efforts are leading to real results. With early warning systems in place, people can evacuate to safe cyclone shelters, hours before any cyclone makes landfall. This has drastically reduced death tolls from cyclones a€“ there were 300,000 deaths from Cyclone Bhola in 1970, compared with 3,000 in November 2007 during Cyclone Sidr. In this latest event, cyclone shelters protected one and half million people. In Africa wea€™re showing a quarter of a million farmers how they can benefit from using climate-smart farming techniques like conservation agriculture, zero-tillage techniques and agro-forestry. Our work with the Met Office Hadley Centre is improving the reliability of forecasts that predict the onset of Africaa€™s rainy seasons, enabling local farmers to secure a better crop and get the maximum return on their precious investment. But more is needed. Through the International Climate Fund we will help some of the worlda€™s most vulnerable people, tackling head-on challenges such as water resource management, agricultural productivity and making urban populations more resilient. Not only will this help protect some of the hardest-to-reach people, it will also make the world a safer and more prosperous place in which to do business, providing opportunities for British know-how, innovation, technology and financial services. As part of this focus on resilience, this Friday in Washington Helen Clark a€“ Head of the UN Development Programme a€“ and I, will be hosting the first meeting of a group of Political Champions for Disaster Resilience. This is an issue that demands greater international attention and investment. Top of our agenda are: * improving the assessment and financing of disaster risk * stimulating longer term investment in resilience in the Horn of Africa and the Sahel and * getting donors themselves to become more effective at integrating disaster risk into their own programmes. ### Public and private cooperation Of course, while public finance is important, indeed, vital, ita€™s not the whole picture. The massive investment needed to tackle climate change can only be supplied by the private sector. We must play to our respective strengths. Public finance can unlock private innovation. When I was in Davos earlier this year, I launched an exciting programme to deliver clean, renewable and efficient energy, new technology and protect natural resources in emerging and developing countries. It means that every pound of British taxpayersa€™ money invested has the potential to generate £30 of private climate-friendly investment. I want to see more programmes like this, programmes that combine innovation and investment, transforming economies and increasing resilience to climate change. Our soon-to-be-launched Global Resilience Action Programme and our strategy for humanitarian and resilience research will allow us to build productive and exciting new partnerships with the private sector. UK climate finance also provides huge opportunities for the private sector to invest profitably. UK funding has already been part of a number of success stories, from the flood-resistant rice that has the potential to help 18 million farmers in Asia, to the drought-tolerant maize that is a staple for over 300 million people in Africa. We know too that the private sector is at the forefront of adapting businesses to the impacts of climate change. We can learn from that experience. Public finance can then help to encourage the private sector in developing countries to adopt this best practice, and to develop affordable products, like insurance, which can be made available more widely. The Agricultural Insurance Company of India, for example, has used index-based insurance to enable 700,000 farmers to take out cover against inadequate rainfall. Or look at the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility. Supported by UK climate financing, the Facility is a public-private partnership designed to limit the financial impact of catastrophes. So, when a hurricane or cyclone hits, policy-holders can access much-needed cash quickly and easily. Similarly the International Climate Fund is financing the design of the African Risk Capacity facility, a ground-breaking facility that could help African Union member states resist and recover from the ravages of drought by transferring risk away from African governments to the international financial markets. In short, for those with entrepreneurial flair and vision, commercial opportunities are out there. The Economist Intelligence Unit surveyed over 700 global businesses last year, half with annual revenues above $1 billion. Over 60 per cent of them considered adapting to a changing climate to be primarily a commercial opportunity; with a fifth already generating new revenue from it. Almost half were seeing firms in their sector creating competitive advantage as a result. And ita€™s on this note that I want to end my comments tonight by urging you to think about the opportunities that are already being grasped. It really is possible to help some of the poorest and most vulnerable people in the world, while also turning a profit for your shareholders. Ita€™s time that the public and private sectors engaged more effectively to make investment easier and more attractive. The science is clear, the economics makes sense and the commercial opportunities are there. Andrew Mitchell: Coping with climate change and natural disasters Andrew Mitchell's speech held at Willis Re focussed on helping poor countries to build up their resilience to the impacts of climate change 2012-04-17 62 "These comments do not represent the views of the Government of India, who have publicly welcomed our aid. "As I said at the time we announced the results of the Bilateral Aid Review, the Indian Government has made great progress on tackling poverty but there is a huge need in India. "We will not be there forever - we have said we are walking the last mile - but now is not the time to end the programme. "The UK and Indian Governments have agreed a programme which focuses on the poorest states and developing the private sector. It also recognises the Government of India's own commitment to policies which will help reduce poverty in the long term." Since the bilateral aid review, India is no longer the UK's largest bilateral programme. Quoted figures for Indian 'aid' generally include either trade credits (which do not qualify as Overseas Development Assistance) or programmes of mutual interest with neighbouring countries. ## Past comments Last month, the UK's aid programme in India became the focus of some media attention following past comments by its Government's Finance Minister. **International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said:** "The remarks being reported from the Government of India are out of date and were made during a parliamentary debate in 2010. We have also investigated claims of corruption and found no British funds were misused. "Our completely revamped programme is in India's and Britain's national interest. It is one part of a much wider relationship between our two countries. India itself has got 60 million children into school in recent years with its own money but more than 30 per cent of the world's poorest people live there. There are states the size of Britain where half of all children suffer from malnutrition. We will not be in India for ever but now is not the time to end the programme. "However, we have completely changed our approach in India. We are working in 3 of the poorest states and ensuring that about half of the programme focuses on pro-poor private sector investment - which has the characteristics of a sovereign wealth fund and from which India and the British taxpayer gain." **An official spokesperson for the Government of India said:** "Relations between India and the UK are warm and friendly and have stood the test of time. "India appreciates cooperation extended by the UK in a number of areas, which have contributed to Indiaa€™s overall development efforts, particularly through capacity building, exchange of best practices, knowledge sharing and sharing of technology and technical expertise. "The bilateral cooperation between India and the UK has been and remains mutually beneficial." **Mr NK Singh, spokesperson for the Chief Minister in Bihar, a DFID focus state, said:** "We welcome the focus of DFID to States, particularly those which have lagged behind in their development achievements. Bihar, with a population of 110 million, has high poverty density given historical factors and notwithstanding its recent spectacular growth achievements has a long way to go to mitigate poverty and improve its performance on human development indicators. "The DFID programme will help address these concerns, enable capacity building and innovate development to optimise outcomes. Given the large unmet needs of the state, a sustained programme over several years is necessary. "The support of DFID has been valuable in improving better utilisation of central funding and complete ongoing initiatives." **B K Patnaik, Chief Secretary of Orissa, a DFID focus state, said:** "I have seen for myself how DFID support has reached thousands of children, women and men in Odisha. "I remember being part of the design team for a rural livelihoods project in the state which helped over 70,000 poor people move out of poverty. This programme has influenced the central government's policy on rural livelihoods as well. "DFID has provided us solid support across a range of sectors a€“ public sector governance, public finance, power, health, nutrition and education a€“ all of which have helped us to grow and reduce poverty in the state. However, our job is by no means over. We need DFID's continued support to help us to change the lives of thousands more people for the better." ## Q&A **What is DFID's reaction to the Indian Finance Minister's comments saying UK aid is "peanuts"?** The remarks being reported from the Government of India are out of date and were made during a parliamentary debate in 2010. Since then, we have completely changed our approach in India. On 10 February 2012, the Finance Minister of India publicly welcomed the UK aid programme; this followed a similar official statement from the India Foreign Ministry on 7 February, as well as several of our State partners. **Shouldn't the Indian Government do this themselves?** The Indian Government has made huge progress on tackling poverty, for instance by getting 60 million children into school since 2003. But there is still huge need a€“ a third of the world's poorest people live in India. We will not be in India forever a€“ we have said we are walking the last mile a€“ but now is not the time to end the programme. **Did Andrew Mitchell say that aid was given to win the Typhoon contract?** No. As Mr Mitchell has made clear, aid is not tied. Aid is an important part of our wider strategic partnership with India. Our aid is not linked to British companies winning contracts. British aid is untied and will remain so.  **Why should we give aid to a country with a space programme?** There is huge need in India. A third of the world's poorest people (living on less than 80p a day) live in India a€“ more than in sub-Saharan Africa. In Indian states the size of Britain, more than half of all children are malnourished. **What about corruption such as the allegations made in the media recently about stolen televisions?** These are baseless allegations. The Secretary of State launched an inquiry into this which found no UK funding had been misused. **Isn't all aid wasted?** The Coalition Government has a zero tolerance policy on corruption. It has set up an independent aid watchdog to monitor how money is spent and details of all spending over £500 is set out on the DFID website for maximum transparency. The International Development Committee a€“ a cross-party committee of MPs a€“ supports the Governmenta€™s approach in India. British aid in India has made a huge difference. We have helped to free India from the scourge of polio. We have helped 1.2 million children go to school in the last ten years. And we have lifted more than 2 million people out of poverty in the poorest states. **Why doesn't the UK tie aid to trade?** The International Development Act 2002 makes clear that taxpayers' money must only be spent on the purpose of reducing poverty. To avoid any ambiguity, the Act states that development assistance must be provided for the purpose of furthering sustainable development or improving people's welfare and be likely to result in the reduction of poverty. The UK does not provide aid for any other purpose. British aid is untied, and will remain so. About 80 percent of DFID's direct contacts for services are awarded to British companies in fully untied competition. Untying aid provides better value for money, gives UK companies a chance to compete equally for opportunities and enables manufacturors in developing countries to compete and grow. British companies do not seem to need tied aid, as they continue to win the majority of our competitively tendered business. The Coalition Government has vastly strengthened the information available to taxpayers about what their money is achieving in reducing poverty. The results expected from every aid project are now published on our website. And we have set up the Independent Commission on Aid Impact, to ensure that the results of our work are rigorously and independently checked.   Providing aid for poverty reduction is also strongly in the UK's national interest. Free trade, fair competition and the strength of British businesses is something the Coalition Government supports and promotes. Helping developing countries prosper and grow is important for our own economic opportunities as a global trading nation; for our security in an increasingly inter-dependent world; and for tackling global issues like climate change which will shape the world in which our children live. Our work on reducing poverty in developing countries is rightly part of Britain's overall relationships with those countries rather than an isolated issue. All parts of the Government works in a close and collaborative way and DFID ensures poverty reduction is a core part of Britain's national agenda overseas. ## Examples of our work in India Get the flash player here: []( ## Facts and stats * DFID has directly helped 1.2 million Indian children to go to school since 2003 * We have lifted 2.3 million people out of poverty in rural areas in the last five years. * DFID's programmes in India are saving 17,000 lives per year (one life every 30 minutes) * DFID support has helped over 550,000 women to give birth safely in a health facility with skilled assistance in the last five years * DFID support over the past decade has helped India achieve [zero polio transmissions in the last year](/News/Latest-news/2012/India-passes-one-year-without-polio/) * DFID support helped reach over 1.6 million women with credit, financial and skills development since 2003 * We helped 400,000 people gain access to improved sanitation in 2009-10 in Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. ## Tweet this statement > [#UKaid]( to [#India]( goes to the poorest states to help some of the world's poorest people. Statement from [#AndrewMitchell]( []( > > a€” DFID (@DFID_UK) [February 7, 2012]( Andrew Mitchell: our aid programme in India In response to recent media reports on aid to India, Secretary of State Andrew Mitchell reaffirmed Britain's support for India's poorest people. 2012-05-14 63 I wish to inform the House of the Governmenta€™s decision to sell its residual 40 per cent ownership interest in Actis Capital LLP (Actis). Actis is a fund management business which promotes and manages private equity funds on behalf of third party investors in a range of developing countries. Actis was created in 2004 as a spin-out from CDC Group plc (CDC), the UKa€™s development finance institution, following a reorganisation in which CDC moved from being a direct investor to being an intermediated investor.  CDC sold a 60 per cent stake in Actis to Actis management for £373,000.  I would refer the House to the written statements of 8 January and 8 July 2004 by the then Secretary of State for International Development on the reorganisation of CDC. DFID does not take part in the day-to-day operations of Actis, has no Board representation and very limited governance rights. Since 2004 Actis has performed well. It is now established as a leading and successful fund manager in its own right, with some US$4.6 billion of funds under management. Yet despite the successful performance of funds managed by Actis, as a consequence of the ownership structure and financial arrangements put in place in 2004 under the previous Government, DFID has not received any payment whatsoever or direct financial benefit from Actis. In my evidence to the International Development Committee of this House in January 2011 and in the context of that Committeea€™s report on the Future of CDC, I said that I thought that the arrangement entered into in 2004 by the then Government represented poor value for the taxpayer, that there was no reason for the Government to retain its shareholding in Actis and that moreover, if we can realise proper value for it, in the interests of the taxpayer, then we should do so.  The International Development Committee took a similar view as it subsequently recommended in its report that DFIDa€™s shareholding in Actis should be sold, but that care must be taken to achieve maximum value. DFIDa€™s financial adviser on the sale process a€“ Canaccord Genuity Hawkpoint Limited (Hawkpoint) - has looked closely at the Governmenta€™s position and rights within Actis and at Actisa€™s future prospects.  Hawkpoint has advised that, even if Actis continues to be successful, the Government has no realistic prospect of receiving direct profit distributions in the foreseeable future.  Hawkpoint estimates the current value of the Governmenta€™s 40 per cent ownership stake in Actis at US$ nil to US$3 million.  The Government followed an open and competitive sale process. Our advisers identified and approached a number of potential bidders who were believed to have the strategic rationale and the financial capacity to acquire the DFID stake. DFID also advertised publicly in the Financial Times (Worldwide) that the DFID stake was for sale.  Following Hawkpointa€™s discussions with potential bidders, no third party bidders subsequently came forwards with a credible offer for the DFID stake as currently constituted.  The Government therefore decided to proceed on the basis of the offer made by Actis management. The Government has now concluded its negotiations with the management team.  In consideration of the sale of its stake in Actis, DFID will receive both an upfront cash payment and a share in the future profitability of Actisa€™s funds. The cash element will comprise US$13 million payable in two equal instalments, the first instalment payable on completion and the second instalment 12 months after completion.  The profit share element will comprise a 10 per cent share of carried interest profit of Actis Emerging Markets Fund 3 and Actis Infrastructure Fund 2, which have to date invested in 34 businesses across the developing world, and a 7.5 per cent share of carried interest profit in Actisa€™ latest Fund 4, which is currently being raised.  The carried interest consideration will be payable over time and its value will depend on the size and future performance of Actisa€™s funds.  However, if Actisa€™s funds continue to perform strongly, as they have done historically, then this profit share would generate a substantial return for the Government and for the British taxpayer, which mid-point calculations developed by our financial advisers indicate could over time deliver an amount in excess of US$100 million (undiscounted). In the event of a subsequent transaction taking place within the next five years which attributes a significantly higher value to Actis, provisions have been agreed enabling the Government to share in the proceeds of that transaction. The Actis business has been created through combined contributions from CDC and the Actis partners.  CDC contributed the initial investment portfolio to be managed, the people and their associated infrastructure and knowledge base.  Beyond that initial contribution, CDC has continued to support the viability and economics of Actis through its formative years via its commitment to invest in further substantial funds raised and managed by Actis. On the back of that support, Actis has built a successful business measured in terms both of investment performance and third-party funds raised.  Under previous arrangements, the UK taxpayer was not able to benefit directly from the success of the Actis business.  By giving the Government the chance to share in the future profits of funds managed by this successful business, I believe that this sale represents a much fairer and better deal for the taxpayer.  The US$13m cash element of the consideration is alone significantly above Hawkpointa€™s estimate of the value of DFIDa€™s existing stake at between US$ nil and US$3 million, with significant scope for upside beyond this through Governmenta€™s share in carried interest. I am today publishing Hawkpointa€™s fairness opinion to Government and other information about the sale on the DFID website and will also place copies in the Library of the House. Andrew Mitchell: Sale of Actis Written Ministerial Statement by International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell on the sale of Actis 2012-05-01 64 It's a real honour to have this opportunity to address the Timber Trade's annual dinner this evening. I want to talk mostly about forests and timber as that is your bread and butter. But, let me start by setting that in the wider context of climate change, which is an extremely high priority for this government and for me as International Development Secretary. A hundred years ago this month, Robert Scott and his comrades perished on their ill-fated expedition to the South Pole. Exhausted, starving, frost-bitten and snow-blind they would surely have struggled to comprehend a future which encompassed the threat of global warming. And when, fifty years later, London was left reeling from the Great Smog, few had the foresight to look beyond the immediate tragedy. We've come a long way since then, and today, the consequences of global warming are widely recognised as one of the major threats to humanity, to global prosperity, to all that we hold dear. We understand more about its causes, too. A recent study concluded that at least three quarters of the temperature rises of the last sixty years is due to human activity. We've become armchair experts, with terms like 'climate change' and 'ozone layer' bandied around in bars and on buses. Especially when it rains in June or the sun shines in Octobera€¦ But greater public awareness doesn't mean that climate change is any less a threat. Global emissions and global temperatures are rising. And left unchecked, they will continue to rise. As Development Secretary, what is crystal clear to me is that the world's poorest people will be hit first and hardest, with droughts, floods and famines set to increase in frequency and intensity.  The numbers at risk of hunger as a result of climate change are projected to increase by between 5 and 20 per cent by 2050, while in Sub-Saharan Africa, 10 million more children are expected to be malnourished. They won't be the only ones affected. The renowned economist, Lord Stern, concluded that if we fail to take action, climate change will cost the world between 5 and 20 per cent of its global GDP.  Conversely, Lord Stern estimated that keeping emissions to safe levels and helping developing countries to adapt to climate change will cost around 1-2 per cent of GDP. In other words, inaction today will cost us more money tomorrow. Global growth will be stunted and prosperity undermined. Britain's own economy will suffer. The UK government is seized of this and we're as ambitious as we are restless.  We want to be the greenest government ever and to push others to act too.  We're pushing hard to secure an ambitious global deal on emissions, one that prevents global warming from rising above a global average of 2 degrees while also protecting poorer countries as they adapt to the impacts of climate change. We're doing this not just because our responsibility to the world's poorest people demands no less, but because ita€™s also in our own interests.  We cannot have food security, water security, energy security a€“ or any form of national security a€“ unless we tackle climate change and promote inclusive green growth; the Rio+20 conference later this year is an opportunity that we cannot afford to miss. On the other hand, important though a deal may be, we shouldn't play a waiting game. There are other things we can and should be doing now, whether it's supporting the most vulnerable, encouraging green growth or protecting the worlda€™s forests. By doing this we can make a real difference to people's lives while at the same time building global confidence and helping to bring a binding deal closer. That's why in the Comprehensive Spending Review, the Chancellor allocated £2.9 billion to a new Government-wide International Climate Fund. Let me set out for you just a few of the results this investment will achieve over the next three years. It will leverage enough private finance to: * avoid an amount of CO2 equivalent to that emitted in a typical year by 6.6 million European cars; * help create 7,000 mega watts of clean energy and; * create 40,000 new jobs. In Bangladesh, it will help 15 million people by building embankments and shelters, raising homes above flood levels and promoting climate-resilient crops. And through the Clean Technology Fund it will provide enough clean energy to power 16 million households. Leveraging private investment is important because we know that public finance alone will not solve climate change. Only the private sector has the resources for the massive investment that's needed. That is why we are engaging with some of the most significant finance and investment institutions in the City of London through the Capital Markets Climate Initiative (CMCI), to understand the barriers to scaling up private investment and identify innovative solutions to unlocking flows of finance. Further, with the support of the International Climate Fund, there are huge opportunities a€“and indeed a crucial need - for  the private sector to invest profitably in climate-friendly businesses, including, developing clean energy from solar power. At Davos this year, I launched an exciting programme that puts this into practice:  the CP3 programme will mean that every £1 of UK taxpayers' money, has the potential to generate  £30 of private climate-friendly investment.   Through our support for the International Climate Change Fund wea€™re also helping to protect up to 39 million hectares of forest and the 1.2 billion people who rely on them for their livelihoods. So let me turn now to the subject of forests and of timber. ### Forests and timber Nine out of ten of the world's poorest people rely on forests for their livelihoods.  Forests also provide a home for more than half of our land-based plant and animal species. But, deforestation is currently running at 13 million hectares a year. That's an area seven times the size of Wales, wiped out. Last year, this year, next year. This level of deforestation is contributing a massive 17 per cent of all human-induced, global greenhouse gas emissions. More, in fact, than the entire global transport sector. Or, to put it another way, the global equivalent of a forty a day smoking habit... Take Indonesia, the third most forested country in the world and the fourth most populous. The rate of destruction of Indonesiaa€™s forests is frightening: some fifty per cent over the last fifty years or so. Sometimes described as the "green lung of the world", Indonesia has been allocated priority status by the UK Government's  International Climate Fund. It's because I am so convinced of the importance of these issues that I visited the country just a month ago to see first-hand some of the challenges it faces.  With the Minister of Forestry, I went deep into the forest; I went to a saw mill; I planted a tree; I met the people who rely on the forests to survive; and I met the business leaders who - like you -  have the power be a force for change. There can be no lasting solution to climate change unless we ensure that rapidly-developing countries like Indonesia can grow their economies on a low-carbon basis, including  managing their forests well. For all these reasons, tackling deforestation features highly on my list of priorities as I think about what DFID must do. It's also high on the agenda for the UK's International Climate Fund a€“ which is a cross-Government effort between DFID, DECC and Defra; and it's high on the agenda in international climate change discussions. Let me tell you now a bit more about how the British Government is approaching the challenge of forestry, through the ICF and policy work.  We're tackling it on several flanks. 1) First, we're helping governments improve the way they manage their forests. The new Forest Governance Markets and Climate Programme, for example, is helping countries to set up the systems that will promote best practice in forest management. This includes activities such as: mapping forests and forest-use, ensuring that the legal processes for allocating and monitoring licences to companies are regulated, transparent and corruption-free; and making sure the communities that rely on the forests are part of the decision-making process. In East Kalimantan, I met indigenous Dayaks from Koutai Barat who live from the fruits, medicines, timber, and rattan palms which they grow in their forest gardens. For them, proper management of the forests is a matter of life and death. You have a role to play in all this. Your experience of developing your own due diligence practices will provide an invaluable insight. Indeed, I know the Federation is already working with timber and wood associations in China, as well as Ghana, DRC and Indonesia. Sound management of forests will also rely on us making progress internationally too. Specifically, there is considerable consensus amongst countries on the need for a forest-preserving scheme called "REDD plus"  - a colourful acronym which stands for "Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation". 2) Second, we need to continue to spearhead efforts to tackle illegal logging a€“ a widespread practice that has serious implications for the very poor and for our chances of protecting forests globally. I was struck by the visit I made to the Balikpapan Forest Industries mill. BFI specialise in plywood and veneer and were one of the first companies to receive a legal timber verification certificate under a scheme which my department has supported. I also saw how the timber was marked with a special barcode which meant that it could be tracked "from stump to store". I spoke with local loggers who were enthusiastic about the scheme and confident that it would vastly reduce the opportunities for timber trafficking. I think that this kind of thing is extraordinary a€“ a simple bit of technology bringing a level of transparency and scrutiny like never before.  And ita€™s cost-effective.   Every pound invested in tackling illegal logging earns another £6 in timber revenues for those developing countries that produce timber and wood products. That's more money into cash-strapped exchequers, and fewer emissions. It's a win-win. 3) Third a€“ and linked to illegal logging a€“ we need to target and harness the power of consumer behaviour. Part of this involves raising consumer awareness. How many people, for example, know that a timber building stores carbon? More than 750 tonnes in the case of the Open Academy in Norwich. We need to encourage responsible retail practices too, not just here in Britain but in other countries that import timber or timber-related products.  You hardly need me to tell you that if consumers demand products - timber, or otherwise -  that are sustainably-sourced,  then that is what business will supply. I'm particularly grateful for the way in which your members have worked with us to take forward the new EU Timber Regulation which will be implemented next March and which makes it an offence to be the first to sell illegally-harvested timber in Europe. I also want to applaud you for enforcing a Responsible Purchasing Policy amongst your membership, driving demand for legally-certified wood. In particular, let me here pay tribute to the leadership shown by Peter Latham, of James Latham plc, a company which Ia€™m told is one of the oldest family-businesses in the trade, in promoting this policy and schemes for certification of sustainable forest management. I welcome all you've done and encourage you to do more. You are uniquely placed to advocate and persuade others of the importance of responsible trade. You are proof positive that profit and sustainability are not mutually incompatible outcomes.  So let me conclude by making clear that we, in Government, are walking the talk. In keeping with our pledge to be the greenest government ever, the Olympic Delivery Authority insisted that firms tendering for construction used only sustainably-sourced timber. I applaud the efforts of Peter Bonfield here who worked on this project. What a powerful message to send the world. To quote one of your catch phrases: a€œWood is indeed gooda€! Ladies and Gentlemen, thank you again for your hospitality and for the opportunity to talk to you this evening. This is a subject close to my heart and one that must continue to be discussed at an international level. I am heartened by your clear commitment to, and respect for, the natural environment.  I look forward now to working with you to realise an even greater level of ambition.  We should not underestimate the scale of the challenge ahead of us: there are few greater facing the world today. We cannot afford to let that deter us. By raising the bar high and committing to our goal we can make this a world which future generations can enjoy. Andrew Mitchell: Forests - tackling illegal logging and climate change Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell made the key note presentation on forests and how UK is working to tackle illegal logging and climate change at the UK Timber Trade Federation's annual event. 2012-03-21 65 "We welcome the Committee's ringing endorsement of the tough reforms the Coalition Government has made to get maximum value for money from British aid. "The British Government makes no apologies for sticking to its commitments to the world's poorest people. "Spending less than one per cent of our national income on aid a€“ an internationally agreed target a€“ will create a safer and more prosperous world for the UK. And it will get 11 million children into school, vaccinate 55 million children against preventable diseases and stop 250,000 newborn babies dying needlessly. Going back on this promise would cost lives." The International Development Secretary has previously confirmed the UK will spend 0.7% of Gross National Income (GNI) on international development from 2013, making it the first country in the G20 to keep this promise. ## Highlights from the report   The report recognises the department's new direction, highlighting: * The focus on economic growth as a key way to combat global poverty * The essential emphasis on the role of the private sector in development * The concentration of our direct aid programmes to 27 countries - a reduction in the number of countries we work in - to help increase the impact of aid Commenting on the effectiveness of Britain's aid programme, the report notes: "a€¦expert opinion is virtually united in agreement that DFID enjoys an outstanding reputation internationally as an effective aid agent. "It has refined the Governmenta€™s approach to aid over a number of years. Now, under an energetic Secretary of State, it is taking direct action to deal with points made by aid critics by for example, increasing its emphasis on promoting private investment and on containing unrestricted budgetary support." **** ## What are others saying? **Bill Gates** Microsoft founder and co-chair of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation "I'm concerned by the Committee's report regarding the government's aid budget. The UK leads the world in delivering smart, targeted aid - I've seen for myself on the ground the incredible impact of its life-saving investments. "Abandoning the 0.7 target risks undermining the incredible progress that has been achieved over the last several years. Well-targeted UK aid has helped save millions of lives by rolling back the malaria and HIV epidemics and bringing the world closer to eradicating polio once and for all and we are on the brink of some more tremendous breakthroughs. "I commend the UK Government for its steadfast commitment to the world's poor." **Lord Paddy Ashdown **UNICEF UK President "Scrapping the 0.7% commitment would not make aid more effective it would simply deny vital assistance to millions of poor and vulnerable people throughout the world. "Long-term development aid means that we can reduce the amount we have to spend on humanitarian emergencies and will help millions more children go to school and live to celebrate their 5th birthdays. The UK should retain its principled position as one of the global leaders for the worlda€™s poorest children." **Max Lawson **Oxfam, Head of Policy "Reneging on our aid promises would deprive millions of the worlda€™s poorest people of life saving medicines, clean water and the chance to go to school. "The Committee is guilty of presenting a false choice between delivering high quality aid and increasing its quantity a€“ the Government can and should do both. "Ministers deserve real credit for keeping our commitments to the poorest during these tough times a€“ it is one of the things that allows Britain to hold our head high on the world stage." **Justin Forsyth** Save the Children, Chief Executive "Cutting UK aid will cost lives, threatening 1.4 million children and 50,000 mothers. "UK aid works. It is part of our DNA as a country and it is in our interest. "The Lords Committee is wrong to call for the UK to break its solemn promise to the world's poor." **Adrian Lovett** ONE Campaign, Europe Executive Director "The Lords Committee has chosen to ignore the evidence of the impact UK aid will have. If we maintain our commitment to the 0.7% aid target, as the Chancellor and Prime Minister have promised to do, British aid will provide over 80 million children with vaccines against life-threatening diseases, saving an estimated 1.4 million lives. "It is absolutely right that aid programmes must be as smart and effective as possible, but it is simply wrong for the committee to suggest that the 0.7% target will result in a lack of focus on effectiveness and value for money. "DFID has made a lot of progress in reducing corruption, improving transparency and accountability, and ensuring better outcomes. It also has a clear plan for how it will use 0.7% to help the poorest people in the world." **Barbara Frost** WaterAid, Chief Executive "Thanks to international aid and development efforts over the last two decades 2 billion more people now have access to life saving safe water. By meeting our international commitment to spend 0.7% of our national income on aid Britain can rightly lead from the front to champion getting water to 783 million who are still waiting for it. "This would be a landmark achievement in human history and it is just as much in Britain's interests to be in the forefront of this effort as it was to lead the campaign to abolition of slavery. "The Department for International Development has some of the most rigorous and transparent checks in place anywhere in the world as to how UK aid is spent, including setting up Independent Commission for Aid Impact. The Secretary of State Andrew Mitchell has been a relentless champion for making sure taxpayers money spent on aid represents real value for money and generates real improvements in the lives of the poorest people around the world." **Eric Gutierrez** Christian Aid, Senior Governance Adviser "The UK has long been seen as a leader in international development, and maintaining the pledge to deliver on the 0.7% target, which all major parties have signed up to, will enhance our ability to lead on broader questions of international development policy by joining the group of countries that meet the 0.7% threshold. "In Scandinavian countries, where the 0.7% threshold has been achieved, the discussion has shifted away from how much to give, to focus instead on how well it could be used. "The Committee also failed to understand that money spent in aid on development projects now can help minimise the amount spent on humanitarian aid in future. It is estimated that for every £1 spent on preventing disasters, £4 is saved in responding to them. **David Thomson** World Vision UK, Director of Policy "The Lords are simply wrong to call for the Government to drop this commitment. Aid is a matter of life and death for millions of people living in poverty and we are calling on the Government to stand by their promise and not be blown off course by this. "Nobody wants to see life-saving money wasted which is why we and other NGOs work so closely with the Government to ensure value for money and results for people in poverty. "But the two go hand in hand. Driving to raise standards without investing the money will mean that many more people will needlessly suffer."   **David Bull** UNICEF UK, Executive Director "You dona€™t break a promise you make to a child. Over the past 20 years development aid has meant that 4 million fewer children will die this year, 33 million children have had the chance to go to school for the first time and 4 million more people have access to live saving drugs for HIV/AIDS. "There is no greater example of the effectiveness of long-term aid than the fact we could eradicate Polio within the next five years. We have three years left to meet the Millennium Development Goals.  Now is not the time to turn our backs on children who need our help the most. We call on the Government to keep ita€™s commitment to the 0.7% aid spending target." **Marg Mayne** VSO, Chief Executive "We welcome the Committeea€™s recognition that funding for international development has made a real and lasting impact. For years, VSO volunteers have seen the difference it makes in the poorest parts of the world. Millions of people have been lifted out of poverty. "With Governments around the world failing to meet the 0.7% target, it is vital that the UK sticks to its commitment and sends a strong message to the international community that cutting support to the world's poorest people is unacceptable. "The UK has always been a champion internationally for ensuring high quality aid that delivers real results. The recent establishment of the Independent Commission for Aid Impact, and the scrutiny it brings to the Department for International Developmenta€™s work, is just another example of this."   **Dominic Haslam** SightSavers, Director of Policy "The UK's aid programme has a long history of supporting poorer countries to lift their people out of poverty. DFID has already proven that it is able to scale up its investments whilst leading the world in terms of aid effectiveness and it should be allowed to continue to do so.   "It's also disappointing to hear that the committee is recommending the Government break its commitment to spend 0.7% of GNI on aid. Aid helps to ensure that the world's most disadvantaged people, including those who are disabled, are able to access health, education and other essential services to help them build a brighter future. Spending this small percentage on development is a pledge we have made and one we can afford to keep." ****  **Jamie Cooper-Hohn** Children's Investment Fund Foundation, President and CEO From the Children's Investment Fund Foundation's (CIFF's) experience, working in the development sphere offers exceptional cost effective impact and potential for transformational change at scale. We have further developed conviction that ensuring health and education benefits, as DFID is so effectively doing, is central to achieving global security and fostering the new markets that ultimately enable economic growth in developing markets as well as at home. The UK Government through DFID has embraced the conditions for high value investinga€”thoughtful targeting of resources, clear and effective accountability, transparency, and willingness to engage with partners who can bring the greatest impact and efficiencies to the delivery of overseas aid including, increasingly, the private sector. They have been leaders in raising the bar for the development community at large. CIFF supports and recognises their international leadership on this front and view this as a vital and highly leveraged path to ensuring both progress in the development sphere and reaping the broader benefits of security and economic growth we seek at home. ## The results we're achieving **Find out how Britain's aid programme is changing lives:** [The future of UK aid]( on [Prezi]( Andrew Mitchell: The power of the UK's aid target In response to the House of Lords report on the UK's aid target, Andrew Mitchell reaffirmed Britain's commitment to the world's poorest people. 2012-03-29 66 The event aimed to maintain the international community's focus on the current and protracted humanitarian crisis, and efforts to improve the effectiveness of the international response in the future. ## Conclusions The participants welcomed the initiative to convene a humanitarian meeting, which brought the international community together to address the ongoing and protracted humanitarian situation in Somalia. We welcomed the 3 February announcement by the United Nations that famine conditions in Somalia have ended. However, we emphasised our grave concern that 2.34 million people remain in crisis, including 1.35 million internally displaced persons, and that the number of Somali refugees in the region has risen to nearly 1 million. There were particular concerns around vulnerable women and children in Somalia, with 325,000 children acutely malnourished, rising levels of sexual and gender based violence, and continuing child rights abuses. We noted that the humanitarian situation and protection environment remains extremely fragile, especially in the south. We reaffirmed the importance of responding to early warning with early action, and that humanitarian efforts should be guided by principles of humanity, independence, neutrality and impartiality to ensure assistance and protection reaches those who need it, when they need it. We welcomed the efforts of all actors engaged in the provision of humanitarian assistance to the Somali people, including national and local authorities, the United Nations and its member states (particularly regional governments), civil society (including from the diaspora) and non-governmental organisations. We agreed that effective coordination by all aid providers remains paramount to maximise the coverage of needs. We emphasised the importance of preserving the distinction between humanitarian objectives and political and security objectives, and that blurring the lines between those objectives jeopardises the delivery of vital assistance to the Somali people. In this regard, we called on all parties in Somalia to ensure that humanitarian actors are given full, safe and unhindered access to those in need, and that they can access aid in safety. We agreed on the need for the Somali authorities and international community to continue providing timely and sustained support to help alleviate the suffering of the Somali people. We noted that emergency assistance should be provided in a way that is supportive of the recovery and development of the Somali people, and creates the conditions for lasting solutions for the displaced, including voluntary return. We agreed to deepen ongoing efforts, led by the United Nations, to strengthen coordination.  Participants also agreed that, in addition to meeting immediate humanitarian needs, the international community should focus on helping the Somali people build their resilience to future shocks, by committing more multi-year support for livelihoods and basic social services. We agreed on the need for the United Nations to work with others to develop a strategy for this work, drawing on recent and ongoing efforts by Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) countries to improve the mitigation of drought emergencies. We reaffirmed the importance of all parties to the conflict complying with international law, including International Humanitarian Law (IHL), in particular that armed actors should take all necessary measures to prevent civilian casualties, and ensure that military action does not hinder humanitarian access. We agreed on the need to enhance monitoring and reporting systems for violations of IHL in Somalia. We expressed our concern at the plight of refugees in neighbouring countries, including many women and children, and our gratitude and continued support to refugee-hosting countries. We agreed on the need for the international community to work in collaboration with governments in the region to identify durable solutions for Somali refugees that respect international laws. We welcomed the commitment by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to take a renewed lead in building consensus for durable solutions. London Conference on Somalia: Humanitarian conclusions The humanitarian side event to the London Conference on Somalia took place at Lancaster House on 23 February 2012. 2012-02-23 67 I am delighted to be here today at The Forest Trust conference on sustainable oil palm, and to have the opportunity to join your discussions about this important and challenging area of work. At the end of another British winter, who could imagine that we would be crying out for more rain, in this country renowned for its poor and changeable weather? Yet that is the worrying situation that we find ourselves in, as drought sets in across large swathes of England. Hose pipe bans provide a small reminder a€“ if one were ever needed a€“ of the fundamental importance of climate to our lives. Stopping deforestation is a vital part of the global response to climate change, and we all have a part to play in rising to this challenge. **The green lung of our world** Tropical forests are sometimes referred to as the green lung of our world, with good reason. Rainforests remove almost 2 billion tonnes of carbon per year from the atmosphere and store one quarter of terrestrial carbon. About 1.2 billion poor people directly depend on forests for their livelihoods, and they are also home to over half of land-based plant and animal species. But forests are under increasing pressure and 13 million hectares (equivalent to the land area of England) are cleared annually. This deforestation accounts for 17% of global greenhouse gas emissions, more than emissions from global transport. Avoiding dangerous climate change will be harder if we dona€™t halt deforestation. And that takes me onto the subject of todaya€™s conference, which is to look at a powerful and practical way of taking action to reduce deforestation. With this in mind, I would like to use the next few minutes to set out three points about how the UK Government is responding to the challenge of slowing global deforestation. **New International Climate Fund** The first point concerns the way in which the government is using our international climate finance to help poor countries tackle deforestation. On this we are ambitious and we want to push others to act too. That's why the government has allocated £2.9 billion to a new International Climate Fund, which we will invest to help protect millions of poor people from droughts, floods and other extreme weather events; assist poor countries develop in ways that avoid or reduce harmful greenhouse gas emissions; and help to protect the worlda€™s forests and the livelihoods of 1.2 billion people who depend on them. The new Forest Governance Markets and Climate Programme, supported with £60 million from the International Climate Fund, is helping countries to continue and accelerate efforts to tackle illegal logging a€“ a widespread practice that has serious implications for the very poor and for our chances of protecting forests globally. This programme is supporting supply chain traceability for timber, using barcode systems which allow timber to be tracked "from stump to store". This shows how it can be done a€“ a simple bit of technology bringing a level of transparency and assurance like never before. The assurance which traceability provides helps developing country companies to access UK and EU markets, and provides UK companies with a guarantee of the legal origin of the product, helping to protect their valuable brands from reputational damage and adding value to their businesses. Experience gained from working on timber supply chains holds important lessons for oil palm and other commodities associated with deforestation. The British government intends to use this experience to make progress in tackling other causes of deforestation, through discouraging illegal and unsustainable behaviour and encouraging trade in legal and sustainably produced commodities, drawing on the resources and opportunity presented by the International Climate Fund. **Our own impact** The second point I would like to make concerns the importance of reducing the impact that our own consumption and purchasing decisions have on forests. Forests are an emotive issue for the British public. My own constituency of Eddisbury includes the Delamere Forest Park, and this is a topic of frequent and hot correspondence with my constituents. This British passion for trees extends overseas, and there is deep public concern about the loss of tropical forests. Given this passion, it makes little sense for us to contribute indirectly to the destruction of forests through everyday purchasing decisions. The same applies to the UK government. We are a strong advocate for a global climate change agreement that includes ambitious targets to halt deforestation. We use hard-earned taxpayers money to tackle deforestation around the world, and we should not undermine these efforts through purchase of products associated with illegal or unsustainable deforestation. Some countries, including the UK, have taken steps to reduce the extent to which they "import" deforestation, mainly through a focus on tackling illegal logging. The UK government was the first of eight EU governments to introduce a public procurement policy that requires central government departments to procure "legal and sustainable" timber. A new EU Timber Regulation, strongly supported by the UK, will make first sale in Europe and the UK of illegally logged timber a crime from March 2013. Some say that oil palm is a tougher challenge than timber. The product is ubiquitous in our supermarkets and larders. A survey by the Independent newspaper in 2009 found that it was used in 43 out of Britaina€™s 100 best-selling grocery brands. It is certainly harder to make the connection between a bag of raisins, a tub of margarine or a lipstick, and the rapid loss of the worlda€™s last remaining tropical forests on the far side of the world. But make this connection we must. Britain has a small influence on the palm oil markets. The UK at large consumes only 1% of palm oil traded internationally. However, EU countries together account for 22% of palm oil traded internationally, offering much greater scope to influence the market. With timber we showed that by taking leadership and encouraging others to act, the effects of the public and private sectors taking action in one country could be amplified. The same is true of oil palm. During a visit to Indonesia last week, the Prime Minister announced the governmenta€™s intention to work with British trade associations and companies to set out a roadmap for the UK to achieve 100% use of sustainable palm oil nationwide, tackling the wasteful and inefficient practices that are driving deforestation across the world. My colleagues in the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) have already started working with industry on a voluntary basis to increase sustainable private and public sector sourcing of tropical commodities, and we will use this forum to consider how to move this agenda forward further and faster in tandem with industry. While in Indonesia, the Prime Minister emphasised that the UK will work closely with businesses in pursuit of these goals: to source and produce sustainable timber and palm oil and to tackle the wasteful and inefficient practices that are driving deforestation. **Working together**  And that takes me on to my third point, which is to recognise that the public sector cana€™t do this alone, and to challenge you to work with us to make a real and lasting contribution to halting deforestation. The British government wants to use the ICF to work in partnership with the private sector and to leverage private investment, because we know that public finance alone will not solve climate change. With the support of the International Climate Fund, there are huge opportunities a€“ and indeed a crucial need a€“ for the private sector to invest profitably in climate-friendly businesses. The private sector is already acting. The UK timber trade federation showed leadership as early as 2004 through introducing a responsible purchasing policy to source legal timber. The "Forest Footprint Disclosure" initiative, which DFID supports, is encouraging companies to voluntarily disclosure the impacts of their operations on forests, including exposure to 5 key "forest risk" commodities: soya, timber, cattle products, palm oil and biofuels. The initiative is backed by £5 trillion in invested capital. Leaders in mitigating impact in each sector are profiled in the Forest Footprinta€™s annual disclosure review. In 2011 leaders included J. Sainsbury plc, NestlÃ(C) SA, Unilever and Marks & Spencer plc. I also recently met the CEO of Kingfisher a€“ Europea€™s largest home improvements company a€“ and heard about the leadership that Kingfisher has shown in promoting sustainability within its operations and in sourcing certified sustainable timber. It is a bold policy which shows genuine leadership and forward thinking. It is also a policy that is entirely reconciled with Kingfishera€™s viability and long-term future as a profitable enterprise. NestlÃ(C) and PT SMART have shown how this can be done for palm oil too. Last year NestlÃ(C) resumed purchases from a palm oil mill in Indonesia run by PT SMART, after the latter set out a commitment to having a "no deforestation footprint". Working with The Forest Trust, the company has put in place supply chain controls so the oil is fully traceable as legally, sustainably and socially sound, starting from its supplying palm plantations through processing and transport to the NestlÃ(C) factory. **Helping you to go the extra mile** This is an example for us all to follow. On the part of the British government, I can say that if you can build the ground-breaking partnerships required to support green growth and curb the impact of palm oil as a driver of deforestation, then the UK will endeavour to use its climate finance to support you to go that extra mile. Thank you. Stephen O’Brien: Slowing global deforestation Speech by Development Minister Stephen O’Brien to The Forest Trust conference on sustainable oil palm. 2012-04-20 68 I would like to thank Bright Blue and Tearfund UK for the invitation to this seminar. Transparency, accountability and good governance are fundamental to anti-corruption and I welcome the opportunity to tell you more about DFIDa€™s work. **UK Commitment to fight Corruption** I want to start by making it absolutely clear that the Coalition Government is fully committed to giving robust leadership to the fight against corruption. It is a vital part of our development assistance work and we are committed to doing more with our partner countries, and doing more here in the UK and doing more with international partners Corruption is bad for development, bad for poor people and bad for business. It causes huge damage to developing countries and wastes precious resources.  We know, too, that poor people feel the effects more harshly than those who are better off.  The uncertainties of bribery stifle business development and inward investment.  And more widely, corruption corrodes the fabric of society and public institutions and is often at the root of conflict and instability. At the heart of DFIDa€™s work to tackle corruption is the recognition that in the modern world the problem of dealing with corruption cannot be confined within a countrya€™s own borders. Corrupt money moves quickly. Combating it requires co-operation between countriesa€™ investigators and law enforcement. Action to tackle corruption must be taken in partnership with developing countries; and action must be taken here in the UK and action must be taken with partners at the international level. **Action with our Partner Countries** In our partner countries, DFIDa€™s programmes offer a wide array of assistance to help bear down on corruption.  Traditionally, this has focused on strengthening institutions of governance; but increasingly this has broadened to include assistance to fight money laundering, to trace illicit financial flows and to recover stolen assets.   We know that the nature, intensity and shape of corruption will differ from country to country.  Each country has unique challenges and unique capacities - or lack of them - to respond.  So while there can be no single approach to anti-corruption, DFIDa€™s actions are based on the appreciation that corruption thrives where certain conditions combine: where public institutions are weak and there is neither accountability nor respect for the rule of law a€“ this provides the opportunity for corruption; where public service conditions are poor  - providing the incentive to be corrupt; and where enforcement action is ineffective - which reduces the likelihood of detection and sanctions .  The choices in any individual DFID programme will reflect an analysis of these factors in the country concerned. In most DFID country programmes, a significant contribution is made to preventing corruption by supporting reform of public financial management.  There is direct support to strengthening national audit offices in, for example, Ghana, Ethiopia, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda and Vietnam.  DFID has also provided assistance to many anti-corruption commissions, for example, in Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Zambia and Jamaica.  We are now helping to increase investigation and prosecution capability in Nigeria and Tanzania, and supporting greater scrutiny of public expenditure through parliamentary oversight and civil society engagement in countries such as Bangladesh, Ghana and Kenya. We are seeing results like these: * DFID helped the Ugandan Government to address corruption in the public sector through stopping payments to 9,000 ghost workers - non-existent employees on payrolls.  This has helped the Ugandan Government save up to £6m per year since 2005/06. * In Malawi, support to the investigation and prosecution capacity of the Anti-Corruption Bureau has resulted in it prosecuting 25 major cases over the last 10 years involving over US$141m - of which US$80m has been recovered. * In Nigeria, assistance to the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission in Nigeria has contributed to its ability to secure 52 convictions and the prevention and/or recovery of US$1bn in laundered funds. **Action in the UK** I now want to turn to what we do here in the UK to tackle corruption affecting developing countries. We have taken significant strides in tackling the problem of money laundering from developing countries; and in tackling corruption by UK nationals and companies which operate in developing countries.  This work is spearheaded by the two UK police units, both funded by DFID since 2006 a€“ unique for a development agency - which trace, seize and recover illicit financial flows into the UK from developing countries, and which tackle bribery by UK companies or individuals in developing countries. The Metropolitan Police Proceeds of Corruption Unit investigates allegations of money laundering by corrupt foreign politicians and officials (a€˜known as a€˜Politically Exposed Personsa€™ (PEPs) through the UK.  Since DFID funding started, there have been eight successful prosecutions.  Overall, some £170m has been identified and is being held pending investigation and formal recovery. Some of this is money stolen by James Ibori, the former Governor of Delta State in Nigeria. He is now serving 13 years in a UK prison for his theft from the people of Nigeria. The City of London Police Overseas Anti-Corruption Unit investigates allegations of UK citizens and companies involved in overseas corruption, especially foreign bribery.  To date, there have been eight successful prosecutions, and the unit has around 25 cases currently under investigation, and a number of individuals charged and awaiting trial. These units form the backbone of DFIDa€™s approach that seeks to contribute at the key stages of the case management chain.  Work is also in hand with the Serious Organised Crime Agency to better marshal and develop intelligence that can be used to inform programming decisions.  At the other end, post-prosecution, the Department contributes to the asset recovery work undertaken by the Crown Prosecution Service to process confiscation orders and prepare for eventual return of stolen funds to the country of origin. The support for the UK law enforcement system has proved its worth with considerable success both in terms of prosecutions and in recovery of assets, placing the UK at the forefront of this agenda internationally.  This is a position that we are keen to maintain and are currently planning to expand.  In addition to this practical support for operational law enforcement, DFID provides the secretariat for the Governmenta€™s cross-departmental PEPs Strategy Group, chaired by HM Treasury.  This brings together agencies concerned with PEP-related money laundering to improve coherence across Government departments in key areas such as intelligence, strategic assessments, improving the legal and regulatory environment and outreach and interaction with the financial services industry.  This Group is proving an important vehicle for improving inter-agency collaboration and coherence on the international illicit financial flows that are the basis of money laundering. The Department is also now investing time and effort in supporting collaboration between UK Government departments on the broader international corruption agenda which is led by the Prime Ministera€™s International Corruption Champion, currently the Justice Secretary.  This enables DFID to ensure that the interests and concerns of developing countries are reflected in collective decision-making and priority setting. **Action at the International Level** Turning now to the international level, the UN Convention against Corruption provides an important transformative framework for co-operation between governments to tackle corruption.  DFID invested heavily in the negotiations drawing up the Convention, in particular injecting a strong preventive theme to complement the criminal law enforcement starting point. The global architecture for stolen asset recovery has developed strongly following the inclusion in the UN Convention against Corruption of obligations on developed and developing countries to collaborate on the tracing, seizing, recovery and return of illicit assets.  To support the development of stronger knowledge on the obstacles to effective asset recovery, DFID has been a founding funder of the World Banka€™s Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative which has generated a suite of valuable technical products for guiding policymakers and practitioners in this area. DFID is also a core funder, along with Switzerland and Liechtenstein, of the International Centre for Asset Recovery (ICAR) at the Basel Institute of Governance which provides practical case management advice to countries pursuing asset recovery.  These two bodies have transformed the global framework for asset recovery in recent years, and provide developing countries with new avenues for technical assistance in all stages of the asset recovery process. DFID also plays a central role with Ministry of Justice, in driving innovation within the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group. Plans have been developed across the corruption challenge where G20 countries are committed to showing global leadership by example.  These include: re-emphasising the centrality of implementing the UN Convention against Corruption; ensuring all G20 countries have effective laws against foreign bribery; strengthening cross-border collaboration on corruption and asset recovery; and a€“ very innovatively, looking at a€˜non-aida€™ responses such as denial of travel and visas for corrupt persons. We are now building on this by supporting the G20 Open Governance Partnership which aims to leverage faster progress towards open, transparent, accountable and effective governance. Through other contributions to anti-money laundering technical assistance programmes by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, DFID is now helping a range of developing countries to strengthen their anti-money laundering regimes.  There is strong complementarity between this preventive work and the operational enforcement work undertaken through the World Banka€™s stolen assets (StAR) initiative. The UK is now internationally acknowledged to be a leader in international efforts to increase transparency in extractive industries which can be drivers of large-scale corruption in developing countries.  The UK has supported the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) since its launch in 2002.  This seeks to set a global standard for transparency in oil, gas and mining.  This has led to over $500bn of government revenues being reported under EITI in 29 countries around the world and $130bn of revenues reported in Africa by over 150 companies. DFID works to improve further developing countriesa€™ resource stewardship by contributing to the work of the Global Forum on Tax Transparency and the OECD Tax and Development Task Force.  These are leading efforts on behalf of the G20 to implement international standards for tax transparency and exchange of information to enable tax authorities across the world to access the information they need for ensuring they are able to the tax revenues they are due.  Significant progress has been made in the last two years.  More than 500 agreements on tax information exchange have been signed between financial centres. **Conclusion** So to conclude, I hope these actions demonstrate this Governmenta€™s commitment to increasing the attention and resources to the fight against corruption. Over the last year, we have reviewed how DFID can improve its approaches to managing the risks of corruption in DFIDa€™s programming, and to tackling corruption more broadly in DFIDa€™s partner countries.  As a result: - We are now preparing comprehensive anti-corruption strategies for all DFID priority countries which set out how we will assess, respond and implement action to address corruption and ensure the effectiveness of UK assistance.  We have undertaken to produce strategies in respect of all 28 of DFIDa€™s partner countries by the end of January 2013. - We are increasing our vigilance and efforts so that we better identify, track and recover losses, wherever they arise. - We are ensuring that our staff has better skills and knowledge and that the organisation has more capacity and capability to address corruption and fraud. - We have appointed an Anti-Corruption Champion at Director-General level to ensure there is greater coherence, coordination and integration of anti-corruption objectives between the wider policy environment in developing countries, in DFIDa€™s programmes, and within DFID itself. This gives you an overview of what DFID is doing. I know you are also working to fight corruption and our combined efforts can have an impact. We can reduce the damage caused by corruption to some of the poorest countries and poorest people Thank you. Stephen O'Brien: Transparency, Accountability and Good Governance Speech by International Development Minister Stephen O’Brien at the Roundtable on Transparency, Accountability and Good Governance: The Future of International Development 2012-05-16
Title i Summary pagenumber Attachment date
British-led initiative helps give new hope for Yemen 0 A meeting of key donors in Saudi Arabia has today agreed a vital package of support for Yemen that will help to stabalise the country and ensure that it does not slip back into serious conflict 1 2012-09-05
Britain to help Ghana reach final stages of poverty reduction 1 Britain will help Ghana to prepare for a future without aid and ensure that the poorest benefit from the country’s record growth 1 2012-08-29
Sierra Leone cholera outbreak - first ever use of UK Rapid Response Facility 2 The UK Government has activated its new rapid response network for the first time, to help two million people affected by the cholera outbreak in Sierra Leone 1 2012-08-24
Global Hunger Event: Lasting legacy for children around the world 3 Millions of children in the world’s poorest countries must benefit from the legacy of the London Olympics, the Prime Minister said today as he and the Brazilian Vice President, Michel Temer were joined by double Olympic gold medal winner Mo Farah 1 2012-08-12
Fourfold increase in British support for Syrian refugees 4 The new funding will provide emergency food rations for over 18,000 Syrian refugees and safe drinking water and sanitation for thousands more. 1 2012-08-07
Mitchell: Don’t block access to innovation for the poor 5 DFID's new 'open access' policy to make all researchers receiving DFID funding to publish their findings free online 1 2012-07-26
Mitchell: "As Britain hosts the 2012 Olympics we do not forget those who are starving and dying in South Sudan" 6 Further British support for refugees fleeing violence on the Sudanese border was announced today by International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell. 1 2012-07-25
Mitchell: Political instability could put Somalia on food crisis knife edge 7 Somalia is at greater risk of slipping back into crisis if the political situation in the country is not addressed quickly, Andrew Mitchell warned today. 1 2012-07-20
120m more women will have access to family planning in 'extraordinary breakthrough' for women 8 An extraordinary global breakthrough giving access to family planning for 120 million women in the world's poorest countries 1 2012-07-11
Afghanistan's future at risk if development not prioritised 9 The international community must make long-term development commitments to Afghanistan or risk gains being lost 1 2012-07-04
Faith groups and Government seal partnership on aid 10 Groups from across the faith spectrum have been brought together to sign up to new principles for collaborating with the UK government on aid 1 2012-06-26
Flying the flag for UK aid – millions of lives changed for the better 11 Aid from Britain will now be badged with a Union Flag when it is sent overseas, as a clear symbol that it comes from this country 1 2012-06-25
Britain to help smallholder farms feed millions 12 UK aid will help millions of small farms and communities adapt to potentially devastating changes in the climate and pull themselves out of poverty 1 2012-06-21
Britain to help poorest people depending on forests 13 The UK will work alongside the private sector to protect the livelihoods of tens of millions of the poorest people who are dependent on forests for food, fuel and medicines 1 2012-06-20
Britain to help a further 200,000 survive West Africa food crisis 14 The aid will includes emergency food for people across the region as well food vouchers to see them through the next six months 1 2012-06-19
British Minister sees Sahel food crisis first hand 15 Stephen O’Brien last night became the first Coalition minister to visit Niger so he could see for himself how British aid is helping thousands of people survive the food crisis in West Africa 1 2012-06-19
Britain backs fund for African farmers 16 Britain backs new scheme to boost food security and nutrition in Africa through technology 1 2012-06-18
UK classrooms to use technology to connect with the developing world 17 A new scheme will give every school in the UK the chance to partner with schools in developing countries 1 2012-06-18
Britain supports disadvantaged Palestinian refugees through the United Nations Relief and Works Agency 18 On a visit to Lebanon today, International Development Minister Alan Duncan announced a new three year package of UK aid for the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) to support Palestinian refugees in the region. 1 2012-06-11
Britain will help 1m survive in West Africa 19 Britain will help a further million people survive the food crisis in West Africa, Andrew Mitchell announced today. 1 2012-06-10
Britain and Malawi relaunch development partnership 0 Britain will help stabilise the Malawian economy by providing urgent assistance to support the country’s currency following devaluation, Andrew Mitchell said today during a visit to Blantyre. 2 2012-05-31
Call for international community support for Yemen 1 Development Minister Alan Duncan today announced new British aid for at least quarter of a million people in need in Yemen 2 2012-05-22
Development Secretary meets Swindon ‘Saints’ 2 International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell today (Saturday 19 May) met diaspora ‘Saints’ – people from St Helena who are currently living in the UK - in Swindon to update them on progress on the St Helena Airport project. 2 2012-05-19
Britain to help Africa achieve greater food security and fight malnutrition 3 None 2 2012-05-18
Alan Duncan: Arms industry needs ethical treaty 4 Britain will attempt to secure a new arms trade treaty this summer that will for the first time introduce international regulations of the arms trade 2 2012-05-17
Minister urges young Scots to ‘change lives’ overseas 5 Young people in Scotland were today encouraged to apply for a ‘life-changing’ volunteering scheme to help tackle poverty overseas by International Development Minister Alan Duncan, who was visiting his department’s Scottish headquarters 2'change%20lives'%20overseas.pdf 2012-05-15
Taxpayer to benefit from investment in Actis 6 The UK Government has sold its remaining 40 per cent shareholding in Actis Capital LLP in return for a share in the profits of its funds 2 2012-05-01
Britain warns of avoidable humanitarian disaster in South Sudan 7 Britain will provide additional emergency support to help 100,000 people facing severe food shortages in South Sudan, International Development Minister Stephen O’Brien announced today after visiting its volatile border with Sudan 2 2012-04-26
Deputy Prime Minister announces energy support for world’s poorest 8 The UK is supporting a programme ensuring two million people in some of the world’s poorest countries can access clean and reliable energy 2 2012-04-24
Britain to kick start banking revolution in the poorest countries 9 The UK will unlock the potential of entrepreneurs in the poorest countries and create almost one million new jobs 2 2012-04-22
UK to double support for clean water and sanitation, reaching over 60 million people 10 Britain will help more than 60 million people get access to clean drinking water and proper sanitation over the lifetime of this parliament, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell announced today. 2 2012-04-20
Syria: New British medical aid and help for refugees 11 Britain will help hospitals provide trauma surgery for Syrians injured in the conflict and medical care for thousands more 2 2012-04-19
Success in fighting against corruption as Ibori starts jail term 12 Cheats and thieves who seek to use Britain as a refuge for their crimes can expect to feel the full force of British justice, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said today after the sentencing of corrupt Nigerian politician James Ibori 2 2012-04-17
UK Government and Business partnership to tackle deforestation 13 On a visit to South East Asia, Prime Minister David Cameron today announced new measures to tackle illegal deforestation worldwide in partnership with the Government of Indonesia and the business community 2 2012-04-11
Tomorrow's world technology focused on disasters 14 Smart phone apps, super buckets and satellite technology could help people survive major disasters as part of a new scheme from the British Government 2 2012-04-10
DFID-funded Shujaaz FM wins International Digital Emmy Award 15 Tonight (1 April 2012) Shujaaz.FM was awarded the International Digital Emmy® Award in the Digital Program: Children & Young People category – beating some of the giants of international media. 2 2012-04-01
Manchester charity gets grant to educate children in Africa 16 The Department for International Development is contributing £63,000 over two years towards a self-sustaining community schools project, growing and marketing timber to pay for teachers and resources 2 2012-03-27
£10m funding match on donations to Sport Relief 17 The UK Government will match £10 million of public donations to tonight’s Sport Relief appeal to help improve the lives of at least one million of the poorest people living in African slums 2 2012-03-23
UAE and UK joint drive on education and poverty 18 The United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom have agreed today to join forces to better support the efforts of the governments of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Yemen to tackle poverty and promote growth 2 2012-03-21
Andrew Mitchell drives British business with Land Rover 19 The Development Secretary got a first hand look at the Land Rover vehicles that will be used as part of the UK's new rapid response network dealing with international emergencies 2 2012-03-16
Further British support - food and medical aid for Syria 0 Britain will provide new funding to the UN to help make food available for up to 1.7 million people caught up in the ongoing violence in Syria 3 2012-03-14
Mitchell: Further British support for West Africa crisis 1 British aid will provide emergency food, medical supplies and water for thousands of children caught up in the West Africa hunger crisis 3 2012-03-14
New British aid to tackle crisis in Yemen 2 International Development Minister Alan Duncan today announced new support for healthcare, emergency shelter and food 3 2012-03-13
Britain combats domestic violence and trafficking across developing world 3 Britain will spearhead a new drive to save girls and women from the threat of domestic violence and trafficking in the poorest countries, the Prime Minister and Secretary of State for International Development have announced today 3 2012-03-08
UK’s new rapid response network will activate ‘within hours’ of a natural disaster 4 Britain is to establish a new rapid response network from top UK-based businesses and charities to respond to major international crises, such as famine, floods and earthquakes, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell announced today. 3 2012-03-07
UK’s fight against corruption boosts world’s poorest people 5 Millions of pounds stolen by a corrupt Nigerian politician will be returned to the country’s poorest people, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said today. 3 2012-02-27
Stephen O’Brien visits Bristol Somali community ahead of major conference 6 International Development Minister Stephen O’Brien today visited Somali diaspora groups in Bristol to outline the aims of the Somalia Conference taking place in London on 23 February. 3 2012-02-20
International Development Minister praises Harrogate’s ethical tea and coffee 7 Alan Duncan, International Development Minister, is today visiting family business Taylors’ of Harrogate to taste their range of ethically traded teas and coffees ahead of Fairtrade Fortnight later this month. 3 2012-02-17
International Development Secretary praises Wolverhampton’s Fairtrade pioneers 8 Andrew Mitchell, International Development Secretary, is today visiting Wolverhampton to taste fairtrade coffee from the city’s new pioneers of fair and ethical trading, Revolver World, ahead of Fairtrade Fortnight later this month. 3 2012-02-17
New British aid for Syrians caught up in violence 9 New British support will help get vitally needed food and medical supplies to tens of thousands of Syrians affected by the ongoing fighting in Homs and more widely across Syria 3 2012-02-17
Private and Public Partners Unite to Combat 10 Neglected Tropical Diseases by 2020 10 Partners pledge innovative, coordinated action aimed at new World Health Organisation 3 2012-01-30
World must address failure in Somalia 11 During his visit to Somalia Mr Mitchell announced new British support for health services, which will benefit over 100,000 women and children, and for weapons management. 3 2012-01-30
Liverpool’s award winning pupils grill Government minister on how overseas aid is making countries safer 12 Pupils of Cardinal Heenan Catholic Sports College were today presented with the prestigious British Council International School Award by Minister for International Development, Alan Duncan. 3 2012-01-26
Mitchell announces emergency aid in response to looming food crisis in the Sahel and urges others to step up efforts 13 Britain will send lifesaving emergency aid to help thousands of families facing severe food shortages caused by drought in the Sahel region of West Africa. 3 2012-01-22
Britain to protect more than 140 million in global effort to rid the world of neglected tropical diseases 14 Britain will supply more than four treatments every second for the next four years, as part of a global push to help eliminate infectious tropical diseases from the developing world 3 2012-01-21
Minister visits Greenwich school benefiting from the international legacy of the Olympic and Paralympic Games as Government marks 200 days to Olympics 15 International Development Secretary, Andrew Mitchell, today met school children in Greenwich who are benefiting from a ground-breaking international legacy programme for the London 2012 Games. 3 2012-01-09
World 'dangerously unprepared' for future shocks warns Mitchell 16 After a year of disasters, the UK urges more support for the international response system to make sure funding is fast and effective 3 2011-12-27
9000 tonnes of British aid to arrive in the Horn of Africa for Christmas 17 British-funded food supplies and medicines for 800,000 people will arrive in drought zones in over the festive period 3 2011-12-22
Britain to help address education emergency and promote trade in Gaza 18 British Development Secretary visits Gaza and announces UK support for 24,000 children to attend school 3 2011-12-18
UK hails new aid partnership with emerging powers 19 Britain welcomed a new agreement with China and others to improve the impact of aid at this week's aid forum in Korea 3 2011-12-01
UK International Development Secretary visits Beijing 0 A new era of collaboration between the China and the UK on international development was sealed today 4 2011-11-29
Britain provides contraception to save thousands of lives 1 The UK will help meet the need for contraception across the developing world and avert nearly 220,000 unsafe abortions 4's%20lives.pdf 2011-11-29
DFID celebrates 30 years in Scotland 2 Department for International Development's second headquarters in Scotland is celebrating 30 years today 4 2011-11-24
Andrew Mitchell meets Aung San Suu Kyi 3 Britain stands shoulder to shoulder with Aung San Suu Kyi, says International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell 4 2011-11-17
Premier League and DEC unite to tackle famine 4 The Premier League today backed the DEC East Africa crisis appeal at a reception in Downing Street 4 2011-11-14
UK Government and BBC World Service Trust join forces to help world's most troubled hot-spots 5 The Government has announced a new joint venture with the BBC World Service Trust which will help over 200 million people in poor, war-torn or unstable countries. 4 2011-11-13
New focus on business growth in UK’s fight against world poverty 6 Britain will increase the amount of support it provides businesses in Africa to help break their dependence on aid 4 2011-11-10
Britain to help educate an extra 3.5 million children 7 UK aid will help millions more children access quality education in a major global drive to tackle illiteracy 4 2011-11-08
Minister warns of emergency developing on the Sudan border 8 Thousands of Southern Sudanese risk being caught in a humanitarian crisis, Stephen O’Brien warned today 4 2011-11-04
UK help for Afghan mine victims 9 The UK is to help provide 3,800 new artificial limbs and 10,000 crutches for Afghan children and adults 4 2011-11-01
Mitchell: British aid feeds over 2.4 million in desperate 10 New figures released today show Britain's support is saving hundreds of thousands of lives across the region 4 2011-10-20
Alan Duncan is the first British Minister to visit Tajikistan 11 The Development Minister went on a field visit to see trade and development during the country’s 20th anniversary 4 2011-10-17
Britain to secure world-wide eradication of worm disease 12 The UK Government is backing the Carter Center in a new project that will see the end of Guinea worm within this decade 4 2011-10-05
Mitchell: Britain to save the lives of thousands of pregnant women 13 UK aid will help to save the lives of more than 7,000 pregnant women as part of a drive to cut maternal deaths 4 2011-09-20
Mitchell: October could be 'critical month' in Somalia 14 As disease threatens thousands of families in Somalia, Andrew Mitchell calls on more funding from countries at the United Nations in New York 4 2011-09-20
Educating one million girls to tackle poverty 15 Britain will help up to a million of the poorest girls in the world go to school, the Deputy Prime Minister announced today. 4 2011-09-19
New British support for Libyan mine clearance 16 UK aid will help protect people in Libya from the threat of deadly landmines, allowing them to return safely to their homes and businesses 4 2011-09-15
UK ministers meet Belfast schoolchildren 17 Minister of State Alan Duncan visits schoolchildren in Northern Ireland 4 2011-09-15
New British support to meet urgent humanitarian needs in Libya 18 Britain will provide urgent humanitarian support including medical help, food and other basic supplies for thousands of people affected by the conflict in Libya 4 2011-08-27
Mitchell: 400,000 children risk death through starvation in Somalia 19 International Development Secretary announces more British aid for drought-stricken Somalia on visit to Mogadishu 4 2011-08-17
British Government to boost public support to charity appeals 0 Andrew Mitchell has launched a new scheme that will match public support for charity projects in developing countries pound for pound 5 2011-08-15
British aid reaches drought-stricken region 1 Planes and trucks carrying crucial British-backed aid have arrived in some of the most drought-stricken regions in the Horn of Africa, Andrew Mitchell announced today 5 2011-08-03
David Cameron and Andrew Mitchell meet local Somalis to discuss Horn of Africa crisis 2 The Prime Minister and Development Secretary met local Somalis today to listen to their concerns about the famine 5 2011-07-22
Mitchell to announce help for 1 million drought victims on camp visit with charity heads 3 The UK will provide emergency help for more than a million people in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia as the food crisis worsens 5 2011-07-16
Government to suspend general budget support to Malawi 4 The UK Government has suspended budget support to Malawi indefinitely from today. 5 2011-07-14
Mitchell: Funding for UK "development awareness" projects will end 5 Following an independent review, the Government will not fund any further "development awareness" schemes in the UK 5 2011-07-13
Mitchell welcomes DEC appeal for Horn of Africa 6 Andrew Mitchell backed the launch of the DEC's public appeal to help those hit by the food crisis in East Africa. 5 2011-07-08
Britain sets out four year plan to tackle poverty in OPTs 7 Britain has set out how it plans to tackle poverty in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPTs) over the next four years 5 2011-07-07
Mitchell: Investing in girls can stop poverty 8 By backing UN Women the UK will help improve prospects for millions of the poorest girls and women around the world. 5 2011-07-06
British aid battles starvation in Ethiopia 9 Britain will provide emergency food relief for 1.3 million people in Ethiopia as the region faces its worst drought in a decade, Andrew Mitchell said today. 5 2011-07-03
New British drive to help tackle crisis in Yemen 10 New emergency humanitarian support from the UK will help to tackle rapidly worsening conditions in Yemen 5 2011-07-01
Statement on the election of the new Director General at FAO 11 None 5 2011-06-26
Mitchell: Business expertise to boost aid efforts 12 The UK Government calls on business leaders to drive more investment into the poorest countries and use the power of the private sector to boost aid efforts. 5 2011-06-16
Mitchell: Britain to lead more effective response to humanitarian disasters 13 Today the UK laid out how it will improve the way it responds to man-made and natural disasters, such as earthquakes and floods. 5 2011-06-15
British aid to vaccinate a child every two seconds 14 British aid will help vaccinate a child in the developing world every two seconds for the next five years, the Prime Minister announced today 5 2011-06-13
UK to prevent half a million HIV infections among women in Africa 15 The UK is to help reduce new HIV infections by at least half a million among women in Africa by 2015. 5 2011-06-09
Government hosts business breakfast to boost vaccines 16 The British Government called on businesses to help provide 250 million children in the developing world with life-saving vaccines. 5 2011-06-09
New Permanent Secretary at DFID 17 Mark Lowcock has been appointed as the new Permanent Secretary at the Department for International Development. 5 2011-06-09
William Hague and Andrew Mitchell visit Benghazi for talks with NTC 18 William Hague and Andrew Mitchell travelled to Benghazi today to demonstrate their support for the National Transitional Council and discuss the Council’s plans for a political roadmap for the future of Libya. 5 2011-06-04
William Hague and Andrew Mitchell visit Benghazi 19 Quotes from William Hague and Andrew Mitchell on their visit to Bengazi 5 2011-06-04
Title i ntype Summary pagenumber Attachment date
Paralympians meet Greening to support polio eradication 0 Latest-news Ex-Team GB Paralympians Ade Adepitan and Anne Wafula-Strike who have been affected by polio met with the new Secretary of State for International Development Justine Greening today to show support for eradicating the disease. 1 2012-09-12
Business: Reformed CDC to help poorest countries 1 Latest-news The UK's Development Finance Institution, CDC, marks a bold phase with it's new strategy, placing it back at the centre of Britain's efforts to help the poorest countries pull themselves out of poverty. 1 2012-09-12
Soccer Aid: UK aid match helps UNICEF save more lives 2 Latest-news How we're helping to double your donations 1 2012-09-06
New ministers for international development 3 Latest-news Rt Hon Justine Greening MP and Lynne Featherstone MP have been appointed as new ministers for international development 1 2012-09-05
Yemen: British-led initiative gives new hope 4 Latest-news A meeting of key donors in Saudi Arabia has today agreed a vital package of support for Yemen that will help to stabilise the country and ensure it does not slip back into serious conflict 1 2012-09-05
Ghana: Britain to help reach final stages of poverty reduction 5 Latest-news Britain will help Ghana to prepare for a future without aid and ensure that the poorest benefit from the country’s record growth 1 2012-08-29
Sierra Leone: UK rapid response to tackle cholera 6 Latest-news The UK Government has activated its new rapid response network for the first time, to help two million people affected by the cholera outbreak in Sierra Leone 1 2012-08-24
Hunger event: Lasting legacy for children around the world 7 Latest-news Millions of children in the world’s poorest countries must benefit from the legacy of the London Olympics, the Prime Minister said today as he and the Brazilian Vice President, Michel Temer were joined by double Olympic gold medal winner Mo Farah to urge a global drive to boost nutrition. 1 2012-08-12
Syria: Help for 45,000 more refugees 8 Latest-news Britain will quadruple its assistance to help tens of thousands more refugees fleeing worsening fighting in Syria, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell announced today as he visited the new Za’atri tented refugee camp in Jordan, on the Syrian border 1 2012-08-07
Global Hunger Event, 12 August 2012 9 Latest-news Transforming the life chances of millions of children before the next Olympic Games 1 2012-08-03
Research: Open access to boost innovation 10 Latest-news DFID's new open acess policy aims to make research available easily and at no cost to scientists working in the developing world 1 2012-07-26
South Sudan: UK aid support for 200,000 people 11 Latest-news Andrew Mitchell has today announced further British support for refugees fleeing violence on the Sudanese border 1 2012-07-25
Horn of Africa: British aid has saved millions of lives 12 Latest-news Although the international response has so far reached millions of people across the Horn of Africa, serious concerns remain about the situation in Somalia. 1 2012-07-20
Horn of Africa food crisis - latest updates 13 Latest-news Lifesaving UK government help for more than a million people in Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia 1 2012-07-20
DRC: All sides must work together to end instability 14 Latest-news International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell visits eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Rwanda, urges all parties to work towards a regional solution 1 2012-07-19
Family planning: London summit, 11 July 2012 15 Latest-news Making lifesaving contraceptives available to an additional 120 million women and girls by 2020 1 2012-07-11
Syria: Britain to double humanitarian aid 16 Latest-news The announcement of further British support comes in response to a UN estimate that 1.5 million people are in urgent need because of the violence 1 2012-07-05
Afghanistan: Future at risk if development not prioritised 17 Latest-news The international community must make long-term development commitments to Afghanistan or it risk gains being lost, warns Andrew Mitchell 1 2012-07-04
Pakistan: Help for one million people to prepare for future floods 18 Latest-news The UK Government has today announced further support for people affected by last year's devistating floods 1 2012-07-03
Aid effectiveness: Mitchell co-chairs 'post-Busan' panel 19 Latest-news The UK's Development Secretary has been appointed as co-chair of the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation 1 2012-06-29
Faith groups: New partnership on aid 0 Latest-news Groups from across the faith spectrum have been brought together to sign up to new principles for collaborating with the government on aid 2 2012-06-27
Annual report: New results show UK aid is changing lives 1 Latest-news New figures track the success of UK aid around the globe 2 2012-06-25
New logo: Flying the flag for UK aid 2 Latest-news Aid from Britain will be badged with a Union Flag overseas, as a clear symbol that it comes from the United Kingdom 2 2012-06-25
Food: Britain to help poor farmers to feed millions 3 Latest-news Britain will help millions of small farms to grow enough food to eat in the face of a changing climate that could hit harvests in years ahead 2 2012-06-22
Burma: Aung San Suu Kyi backs British aid 4 Latest-news Aung San Suu Kyi welcomed the support which UK aid provides to Burma during a visit to DFID 2 2012-06-21
Forests: UK to help millions who rely on natural resources 5 Latest-news Britain will work with the private sector to help tens of millions of the poorest people who rely on forests for food, fuel and medicines 2 2012-06-20
West Africa: Lifesaving aid for a further 200,000 people 6 Latest-news The aid includes emergency food for people across the region as well food vouchers to see them through the next six months 2 2012-06-19
West Africa: Minister sees food aid saving lives in Sahel 7 Latest-news Stephen O’Brien is in Niger to see for himself how British aid is helping thousands of people survive the food crisis in West Africa 2 2012-06-19
Food: Innovative technology to boost African farming 8 Latest-news Britain backs new scheme to boost food security and nutrition in Africa through technology 2 2012-06-18
Education: School linking give pupils a global outlook 9 Latest-news Every school in the UK will get a chance to link up with a partner school in a developing country under a new scheme launched today 2 2012-06-18
Syria: Alan Duncan meets families who fled fighting 10 Latest-news The humanitarian situation in Syria risks deteriorating significantly unless there is an immediate end to ongoing violence, the Development Minister warned today 2 2012-06-12
Green growth: Business to help beat resource scarcity 11 Latest-news Natural resources – such as food, water and energy – will come under extreme pressure within 20 years, says a new report released today 2 2012-06-11
Palestinian Territories: New vital services for refugees 12 Latest-news Britain will help provide health and education to tens of thousands of refugees across the Occupied Palestinian Territories 2 2012-06-11
West Africa: Britain to help a million people survive 13 Latest-news Britain will help a further million people survive the food crisis in West Africa 2 2012-06-10
Water: Smart hand pumps send texts if they break 14 Latest-news Britain is supporting a breakthrough in text message technology to help tackle water shortages in drought-affected Africa 2 2012-06-08
Malawi: UK protects poorest from devaluation difficulty 15 Latest-news Britain will help stabilise the Malawian economy by providing urgent assistance to support the country's currency following its recent devaluation 2 2012-05-31
Yemen: International support crucial for country in crisis 16 Latest-news British aid will help more than a quarter of a million people caught up in the humanitarian crisis in Yemen 2 2012-05-22
St Helena: Mitchell meets Swindon 'Saints' 17 Latest-news International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell today met diaspora ‘Saints’ – people from St Helena who are currently living in the UK - in Swindon 2 2012-05-19
Food: Britain to help Africa on supply and nutrition 18 Latest-news Britain will improve food supply and farming across Africa to help pull 50 million people out of chronic poverty over the next ten years in conjunction with the private sector 2 2012-05-18
Arms industry: Alan Duncan calls for ethical trade treaty 19 Latest-news Britain will work to secure a new arms trade treaty this summer to introduce international regulations of the arms trade 2 2012-05-17
International Citizen Service: Young Scots to change lives 0 Latest-news Today young people in Scotland were encouraged to apply for a 'life-changing' volunteering scheme to help tackle poverty overseas 3 2012-05-15
Malawi: Urgent support for vital health projects 1 Latest-news Today the British Government announced urgent support for the Malawian health system to prevent the cancellation of vital vaccination and bed net programmes 3 2012-05-12
Fair trade: Andrew Mitchell backs trade and growth 2 Latest-news DFID engagement with the private sector supports work to bring commercial and development objectives together in private sector activity. Fairtrade and fair trade approaches contribute to this area of work. 3 2012-05-12
MDGs: Prime Minister to co-chair UN panel on development 3 Latest-news The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, has asked the Prime Minister, President Johnson-Sirleaf of Liberia and President Yudhoyono of Indonesia to co-chair the High Level Panel on post-Millennium Development Goals 3 2012-05-09
Business: CDC backs first Ethiopian fund 4 Latest-news The UK’s development finance institution, has announced a new investment in the first-ever international private equity fund focused exclusively on Ethiopia 3 2012-05-09
Volunteering: UK doctors and nurses helping the poorest 5 Latest-news Volunteer British doctors, nurses and midwives will train more than 13,000 health workers to provide life-saving care for millions of the world’s poorest people 3 2012-05-08
Actis: Taxpayer to benefit from investment 6 Latest-news The UK Government has sold its remaining 40% shareholding in Actis Capital LLP in return for a share in the profits of its funds, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell announced today. 3 2012-05-01
Education: British aid to transform 1m girls’ lives 7 Latest-news Today the UK Government is launching the first round of funding for the Girls' Education Challenge 3 2012-05-01
South Sudan: UK warns of humanitarian disaster 8 Latest-news The ‪British Government will provide emergency support to help 100,000 people facing severe food shortages in South Sudan 3 2012-04-26
Green growth: UK to help 2.5m access clean energy 9 Latest-news Britain will help support innovative private companies to bring sustainable energy to some of the poorest countries in Africa and Asia 3 2012-04-26
Energy: Britain backs renewable sources for 2m poor people 10 Latest-news The UK is helping 2 million people in some of the world’s poorest countries to access clean and reliable energy 3 2012-04-24
International Citizen Service: Young people fight poverty 11 Latest-news Thousands of British young adults will help to fight poverty around the world with the UK's International Citizen Service 3 2012-04-23
Business: Britain to kick start banking for poorest 12 Latest-news The UK Government will unlock the potential of entrepreneurs in the poorest countries and create almost one million new jobs 3 2012-04-22
Water and sanitation: UK to double its support 13 Latest-news Britain will help more than 60 million people get access to clean drinking water and proper sanitation over the lifetime of this parliament 3 2012-04-20
Water: DFID research finds huge reservoirs under Africa 14 Latest-news New research funded by UK aid has revealed huge resources of groundwater that could give millions of people safe water to drink 3 2012-04-20
World Bank: UK and UN lead call to prepare for disasters 15 Latest-news Today, Britain and the United Nations are bringing together influential global leaders to help make the world more resilient to natural disasters 3 2012-04-20
Syria: British medical aid to help thousands 16 Latest-news Britain will help hospitals provide trauma surgery for hundreds of Syrians injured in the conflict and medical care for thousands more 3 2012-04-19
Nigeria: Ibori jailed in fight against corruption 17 Latest-news DFID is leading the process to return the millions of pounds stolen to the country’s poorest people 3 2012-04-17
Report: Child deaths drop by 4 million 18 Latest-news A new report from UNICEF and Save the Children shows development works 3 2012-04-17
Afghanistan: UK to transform 50,000 farmers' livelihoods 19 Latest-news New cutting edge agriculture programme 3 2012-04-12
Forests: Britain and businesses to tackle deforestation 0 Latest-news Prime Minister David Cameron announced new measures to tackle illegal deforestation around the world today 4 2012-04-11
Disasters: top technology to save more lives 1 Latest-news Britain will fund a range of innovative projects to save more lives in emergencies 4 2012-04-10
Mine Awareness Day: UK backs lifesaving mine action 2 Latest-news Britain reaffirmed its support for mine clearance work today to mark the UN's International Day of Mine Awareness 4 2012-04-04
Shujaaz FM wins an Emmy 3 Latest-news The DFID-funded project inspires around five million young Kenyans to take action to improve their lives 4 2012-04-01
Sport Relief: UK backs public support for African slum help 4 Latest-news Support from the government will help to improve the lives of a million people living in African slums 4 2012-03-23
UK medics to help save lives of more mums and babies 5 Latest-news UK doctors, midwives and medics will train over 17,000 health workers to provide emergency care for mothers and newborns across Africa and Asia 4 2012-03-15
Syria: Food and medical help via United Nations 6 Latest-news Britain will provide funding to the UN to help get food to 1.7 million people caught up in the ongoing violence 4 2012-03-15
Global development: UK and US renew aid partnership 7 Latest-news David Cameron and Barack Obama renewed commitments to change the lives of 1.2 billion poor people by working together 4 2012-03-14
West Africa: Food for families hit by hunger crisis 8 Latest-news UK aid will provide emergency food, medical supplies and water for thousands of children caught up in the Sahel hunger crisis 4 2012-03-14
Yemen: UK aid to tackle humanitarian crisis 9 Latest-news International Development Minister Alan Duncan announced new support for healthcare, emergency shelter and food 4 2012-03-13
Climate change: DFID wins award for maize project 10 Latest-news The Department for International Development has won Best Technological Breakthrough at the Climate Week Awards for a project to develop drought-tolerant maize in Africa. 4 2012-03-12
International Women's Day: UK tackles violence against women 11 Latest-news The UK will spearhead a new drive to save girls and women from the domestic violence and trafficking in poor countries 4 2012-03-08
Disasters: Rapid response network ready if crises hit 12 Latest-news Britain is setting up a network of top businesses and charities to respond when large scale emergencies hit 4 2012-03-07
Family planning: UK to host summit with Gates Foundation 13 Latest-news Britain is working with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and partners to host a Family Planning summit in July 2012 4 2012-03-06
Water: World meets target on safe drinking supplies 14 Latest-news The world has met its target to halve the number of people without access to safe drinking water, says the UN 4 2012-03-06
Sudan: Hope for people hit by Darfur conflict 15 Latest-news Stephen O'Brien travelled to Darfur to see how UK aid is helping to bring security and justice to the region 4 2012-03-02
Syria: UK calls for immediate humanitarian access 16 Latest-news Britain backs international calls to allow aid agencies into Syria 4 2012-03-01
New single government website: give your feedback 17 Latest-news A new single government website, bringing together content from across government, has begun a six week trial run 4 2012-02-29
UK's fight against corruption boosts world's poorest people 18 Latest-news Millions of pounds stolen by a corrupt Nigerian politician will be returned to the country's poorest people following a ground-breaking investigation 4 2012-02-27
Somalia: Aid for refugees who fled famine and fighting 19 Latest-news Britain will provide medical help, food and sanitation for hundreds of thousands of Somalis over the next three years 4 2012-02-23
UK leads efforts to bring stability to Somalia 0 Latest-news A new fund to bring more jobs, peace and stability to Somalia is to be agreed as part of the London Conference 5 2012-02-22
Stephen O'Brien visits Somali community in Bristol 1 Latest-news International Development Minister Stephen O’Brien today visited Somali diaspora groups in Bristol to outline the aims of the Somalia Conference taking place in London on 23 February. 5 2012-02-20
Ministers get a taste for Fairtrade 2 Latest-news Ahead of Fairtrade fortnight Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell and Minister Alan Duncan sampled some of the UK's finest Fairtrade teas and coffees. 5 2012-02-17
Medical help and food for Syrians caught up in violence 3 Latest-news New UK aid will get vitally needed food, water and medical supplies to tens of thousands of people across the country 5 2012-02-17
Situation in Libya - latest updates 4 Latest-news The UK's response to the humanitarian situation in Libya 5 2012-02-16
Report warns of hidden hunger crisis 5 Latest-news Up to 300 children die because of a lack of nutritious food every hour every day, according to a new report 5 2012-02-15
Aung San Suu Kyi praises UK aid in Burma 6 Latest-news Aung San Suu Kyi praised the work of DFID in Burma during a high-profile visit to a UK funded project on Tuesday. 5 2012-02-02
World must address failure in Somalia 7 Latest-news Britain will provide new support for health services, which will benefit over 100,000 women and children, and for weapons management that will see more weapons taken off the streets 5 2012-01-30
UK and partners unite to combat tropical diseases 8 Latest-news Private and public partners unite to combat 10 neglected tropical diseases by 2020 5 2012-01-30
PM and Afghan President sign Strategic Partnership 9 Latest-news Prime Minister David Cameron and Afghan President Hamid Karzai met at Chequers, where they signed an Enduring Strategic Partnership between the UK and Afghanistan. 5 2012-01-28
Private investment to help tackle climate change 10 Latest-news Britain will spearhead a new drive to bring major private investment to tackle the global threat of climate change 5 2012-01-27
Minister answers pupils' questions on safer countries 11 Latest-news School presented with International Award by Minister for International Development, Alan Duncan 5 2012-01-26
Innovative funding scheme delivers lifesaving vaccines 12 Latest-news Private donations – to be doubled by the UK Government – will help immunise millions more children around the world 5 2012-01-26
Emergency aid to tackle looming food crisis in Sahel 13 Latest-news Britain will send lifesaving emergency aid to help thousands of families facing severe food shortages caused by drought in the Sahel region of West Africa. 5 2012-01-22
UK to protect 140 million people from tropical diseases 14 Latest-news UK aid will help global effort to rid the world of infectious tropical diseases 5 2012-01-21
New support for Nepal's Gurkha communities 15 Latest-news UK aid will provide sanitation and clean water through the Gurkha Welfare Scheme for ex-servicemen and their families 5 2012-01-19
New graduate development scheme launched 16 Latest-news Work for us and be part of our new graduate scheme - a paid, 50 week development programme 5 2012-01-17
India passes one year without polio 17 Latest-news The country celebrates a whole year free from the crippling and potentially fatal disease that targets young children 5 2012-01-13
Haiti earthquake – the UK response 18 Latest-news On 12 January 2010, a 7.0 earthquake struck Haiti, killing over 200,000 people. Follow Britain's response and see how UK aid helped more than a million people to recover. 5 2012-01-12
Andrew Mitchell visits Greenwich school 19 Latest-news Minister visits Greenwich school benefiting from the international legacy of the Olympic and Paralympic Games as Government marks 200 days to Olympics 5 2012-01-09
url i body Image caption Title Image Links in right hand column summary Image alt tag date 1 Audio slideshow: 'I'm in love with the forest now. I want to protect it'. Photojournalist Abbie Trayler Smith visits UKaid funded projects in Aceh's Ulu Masen rainforest. Audio slideshow about an illegal logger in Indonesia who has retrained as a forest ranger. Photography by Abbie Trayler-Smith. Slideshow by Panos Pictures Ex-illegal loggers retrained as rangers, on patrol in Aceh's Ulu Masen forest. Photography by Abbie Trayler-Smith. Slideshow by Panos Pictures ### "I don't know how many trees I cut down. Hundreds. Thousands? I don't know... If there is no training like this, the forest will be destroyed in about 15 years. Gone." - Muktar, aged 44, ex-illlegal logger Award winning photojournalist Abbie Trayler-Smith, who covered the 2004 tsunami in Indonesia, returned to Aceh as part of a DFID funded project to see how people there are rebuilding their lives and livelihoods. * * * ### The 3.3 million hectare Ulu Masen forest, in the northern part of Aceh province, is part of the largest contiguous forested area in South East Asia. But it has been at risk from illegal logging, and the area plagued by conflict, for many years. However, in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami, a peace agreement was reached between the government of Indonesia and the Aceh separatist movement. This has helped the province to begin the long process of recovery from both conflict and natural disaster. The NGO Fauna and Flora International is now working in Aceh province to establish a number of Conservation Response Units on the edge of the Ulu Masen forest. The CRUs are responsible for training rangers, (often young men recruited from local villages, many of whom have been involved in illegal logging in the past). They are also working to help community members understand how to best protect the forest whilst providing economic benefits and and livelihood opportunities to local communities. The scheme is part of the Aceh Forest and Environment Project, a World Bank program supported by UKaid from the Department for International Development, which aims to protect the Leuser and Ulu Masen forest ecosystems from illegal logging. The forest is seen as a potentially rich provider of environmental and economic benefits for the 2 million people living in Aceh. The Governor of Aceh has promoted a 'green agenda' for the province as part of the reconstruction process following the 2004 tsunami. The project, which is funded with $17.53 million from the World Bank's Multi Donor Fund, co-operates with the government to integrate environmental conservation concerns into the reconstruction process. DFID is the third largest contributor to the Multi Donor Fund. * * * A rapid reduction in deforestation is needed to avoid dangerous global warming exceeding 2°C.  DFID is working to tackle illegal logging and improve forestry management in ten developing countries around the world, through projects such as this. * * * All images Â(C) Abbie Trayler-Smith / Panos Pictures   Muktar, a former illegal logger, now patrols the forest as a ranger [Photography by Abbie Trayler-Smith / Panos Pictures] 'I'm in love with the forest now - I want to protect it' From illegal loggers to community rangers in Indonesia's Aceh province [](In pictures: more images from this story) [](Where we work - Indonesia) [](Fauna and Flora International) [](Multi Donor Fund website) [](World Bank website) Audio slideshow: 'I'm in love with the forest now. I want to protect it' Muktar, a former illegal logger, now patrols the forest as a ranger. Photograph by Abbie Trayler-Smith / Panos Pictures 2010-07-08 2 Get the flash player here: All photographs Â(C) Abbie Trayler-Smith / Panos Pictures ### "I don't know how many trees I cut down. Hundreds. Thousands? I don't know... If there is no training like this, the forest will be destroyed in about 15 years. Gone." - Muktar, aged 44, ex-illlegal logger Award winning photojournalist Abbie Trayler-Smith, who covered the 2004 tsunami in Indonesia, returned to Aceh as part of a DFID funded project to see how people there are recovering and rebuilding their lives and livelihoods. Listen to Muktar's story and find out more in our [audio slideshow](/News/Latest-news/2009/Im-in-love-with-the-forest-now---from-illegal-logger-to-forest-ranger-in-Indonesia/).     Muktar, a former illegal logger, now patrols the forest as a ranger. [Photography by Abbie Trayler-Smith / Panos Pictures] 'I'm in love with the forest now': in pictures From illegal loggers to community rangers in Aceh, northern Indonesia []('I'm in love with the forest now. I want to protect it' - main feature and audio slideshow) [](Where we work - Indonesia) [](Fauna and Flora International) [](World Bank website) In pictures: 'I'm in love with the forest now. I want to protect it' Muktar, a former illegal logger, now patrols the forest as a ranger. Photograph by Abbie Trayler-Smith / Panos Pictures 2010-07-08 3 A DFID-funded microfinance programme has helped more than 400,000 men and women build new businesses in Afghanistan. **Video: Microfinance in Kabul** Video about women who have benefited from a DFID-funded microfinance scheme in Kabul, Afghanistan   Women account for 60% of those who have received $500 million in small business loans from the Microfinance Investment and Support Facility for Afghanistan (MISFA). DFID has provided £40.5 million to MISFA over the past six years in a bid to create jobs and boost an economy starved by 30 years of conflict. Unemployment in the country is estimated to be around 36% and in recent polls Afghans cited the economy and jobs as their primary concern. According to an independent study in September 2007, each loan has created an average of 1.5 jobs in the country in areas such as agriculture, candle-making and rug-weaving. MISFA was set up with the backing of the government of Afghanistan in 2003 to better channel money and technical help from international donors to microfinance projects at local level. None Small business loans breathe life into Afghanistan economy None [](More on DFID's work in Afghanistan) [](HMG Afghanistan websiteopens in a new window) [](View our microfinance picture galleryopens in a new window) None None 2009-12-07 4 The waiting is over. For the first time ever, the FIFA World Cup is being held in Africa. It is fitting that this historic occasion is marked by an equally historic legacy - education for all. Education is a basic human right, yet 72 million primary aged children are denied this opportunity. Education helps tackle poverty, transforms lives and supports economic growth. It encourages peace, democracy, good government and international security. FIFA committed to make education the lasting legacy of the World Cup by supporting a international campaign called 1GOAL. Led by the Global Campaign for Education, 1GOAL is proudly supported by UKaid from the Department for International Development. **1GOAL Education for all in Ghana** A short video about 1GOAL and education in Ghana. **1GOAL Education for all in Nigeria** A short video about 1GOAL and education in Nigeria. Video: Chris Morgan / Department for International Development ### Summit for action South African President Jacob Zuma and Sepp Blatter, President of FIFA, have announced that the 1GOAL Education Summit will take place on 11 July shortly before the World Cup final. The summit offers world leaders the chance to draw up a roadmap to make sure that every child is in school by the next FIFA World Cup in Brazil. More than 8 million people have already signed up to the 1GOAL campaign including Pele and Cristiano Ronaldo. ### Gathering pace In October last year, leading international figures including Queen Rania of Jordan, President Zuma of South Africa and the UN Secretary General [launched the campaign at the Emirates Stadium]( They were joined by many big names from the world of football including FIFA President Sepp Blatter, Gary Lineker, Sir Bobby Charlton, David James, Rio Ferdinand, Alan Shearer and Arsene Wenger. As the civil society-led 1GOAL campaign reaches its crescendo in South Africa, governments must stand ready to respond, providing the political leadership and financial support that will be required to realise the aspirations of the campaign. Through this mobilisation of political will and action, the World Cup legacy will be realised. "Ita€™s about reminding world leaders to play by the rules and keep their promises to children of the developing world," says Queen Rania. "I think thata€™s worth signing up for.a€ Do you? [Sign up here]( to ask world leaders to do their bit to to ensure every child can go to school. * * * **Send my friend to school** Get your school involved in 1GOAL a€“ Send My Friend to School! Sign up now to receive a free resource pack, including a DVD, posters and stickers. More information and learning resources are available on the website. Get your schools pack at []( * * *   Kick-off: 1GOAL ambassador Shakira visits children from the Isu'lihle Senior Primary School in Soweto, South Africa on the eve of the World Cup. Picture: 1GOAL 1GOAL: Education For All campaign [](1GOAL websiteopens in a new window) [](Global Campaign for Educationopens in a new window) [](1GOAL: Education For All campaign) None Picture of Shakira 2010-06-11 5 With only five years to go, we can no longer afford to talk in vague terms about a€œaccelerating progressa€ on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This September we are calling on world leaders to come together at the UN to agree in concrete terms a global development action plan to meet the millennium promise to halve global poverty once and for all. In order to achieve this plan, we will need three things: accountability, credibility and political will. ### Who is responsible for what? It is vital that all of the 192 UN member states are accountable for the measures set out in the action plan. To demonstrate this level of commitment the plan needs to be agreed through the formal UN negotiation process. Our aim is to achieve a consensus around the set of actions that need to be taken and ensure an accountability mechanism is included so that the delivery of the action plan can be monitored. ### What needs to be done? Secondly, in order to have credibility, the plan will need to be based on evidence. The Secretary Generala€™s report on the MDGs, Keeping the Promise, will provide the bulk of the evidence but other sources will be included too.  That is why the UK has supported the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in its preparation of an international assessment of what is needed to meet the MDGs.   The international assessment of what is needed to meet the Millennium Development Goals was launched by Helen Clark, head of UNDP, in June. Drawing on evidence of what has worked in 50 countries, UNDP's report provides eight action points to accelerate and sustain development progress over the next five years. The report will be shared with member states as they prepare the outcome document for  September's MDG Summit. ### Who can make it happen? Finally, political will is critical to ensure that leaders attend the summit, are prepared to go beyond business as usual and willing to underpin the global development action plan with specific national commitments.   Everyone will have a role to play to ensure that the summit generates the political will necessary to make 2010 a real turning point on poverty. 2010 UN MDG Summit [](DFID MDG Conference (page in National Archives)opens in a new window) [](G8 summit 2010 in Muskoka, Canada) [](Secretary General's report on the MDGs - United Nations) [](Millennium Development Goals - United Nations) [](United Nations) [](International Assessment report) [](Kick out Poverty) None Photo of the United Nations flag None 6 Access to medicine is a basic right, yet each year millions of people die due to preventable and treatable diseases such as HIV, malaria and tuberculosis. Others suffer needlessly due to chronic or neglected diseases, illnesses that could be eliminated but remain untreated. Improving access to medicines could save millions of lives each year. The [Access to Medicine Index]( (funded by DFID, the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and other investors) aims to help tackle this situation by increasing the transparency of how pharmaceutical companies perform in meeting the health needs of the poor. Created and published by the Access to Medicine Foundation, the Access to Medicine Index works by ranking 20 of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies on their efforts to make sure that medicines are made for, and reach, people in developing countries. The Index is an independent and transparent assessment of company performance in doing this. Companies have incentives to improve their position on the Index; their ranking is important to their reputations as responsible companies; and, increasingly, large institutional investors see engagement with developing countries as an important factor in long-term corporate performance. The Index also means DFID can assess the impact of its work with companies on strengthening their contribution to better access to medicines for the poor. The Foundation published its first Access to Medicine Index in June 2008. The second Index was recently released. None Access to Medicine Index Encouraging global access to healthcare None [](Access to Medicine Indexopens in a new window) None None 2010-07-12 7 Today is Afghan Independence Day. To mark this occasion, DFID's Parliamentary Under Secretary for State Stephen O'Brien said: "As Afghans today mark their country's Independence, we should celebrate Afghanistan's progress towards a better future for its people. "This is a crucial year for the country. We have already seen the Afghan government host their own conference in Kabul in July on the future of the country, and sign up to an accelerated programme of measures to help the government take charge of its own affairs. "Afghanistan has seen steady and impressive economic growth, with the economy growing by 22% last year and forecast to grow by 10% next year. And the average income in Afghanistan has nearly doubled since 2002.  But Afghanistan remains the second poorest country in the world, and big challenges remain. "The UK will  continue to work with the Government of Afghanistan to build on the  success  with measures to stimulate the economy, and  to meet the challenges by helping to  improve security, political stability, and to help the government to deliver basic service for its people. "In this way we will support them to provide a future for the Afghan people that is truly free: of insurgency, of poverty and of the scourge of corruption." None Afghanistan Independence Day None [](Where we work | Afghanistan) None None 2010-08-19 8 A structure for the European External Action Service (EEAS) was agreed on Monday by William Hague and fellow EU foreign ministers. The new service, a product of the Lisbon Treaty, aims to strengthen the EUa€™s external reach and create a more joined-up approach to international development. The agreement gives a strong role to the EUa€™s International Development Commissioner, Andris Piebalgs. This is good news for developing countries, and will help ensure that the EUa€™s development resources retain their focus on helping the worlda€™s poorest people lift themselves out of poverty. The UK Government, through DFID, called for the EEAS to retain this focus on development priorities, and partly due to these efforts the agreement includes: * A clear reference to poverty eradication which will help meet the EU's collective commitment to provide 0.7% of GNI for development aid by 2015. * A clear financial accountability, with the Development Commissioner responsible for development spending. * A broader remit for the Development Commissioner, who now has shared responsibility with the High Representative for more regions than in the past a€“ he will cover the European Development Fund (Africa, Caribbean, Pacific) and the Development Cooperation Instrument (Asia, Latin America). The head of EuropeAid which also implements programmes in other regions, will report to him. * A commitment to review the development set-up early on in 2011. ### DFID and the European Union The European Commission is the worlda€™s second largest donor and also the second largest provider of humanitarian assistance.  It provides long term development assistance as well as immediate help for people affected by natural disasters, such as the Haiti earthquake. The Commission manages development programmes across 145 countries and has helped hundreds of millions of people to lift themselves out of poverty; for example, EU funding has helped provide clean water to 14 million people in Africa and 60 million textbooks for school children in Bangladesh. All 27 EU member states contribute financially to these programmes alongside the development work they fund directly. DFID ministers take part in deciding how EU development funds should be used. The UK Government is determined to make sure EU aid works and makes a real difference to the lives of the worlda€™s poorest people. None Agreement on EU External Action Service None [](More on the EEAS, including the full text of the Council decision) None None 2010-07-27 9 Britain will in future focus its aid on fewer countries in a move designed to increase the impact of UK funding on the worlda€™s poorest people, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell announced today. A review will scrutinise the countries which currently share around £2.9 billion in UK bilateral aid. The Government has made clear that the international development budget will increase a€“ to 0.7% of gross national income from 2013 - but it will be better targeted to where it can do most good. The redirected money will be channelled to priority countries and used for poverty reduction measures including programmes to improve maternal health, womena€™s right to family planning and protection against deadly diseases like malaria. Andrew Mitchell has said that countries such as China, which recently hosted the Olympics, and Russia, a G8 member, will see a phasing out of UK development assistance as soon as practical and responsible. The bilateral aid review will analyse DFID's programme in each country to look at results, delivery and value for money. Around 90 countries will be included in the review. The review, which will report after the comprehensive spending review in the autumn, will herald a new focus for DFIDa€™s bilateral programme. International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said: "For some countries, aid is a vital safety net that saves lives every day. UK money should be spent helping the poorest people in the poorest countries, with every penny making a real difference by giving families the chance of a better future. "It is not justifiable to continue to give aid money to China and Russia. Other country programmes which are less effective will be closed or reduced and the savings will be redirected towards those countries where they can make the most difference. "I am determined to get value for money across my departmenta€™s work and focus on the big issues such as maternal health, fighting malaria, and extending choice to women over whether and when they have children." The bilateral aid review follows announcements of a new independent aid watchdog; a transparency guarantee to publish all details of DFID spending; and a review of how the UK spends money through multilateral agencies, like the World Bank and UN. None Aid budget to be refocused to deliver better results None [](Read the full press release) None None 2010-06-16 10 The go ahead for an airport on the island of St Helena will be given by International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell - subject to strict pre-conditions a€“ on the basis that it will provide best value for the British taxpayer and meet our obligations to this British Overseas Territory. The airport will revitalise the British Overseas Territory of St Helena a€“ one of the remotest islands in the world a€“ which is currently accessible via a week long boat journey from South Africa. The additional short term costs of constructing an airport are outweighed by the long term benefits. This is the right decision for the UK taxpayer. An airport should eliminate the islanda€™s reliance on aid in excess of £20 million from the UK every year.  The island has been suffering economic and social decline, with more and more young people leaving the island to seek work and the average annual salary dipping to just £4,000. The airport should eventually make the island financially independent, not reliant on funding from the UK Government. The UK Government believes a new airport is the best way to bring new financial opportunities to the island, not least a boom in tourism. At present just 950 visitors make the trip to St Helena each year by ship. With an airport it is estimated that more than 29,000 tourists will visit each year. As well as rugged natural beauty, the island boasts historic sites like Napoleona€™s tomb and rare wildlife, which will attract visitors. The UK Government has an obligation to promote the wellbeing of the inhabitants of the Overseas Territories, who are British citizens. St Helena receives funding from the Department for International Development - over £20 million per year. An airport should make the island self-sustainable, meaning no more funding from the UK will be needed. The other main option, a new ship, does not allow the island to become economically self-sustaining. Estimates of the final costs for delivering the airport are currently confidential until the procurement process is completed.  Through the use of developing technology, specifically designed to allow a new kind of runway, significant savings are expected. Value for money will be sought at every stage, with payments only made on the completion of agreed phases, which will help spread costs over a number of years. The International Development Secretary is clear, however, that the airport can only go ahead if the following conditions are met: * An acceptable contract price must be achieved * The risk of cost and time overruns after the contract has been awarded must be mitigated * The airport design using Engineered Material Arresting System (to deliver a shorter runway) must be approved by Air Safety Support International * St Helena Government must undertake to implement reforms necessary to open the islanda€™s economy to inward investment and increased tourism The people of St Helena have twice voted overwhelmingly for an airport a€“ first in a referendum in 2002, then in a consultation in 2009. International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said: > a€œIta€™s time to stop the years of dithering and give the people of St Helena the decision they have been waiting for since an airport was first promised by the Government in 2003.  > > a€œBut these are tough times and we need to make sure we get the best deal for the UK taxpayer as well as for the people of St Helena. > > a€œI believe an airport for St Helena will revitalise the island and ultimately make them self sufficient a€“ no longer having to rely on UK funding. It will provide opportunities for tourism, business and improved access for this remote, remarkable island, and, in due course, a considerable saving to the UK taxpayer. > > a€œWe need to start treating the Saints as valued British citizens. We will build a new relationship with all the Overseas Territories, celebrating these unique outposts of Britishness with which we have such strong historic and cultural links.a€ None Airport to revitalise British St Helena None [](Where we work | St Helena) [](Press release) None None 2010-07-22 11 Alan Duncan joined Parliament in 1992 as the Conservative Member for Rutland and Melton. Five years later he was appointed Vice-Chairman of the Conservative Party and Parliamentary Political Secretary to the Rt. Hon. William Hague MP. He has held a number of positions in the Shadow Cabinet, most recently as Shadow Secretary for Trade Industry and Energy (2005). In 2009, Alan Duncan was appointed Shadow Leader of the House and shortly after, he became Shadow Minister for Prisons and Probation. [More details](/About-us/Our-organisation/Ministers/Alan-Duncan/) None Alan Duncan appointed Minister of State None Alan Duncan MP has been appointed as Minister of State for International Development. None 2010-05-13 12 The Minister of State for International Development, Alan Duncan MP visited Bangladesh this week. Mr Duncan said: "The UK is a long-standing partner of Bangladesh. We enjoy a vibrant bilateral relationship and are proud of supporting Bangladesha€™s efforts to combat poverty and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. "I am determined that our aid programme, delivered with Government of Bangladesh and other development partners, succeeds and demonstrates high impact and maximum value for money. What matters is results, in terms of our impact on the lives of the poor - the number of children educated, people with access to safe water, mothers having safe birth. "We must look at all angles if we aim to attain the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 and reduce poverty in Bangladesh." Mr Duncan visited Manikganj to observe UK-funded pre-primary education, microfinance, health and urban partnership programmes. He also visited the Dhaka Economic Processing Zone and garment factory in Savar to discuss the challenges to private sector led growth, including links between the investment climate and business. ### Video of Alan Duncan visiting these projects on his visit to Bangladesh: During the first visit to Bangladesh by a British Minister from the recently elected Coalition Government, Mr Duncan met the Honourable Prime Minister, Acting Foreign Secretary, Foreign Minister, State Minister for Environment and Forests, and Leader of the Opposition.  He also met representatives of civil society organisations to discuss the challenges that Bangladesh faces a€“ and how to ensure that the UKa€™s aid programme achieves all that is set out to do whilst demonstrating transparency, accountability and value for money. The Minister met pregnant women and mothers at a satellite health clinic in Manikganj Alan Duncan visits Bangladesh None Alan Duncan MP watches a health worker administering on a pregnant woman 2010-07-16 13 Minister of State for International Development, Alan Duncan MP, last week visited Nepal on a fact-finding mission. It was his first overseas visit since he was appointed as Minister of State on 13 May 2010. **Video: watch a video report from the visit** Whilst there, Mr Duncan met Nepal's Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal and Deputy Prime Minister Sujata Koirala, as well as constituent assembly members and donors. He also made field visits to Bhojpur and Biratnagar to see DFID-supported development programmes, witnessing first hand how DFID's road building, community support, forestry and health programme are helping poor people to lift themselves out of poverty. Minister Duncan said: > "I'm pleased to say that the UK is really helping to make a difference to poor people in Nepal and I look forward to working with the people of Nepal in continuing this work and thinking through what more we could do."   Alan Duncan visits Nepal [](Where we work - Nepal) None Alan Duncan is greeted in Nepal. View more photos from the visit on Flickr 2010-06-07 14 Minister of State for International Development Alan Duncan MP is visiting Vietnam to speak at the UN Delivering as One conference in Hanoi.   The conference represents an important opportunity to review the achievements and challenges related to the [Delivering as One initiative]( The United Nations launched the initiative in 2007 to test how the UN family can provide development assistance in a more coordinated way in eight countries - Albania, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Pakistan, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uruguay and Vietnam. Vietnam has made real progress in tackling poverty over the last two decades. However more than ten million people, particularly ethnic minorities, still live below the poverty line. Mr Duncan will also hold high level talks with the Government of Vietnam and visit a number of DFID-supported programmes in Hoa Binh province to find out how UK aid has helped to improve schooling, sanitation and rural roads. **Video: Alan Duncan visits projects being supported by the UK in Vietnam:** Alan Duncan visits Vietnam UK Minister for International Development, Alan Duncan, meets Minister for Planning and Investment, Vo Hong Phuc, during the visit to Vietnam, June 2010 Alan Duncan visits Vietnam to address UN conference [](Read the Minister's full speech to the UN conference) [](UNDP: Delivering as One) [](Vietnam hosts global conference on one UN) [](View photos from the visit - UK in Vietnam on Flickropens in a new window) None Alan Duncan with Minister for Planing and Investement, Vo Hong Phuc, in Vietnam 2010-06-15 15 Andrew Mitchell MP has been appointed as Secretary of State for International Development. The Secretary of State said: a€œIa€™m delighted to be appointed to spearhead the new governmenta€™s campaign to tackle global poverty. a€œTackling deprivation around the world is a moral imperative and firmly in Britaina€™s national interest. Ia€™m proud of the commitments that our new government has made on international development. Our bargain with taxpayers is this: in return for contributing your hard-earned money to helping the worlda€™s poorest people, it is our duty to spend every penny of aid effectively. My top priority will be to secure maximum value for money in aid through greater transparency, rigorous independent evaluation and an unremitting focus on results. a€œPromoting wealth creation and development around the world is about so much more than just giving aid. We will harness the full range of British government policies a€“ including trade, conflict resolution and environmental protection a€“ to contribute to our progressive vision of a more prosperous, sustainable and secure world. a€œWe must make 2010 the year when we get the Millennium Development Goals back on-track and make real progress towards what we all want to see: a world free from poverty. I look forward to getting to work to help make that happen.a€ Andrew Mitchell appointed Secretary of State [](Read the full press release) [](Ministers' biographies) None Andrew Mitchell 2010-05-12 16 International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell attended the annual meetings of the World Bank this weekend in Washington. The meetings, which came just a few weeks after the MDGs summit, were an opportunity for World Bank Governors to review the World Bank Group's response to the global financial crisis as well as progress on delivering development results and implementing reforms. The meetings were also a look forward to the 16th replenishment of the International Development Association (IDA) a€“ the World Bank's fund for the poorest countries and an important instrument for achieving the MDGs. Speaking in Washington, Andrew Mitchell said Britain's contribution to the IDA would depend on DFID's Multilateral Aid Review, a rigorous assessment of aid spent through international institutions such as the Bank and the UN to ensure that the UK gets maximum value for money from its contributions to these multilateral organisations. He also called for a stronger focus on results and transparency. None Andrew Mitchell attends World Bank annual meetings None [](News story | UK to review multilateral aid spend) None None 2010-10-11 17 "The findings of this report are shocking and completely unacceptable. We will go after every penny of British taxpayers' money that has been stolen and those responsible for fraud must be prosecuted through the Kenyan courts. The British Government will not tolerate corruption. "We have already suspended funding to this programme and we have fully recovered all the UK money unaccounted for after the first audit report. "We are discussing further investigations and the implications with the Kenyan Ministry of Finance whom I commend for revealing the extent of financial mismanagement in the Ministry of Education. "We are committed to helping the poorest Kenyan children receive a high-quality education. For the foreseeable future UK support for education in Kenya will be channelled outside government." None Audit into use & management of education funds in Kenya None [](Where we work | Kenya) In response to the Government of Kenya's update on the extended forensic audit into use and management of education funds, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said: None 2010-12-15 18 International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell saw how British aid is helping to save lives when he visited a health centre in Rwanda last week, meeting mothers who had safely delivered their babies, and touring upgraded facilities for treating people with malaria. Mr Mitchell also met with the President of Rwanda, Paul Kagame and pledged the UK's continued support to helping Rwandans to lift themselves out of poverty.  A regular visitor to Rwanda, this was Mr Mitchell's first official trip to the country since he was appointed Secretary of State for International Development in May. Speaking from Rwanda, he said:  "Rwanda has made remarkable progress in tackling poverty over the past decade - progress which is all the more impressive considering the horrors of the genocide that took place here just sixteen years ago. People in Britain can be proud that our support to Rwanda has helped thousands more children to go to school, provided safety for mothers in childbirth, and given families the bed nets they need to protect themselves against malaria." None Andrew Mitchell visits Rwanda None [](Where we work | Rwanda) None None 2010-12-21 19 They were quickly followed by others a€“ operating in six teams a€“ from across the UKa€™s Fire and Rescue Service. With two specially trained dogs, Holly and Echo, and - despite the heat and restrictions on using their heavy lifting equipment - they rescued four survivors in ten days. Among them was two-year-old Mia, pulled from the rubble by members of the Greater Manchester and Mid-Wales brigades before being reunited with her mother. **Unbelievable** Team leader Andy Roughley, 48, said: a€œFinding Mia alive and well was an unbelievable moment for us on our first day in the streets. a€œThe good thing was that we were able to make contact with her uncle a€“ who spoke English a€“ to find her mother. a€œBut, for all the media coverage of Mia, it would be wrong not to spare a thought for the families of the 500 or so people who died in the same building.a€   Neil Woodmansey, Holly's handler, said: a€œPart of our training was done on a mock-up of a collapsed village but nothing can prepare you for devastation on this scale. a€œHolly was brilliant. After each shift we would damp her down and she was ready to go again. She worked every day for 11 days. a€œIt was a massive honour to be part of the UK team in Haiti.a€ Members of the UK search and rescue team pull a trapped man from a collapsed supermarket in Port-au-Prince, Haiti A nose for survival: UK search and rescue team [](Support Largs Bay crew race for Haiti appealopens in a new window) Around 48 hours after the Haiti earthquake, the first of the UK’s 64-strong search and rescue team was out looking for survivors in Port-au-Prince’s collapsed streets. Haiti, search and rescue team members 2010-02-02 20 International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said: 'Baroness Amos will bring huge experience, enthusiasm and passion to this critical role. 'It is vital that we have the right funding, people and approaches in place to deal with future humanitarian crises. 'I look forward to working closely with Baroness Amos to ensure we do just that, securing an international system that responds effectively and efficiently to the needs of people who have had their lives devastated by natural disasters. 'In her new role, she will be the champion for the rights and needs of these people. 'I congratulate the outgoing Emergency Relief Coordinator, Sir John Holmes on his work. He has shown great commitment, skill and dedication to the humanitarian cause.' None Baroness Amos appointed new Head of UN OCHA None None None 2010-07-09 21 Video: Highlights of Bill and Melinda Gate's speech at DFID Video: Highlights of speeches at DFID by Bill and Melinda Gates Speaking ahead of the Gates Foundationa€™s [Living Proof project launch with One International](, the couple discussed their experience working on vaccines, malaria, education and reproductive health as well as the challenges of innovation, measurement of aid and the foundationa€™s role in developing countries. On working with DFID and the UK to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, Bill Gates said: > a€œWea€™re all learning as we go. Closer collaboration as we see what works and what doesna€™t work will be important to us.a€ > > a€œAnd the example that the UK is setting in maintaining the aid budget in a difficult time is one wea€™re hoping other countries will respond in kind to.a€ > > a€œIta€™s a bit of a challenge. The success stories are so far away that we have to get better about bringing the news about what is working. Thata€™s what we are kicking off this evening.a€ Melinda Gates said: > a€œI couldn't be more excited about the work that we do together. We're here today to really thank the UK citizens and the UK government for your incredible commitment.a€ International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell and DFID Permanent Secretary Nemat Shafik paid tribute to the pair. a€œBill and Melinda Gates have been an absolute inspiration to many of us,a€ said Mr Mitchell. a€œTheir commitment and their deep concern for this great cause in which all of us are involved is truly inspiring.a€ Find out more about the Living Proof project launch on the [Gates Foundation]( and [One International]( websites. Bill and Melinda Gates visit DFID [](One International: Living Proof) [](Gates Foundation website) Bill and Melinda Gates visited DFID yesterday to address staff as part of a wider trip to the UK to highlight the importance of aid. Image: Bill Gates speaking at DFID 2010-10-19 22 ![Null](/Images/features/Blog-action-day-SoS.jpg)For those of us who are able to take part in Blog Action Day, going to the tap for a glass of clean water would hardly be out of the ordinary. Yet for more than 884 million of the worlda€™s people who must rely on unsafe drinking water sources, it would be a life changing event. Last month, [I went to stay with Abrar, a father of eight, in Ethiopia]( It was a chance for me to see the difficulties his family cope with every day through their own eyes. One of those challenges is just getting something safe to drink. Almost half of people in Ethiopia lack a reliable water supply, but for the past six months, clean water has been coming into Abrar's village with the help of British support. ![Null](/Images/features/Ethiopia-BAD-Oct10.JPG) **Abrar showed me the difference UK support has made to his family life. ** This development has made a huge difference to his and his family's life and lays the foundations for longer term development. For starters, Abrar can be sure his family won't get sick from drinking dirty water. And there are further knock-on effects for rural families like his. With a safe drinking supply closer to home, children - usually girls - don't need to miss school to spend hours fetching water for the family. Yet access to clean water is just one half of the story. Basic sanitation such as simple latrines and a focus on good hygiene are equally important if we are to help more families like Abrar's build a better future. It is fitting, therefore, that today also marks [Global Handwashing Day]( Their slogan - "Clean hands save lives" - says it all, and is certainly the case for people like [Ranu Begum in Bangladesh](/Stories/Case-Studies/2010/MDGs-in-focus---MDG-4-Reduce-child-mortality/), whose children faced a real risk of life-threatening diarrhoeal diseases in the previously unsanitary slum where they live. ![Null](/Images/features/bangladesh-wateraid-aki-468.JPG) **Children in the slum wash their hands with clean water. ****Picture: Charlie Bibby/FT courtesy of WaterAid** With support from DFID, [WaterAid]( and our local partners, they now have access to proper latrines and her family have learnt good hygiene through community education groups. These days none of her children suffer from waterborne diseases, and as she herself says, "We no longer go to the hospital". These are the water success stories, and we know more of them are possible. Between 1990 and 2007, 1.7 billion people gained access to clean water, making this MDG target on track at a global level - an example of what we can achieve together. However, the challenge to improve sanitation looms large with 40% of the world's people still without basic facilities. More must be done, and it needs to be done faster. [The UK is looking long and hard at what we can do](/What-we-do/Key-Issues/Water-and-sanitation/) to make this happen as we review our policies to ensure we get the best results from British aid. We continue to work with our international partners to raise the profile of sanitation and water through [Sanitation and Water for All: A Global Framework for Action]( I hope today, we can use our voices collectively to shine the light on this vital cause through our blogs; raising awareness about how the provision of water and sanitation can change the lives of the world's poorest people. Blog Action Day: Andrew Mitchell on water and sanitation [](DFID Bloggers take part in Blog Action Dayopens in a new window) [](Andrew Mitchell's visit to Ethiopia) [](Find out more about water and sanitation in Bangladesh) [](More on our water and sanitation policy) International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell has joined Blog Action Day by writing his own blog on the issues of water and sanitation Blog Action Day logo 2010-10-15 23 Britain will help millions of people secure access to basic education, immunisation and clean water through an international programme aimed at the most impoverished countries in the world, International Development Secretary, Andrew Mitchell, announced today. The fund a€“ the World Banka€™s International Development Association (IDA) a€“ will train two million teachers, boost trade by constructing 80,000km of roads and improve access to clean water for 80 million people. The British Government has agreed to support the fund after agreeing to key reforms from the World Bank, which included, for the first-time ever, thanks to UK pressure, setting ambitious targets. In addition, IDA will now have an increased focus on the worlda€™s most fragile countries, a key priority for the Coalition Government. The agreement is set to boost the impact of British support in the poorest countries across the world and increase the level of transparency attached to UK aid spending. Britaina€™s support to IDA will help: * Immunise up to 20 million children; * Improve access to water for 8 million people; * Recruit and train 200,000 teachers; and * Boost trade by constructing almost 8,000km of road. Andrew Mitchell said: a€œBritain is keeping its promises to the worlda€™s poorest people, targeting our support where it will make the most difference. a€œThrough this fund, we will help to improve the lives of hundreds of millions of people who are currently living in some of the most impoverished circumstances imaginable. a€œThe British Government has pushed the World Bank to put a greater focus on results, which will deliver a greater impact on the ground and better value for money for the UK taxpayer. a€œIn embracing this, the Bank has taken a positive step forward.a€ In the three years following the 2007 IDA replenishment, almost one million teachers were recruited and trained, 31 million people enjoyed improved access to water, 85 million children were immunised and 32,000km of road was constructed in developing countries. Britain also helped secure agreement from the Bank to extend the period of time in which post-conflict countries are given additional assistance. It will also work more closely with the UN in these countries. The IDA is the part of the World Bank Group that provides assistance to the poorest countries, and is an important and effective channel for the UKa€™s efforts to help achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).  Half of its work is in Africa. A new facility is being established in IDA16 that will enable the Bank to offer countries additional support when they face natural disasters, like the earthquake in Haiti, or major external shocks, like the recent financial crisis or previous spike in food prices Britaina€™s contribution to IDA16 will be £888m per year for three years. None Britain backs drive to lift millions out of extreme poverty None [](The World Bankopens in a new window) None None 2010-12-15 24 The British Government today unveiled landmark plans to [tackle malaria](/What-we-do/Key-Issues/Health/Malaria/) and [prevent deaths during pregnancy and childbirth](/What-we-do/Key-Issues/Health/Reproductive-maternal-and-newborn-health/) in a move that could save an unprecedented number of lives.![Andrew Mitchell](/Images/115x80/SoS-Mitchell-transparency-115x80px_DSC6134.jpg) The first of two new Frameworks for Results provides a comprehensive strategy for how British aid money will deliver the Coalition Governmenta€™s commitments to help halve malaria deaths in at least ten hot spots in Africa and Asia. The second Framework sets out how the UK will help to save the lives of at least 50,000 women and 250,000 newborns and enable at least 10 million couples to access family planning over the next five years. The frameworks mark the biggest focus in recent British history on saving the lives of women and babies and the prevention of malaria deaths across the developing world. Both issues will be made a key priority across Britaina€™s overseas aid programmes. Fragile and conflict countries, often neglected because they are difficult to work in, will receive an increase in support. Up to a third of malaria deaths and more than 50% of maternal deaths occur in these countries. International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said: "Every day over two thousand people die from malaria and almost a thousand women die during pregnancy or childbirth. These deaths are all the more tragic because the vast majority could have been prevented. "We will be relentless in driving down this terrible loss of life by hugely increasing our efforts, basing our actions on evidence; reaching more people with the right interventions; and by putting girls and women front and centre of our development work. "Britain has a proud history of helping those in need. We are making our support go further by shifting the development agenda to one of accountability, impact and innovation a€“ starting with malaria and maternal health."![Melinda Gates. Picture: Russell Watkins / DFID](/Images/melindagates_150px.jpg) Reacting to the news of the frameworks, Melinda Gates, co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation said: "Investing in simple, inexpensive and proven interventions that will save the lives of women and children in developing countries is one of the best investments the UK can make. Wea€™re pleased to partner with DFID and others to scale up these interventions and develop new ones that will multiply the UKa€™s efforts and its overall impact." "The world knows how to defeat malaria," she added. "Huge progress has been made in recent years. The UK is smart to increase its investment to stop malaria deaths, to scale up this success, as well as to invest in new research which could one day eliminate malaria completely." None Britain's plan to tackle malaria and save women's lives None [](Press release in full) [](Reproductive, maternal and newborn health) [](Malaria) None None 2010-12-31 25 Britain will provide urgently needed contraceptive supplies to Uganda to help prevent unwanted pregnancies and improve family planning, DFID Secretary of State Andrew Mitchell said today. The new UK support will help to bolster Ugandaa€™s contraceptive supplies and could avert 75,000 abortions and 250,000 unwanted pregnancies.  Ugandan women have a one in twenty-five risk of dying in pregnancy or childbirth. Andrew Mitchell said: > a€œAround the world over 200 million women still do not have access to modern contraception. We are determined to give women more control over their lives so they can decide when and how many children they have.  This is a crucial step in helping countries out of poverty and will be a major priority for us. > > a€œEnding non priority spending and taking tough steps to get value for money in DFIDa€™s budget means we can concentrate our aid where it makes most difference - on improving the lives of the worlda€™s poorest people.a€ This commitment of additional support for frontline services in Uganda follows Monday's announcement by Andrew Mitchell to refocus aid spending on projects that deliver maximum value for money and have the greatest impact on global poverty. Just one in four women across Uganda currently have access to contraceptives and stock levels are running low due to a recent upsurge in use. Andrew Mitchell has sent Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State Stephen Oa€™Brien to Uganda on a fact-finding mission where he will see for himself the impact of DFIDa€™s aid. None Britain to provide life-saving contraception in Uganda None [](Read the full press release) [](Where we work - Uganda) None None 2010-05-20 26 Cholera is spreading at an alarming rate across Haiti. Around 1,100 people have already died from the disease. Thousands of people are infected and the number continues to rise steeply. A team of humanitarian experts from the UK Government will arrive in Port au Prince tomorrow to join DFID's regional humanitarian adviser, who has been on the ground for a week, to assess the international response to date. As well as monitoring the current crisis in Haiti, UK Government experts will be assisting other Caribbean countries, particularly the UK Overseas Territories, in contingency planning for managing any potential risk of cholera spreading. Andrew Mitchell, Secretary of State for International Development said: "The British Government is very concerned about the situation in Haiti. It is a tragedy that the people of Haiti are being hit by a second emergency when they are still struggling to recover from the earthquake at the start of the year." Britain's humanitarian contribution now exceeds more than £100 million this year, through its contribution to the UN, EU and World Bank. None Britain to reinforce humanitarian support in Haiti Humanitarian experts to help assess international response to cholera outbreak in Haiti and assist contingency planning in other Caribbean countries None [](Haiti earthquake - latest updates) [](Haiti - the crisis in context) [](Haiti - six months on from disaster) [](Where we work - Caribbean) The British Government is sending an assessment mission to Haiti to reinforce our support and monitoring of the cholera outbreak, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell said today. None 2010-11-19 27 The British government has announced that it will provide urgent support for life-saving HIV, TB and malaria supplies that will save the lives of millions of people in the worlda€™s poorest countries. The British government will support the Global Fund a€“ an international public-private health partnership a€“ to fight some of the worst diseases in the world. Every day over 2,000 people die from malaria and more than 7,400 people become infected with HIV. Britain will support measures to combat: * Malaria: Protecting families against malaria with insecticide sprays, bed nets, drugs and help from health workers. Malaria hot-spots will be targeted including Sudan, DRC, Kenya and Angola. As a result of the support, life-saving programmes such as the distribution of 1.6 million bed nets will now go ahead so that more lives can be saved; * HIV: Supporting an additional 9,000 HIV positive women with treatment which prevents transmission to their babies and an additional 64,000 people with treatment for AIDS; and * Tuberculosis:  Providing an additional 56,000 people with treatment for TB. The decision comes ahead of the findings of the Multilateral Aid Review that is looking at Britaina€™s future support for international bodies. The review, which will report back in the New Year, will set out reforms we want to see the Global Fund make as a matter of priority, including working much more effectively on the ground, simplifying procedures and maximising value for money. Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell said: "The Coalition Government has been absolutely clear that we will be relentless in our efforts to save lives in the worlda€™s poorest countries. "The Global Fund has an impressive track record in delivering medicine and prevention tools for HIV, TB and malaria to those who most need it. "By bringing forward this payment wea€™re wasting no time in getting life-saving programmes off the ground. Wea€™re accelerating delivery because a delay will cost many lives. "The review is about deciding where British support will make the most difference to the lives of the worlda€™s poorest people. We want organisations to show they are providing value for money and can maximise their impact on the ground." None UK bolsters fight against HIV, TB and malaria None [](Press release) [](Multilateral aid review) [](The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malariaopens in a new window) None None 2010-12-21 28 At an event marking World AIDS Day hosted by the All Party Parliamentary Group on HIV and AIDS and RED, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State Minister Stephen O'Brien confirmed the British Government's continued commitment to Universal Access to HIV prevention, AIDS treatment, care and support. Minister Stephen O'Brien said: "The UK Government have committed to allocating 0.7 of our Gross National Income for overseas aid by 2013 and have ring-fenced our budget. This is a historical commitment. We have also put women and children's health at the heart of our international development agenda and we expect that our Commitments made on women and children's health will contribute to the survival of at least 50,000 more women in pregnancy and childbirth and 250,000 newborn babies and to provide ten million more couples with access to comprehensive family planning. "The UK Government wholeheartedly supports the call for the virtual elimination of paediatric AIDS and we are working with others to scale up prevention of mother to child transmission services. To reach this goal, we need to adopt the comprehensive approach recommended by the World Health Organization, and we are committed to doing so by focusing where we have comparative advantage. This is on primary prevention of HIV among women of child-bearing age, and on prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV through our investments in family planning." [Read the full speech.](/News/Speeches-and-statements/2010/World-AIDS-Day/) Esnart Mwila with PUSS Stephen O'Brien at the APPG event on World AIDS Day. Picture: Stop AIDS Campaign British Government confirms commitment to universal access [](Feature | World AIDS Day) None Esnart Mwila with PUSS Stephen O'Brien at the APPG event on World AIDS Day. 2010-12-02 29 British nurses, doctors and health workers will get the chance to play a crucial role in the UKa€™s efforts to reduce maternal and child deaths in the worlda€™s poorest countries, International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell announced today. A new £5 million fund will enable British health professionals to share their skills with birth attendants, nurses and doctors in developing countries through teaching, training and practical assistance.  Up to 50 international partnerships will be established between the NHS and UK institutions - such as the Royal Colleges and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence - and developing countriesa€™ health systems. The partnerships will provide direct support and expertise between medical institutions to raise professional standards. Partnerships will be encouraged to support the use of innovations in technology, such as live internet link-ups and the use of mobile phones for emergency referrals and operations. In addition an electronic database will be established to match requests for help from developing countries against offers from other countries, including the UK, to provide health assistance. Andrew Mitchell said: a€œIt is utterly shocking that every year over 500,000 women around the world die from complications during pregnancy and childbirth. a€œChildbirth should be about life not death. Tackling the tragic scale of maternal and child deaths will be a key priority for the new Government. a€œBritaina€™s nurses, midwives and medical teams are some of the best in the world and can help to give developing countries the skills needed to improve womena€™s health.a€ A decade ago, the world set itself the target of reducing maternal mortality by 75 per cent by 2015. Today, the maternal health Millennium Development Goal remains dangerously off track. This week the Prime Minister and Stephen Harper, the Canadian Prime Minister, agreed to make maternal mortality a top priority both at the G8/G20 meetings in Toronto next month - and the major UN summit on development later in the year. None British health workers to join fight against maternal deaths None [](Read the full press release) None None 2010-06-04 30 International Development Secretary, Andrew Mitchell and President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Cardinal Turkson, today heard how British health workers play a crucial role in reducing maternal and child deaths in the world's poorest countries. As part of the Pope's first ever State visit to the UK, Cardinal Turkson and the Secretary of State met British doctors and nurses who will be travelling to Rwanda and Ethiopia to share their skills. Health professionals from developing countries told the delegation about the challenges they face in delivering healthcare in their country. The practical skills they learn through the health links will help them save the lives of many more women and babies, a key pledge of the UK government ahead of the Millennium Development Summit in New York. The Health Partnerships scheme, announced by Andrew Mitchell in June this year, will enable more British health professionals to share their skills with birth attendants, nurses and doctors in developing countries through teaching, training and practical assistance. Up to 50 international partnerships will be established between the NHS and UK institutions - such as the Royal Colleges and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence - and developing countriesa€™ health systems. The partnerships will provide direct support and expertise between medical institutions to raise professional standards. The Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell said: "It is unacceptable that every year over a third of a million women around the world die from complications during pregnancy and childbirth. "I am delighted to be here with the Cardinal today to get the chance to see for ourselves how British nurses, midwives and medical teams are using their expertise to help save womena€™s lives in some of the worlda€™s poorest countries. "At the Millennium Development Goal Summit next week I will be doing all I can to make sure that the international community keeps its promises to the worlda€™s poor, and that women and girls are at the very forefront of those efforts." Secretary of State Andrew Mitchell and Cardinal Turkson meet British health workers British health workers save lives in developing countries [](Press release) None Photo of Secretary of State and Cardinal Turkson meeting with health workers 2010-09-17 31 British NGOs supported by DFID through the Latin America Partnership Programme Arrangement (LAPPA) and other mechanisms have produced a bulletin describing their joint efforts to tackle discrimination and inequality in the poorest regions of Peru. Perua€™s poorest and most remote regions face similar levels of deprivation to some of the poorest countries in Africa: - The population below the poverty line in Huancavelica (77.2%) is higher than in Sierra Leone (70.6%); - The district with the lowest HDI (Human Development Index) in Peru, Yurúa (0.440), has similar levels of human development to Liberia (0.442); - A higher proportion of people lack access to safe water in the region of Loreto (37.2%) than in Uganda (36%); - Stunting in the region of Huancavelica (53.6%) is similar to Burundi or Malawi (53%). British NGOs working in Peru have adopted three main strategies in their efforts to contribute effectively to reducing poverty and inequality: 1. Implementing initiatives that have a significant impact on the most excluded groups; 2. Influencing public policy, to improve government policy, spending and programmes; 3. Cooperating on joint initiatives, to share learning and maximise impact. The bulletin provides a snapshot of the work of British NGOs in a number of key sectors including health and education, food security and climate change. The efforts of different coalitions supported by CARE, Plan, Save the Children and World Vision, for example, have contributed to increases in public spending in social programmes and to improvements in key national indicators, such as: - A fall in chronic malnutrition in children under five from 28% in 2005 to 23.8% in 2009; - A reduction in maternal mortality from 185 per 100,000 live births in 2000 to 103.3 in 2009. Together, British NGOs are making significant and sustainable improvements in the lives of the poorest Peruvians, as well as providing important lessons for efforts to tackle inequality and exclusion elsewhere in the world. **[British NGOs in peru](** View more [documents]( from [COEECI]( None British NGOs working in partnership in Peru None [](Impact on discrimination and inequality in the poorest regions of Peruopens in a new window) None None None 32 CDC, the UK government owned development finance institution has published its annual development review report for 2009 detailing its investment impact in poorer countries. CDCa€™s role is to stimulate economic growth by providing much needed capital for investment in sustainable and responsibly managed private sector businesses in developing countries, with a particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. The report shows that: * CDCa€™s capital supports 794 companies (an increase of 113 on 2008) located in 71 developing countries. In 2009, CDC made new investments totalling £359 million of which £121 million was in Asia and £194 million in sub-Saharan Africa, and mobilised £742 million of capital from other investors. Across CDCa€™s portfolio a total of 733,000 people are employed in the 617 companies that reported employment data. * US$2.8 billion was paid in taxes to domestic governments over the period of investment by 436 companies reporting tax data to CDC Speaking at an event to launch the report Sir Bob Geldof said: "Poverty can only be eliminated through trade and investment. And it is trade and investment that will support the dynamism and enterprise of people in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia and give them the jobs, dignity and opportunity that they deserve." For more information on CDC please visit their website. []( None CDC publishes annual development review report for 2009 None [](CDC website) None None 2010-06-17 33 A new chief financial officer has been appointed to the Turks and Caicos Islands Government. Caroline Gardner, Deputy Auditor General for Audit Scotland, will take up her responsibilities on 20 September. The Chief Financial Officer will take responsibility for all financial decisions for the Turks and Caicos Islands Government, under the authority of the Governor. The Chief Financial Officer will work to strengthen the Government's capacity and systems to manage its public finances and balance its budget within the next three years. Her appointment follows the announcement earlier this year about the temporary package of financial support from the UK Government. Caroline Gardner, currently Deputy Auditor General and Controller of Audit for Audit Scotland, brings significant financial expertise to the role. In this new position Caroline will work closely with Mr Delton Jones, who will continue in his role as Permanent Secretary Finance and the rest of the financial team in the Ministry, building on the significant progress that they have already made. None Chief Financial Officer appointed on Turks & Caicos Islands None [](Press release) None None 2010-09-17 34 The UK will help halve the number of deaths caused by malaria in at least ten African countries by 2015, Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg will announce today. The pledge, to be made at the UN MDGs Summit in New York, will be coupled with an increased focus on boosting malaria prevention and treatment across the developing world by DFID. As part of this boost, UKaid will save 5,500 childrena€™s lives in Zambia by increasing access to malaria prevention, diagnostics and treatment. In Ghana the UK will supply 2.4 million new insecticide-treated bednets, enough to save 13,000 lives a year. The new UK commitment will be backed by an increase in funding to as much as £500 million per year by 2014 from current spending of about £150 million. The precise figure, countries and programmes to which it will be allocated will be decided as part of the ongoing review of all DFIDa€™s country programmes. Malaria is not only a consequence but a cause of poverty, costing African economies $12 billion a year in health care spending and as much as 1.3% of GDP every year in lost income in the worst affected countries. Andrew Mitchell, International Development Secretary, said: a€œTackling malaria will mean that millions of people, and especially children, will be saved from its crippling effects, enabling them to work, feed their families and send their children to school. a€œCombating this disease is also one of the best investments money can buy a€“ as little as £2 a year can be enough to save a childa€™s life. a€œI will now be looking at all DFIDa€™s programmes to see how we can build the prevention and treatment of malaria into everything we do.a€ Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg meets UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon. Credit: UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe UK to lead global efforts to combat malaria [](2010 UN Millennium Development Goals Summit) [](Press release) None Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg meets UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon. Credit: UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe 2010-09-22 35 Senior diplomats from across the world yesterday attended a Millennium Development Goals (MDG) summit briefing at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. At an event designed to galvanise political momentum in the run up to this month's United Nations MDG Summit, attendees were addressed by Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg, Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell and Foreign Office Minister for Global and Economic issues, Henry Bellingham. Nick Clegg emphasised the coalition government's commitment to international development despite the financially difficult times. Andrew Mitchell stressed that the Summit needs to deliver a clear action agenda setting out the way forward to delivering the MDGs and halving extreme poverty by 2015. The Development Secretary outlined the UKa€™s intention to put women, girls and maternal health at the forefront of its efforts in line with the belief that empowerment of women is central to the delivery of the full range of MDGs. In his speech, Minister Bellingham noted "This government believes that the goals of poverty reduction, improving human rights and international development are as important as ever." The MDG Summit takes place in New York between the 20 and 22 September 2010 and is designed to speed progress towards delivery of all MDGs by 2015. Achieving the MDGs would transform the lives of millions of people living in some of the poorest parts of the world. International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell answers questions from UK based foreign diplomats at a briefing on the United Nations Summit on the Millennium Development Goals in London. Picture credit: FCO Coalition Ministers deliver MDG briefing [](2010 UN Summit on the Millennium Development Goals) None Photo of Andrew Mitchell answering questions from UK based foreign diplomats 2010-09-10 36 A new fund that will benefit a range of small to large civil society organisations will be launched by DFID this year. The objective is to support poverty-fighting groups who focus on delivering the Millennium Development Goals a€“ targets to improve the lives of the worlda€™s poorest, adopted in 2001. As part of developing the Fund, DFID is inviting views from those with an interest in civil society funding. The Fund is being designed with two initial funding windows, tailored to different types and sizes of organisations: * Innovation Grants: for small UK-based civil society organisations (CSOs) with an annual average turnover of less than £500,000 encouraging innovative approaches to poverty reduction. * Impact Grants: for UK-based organisations working on poverty reduction programmes at larger scale in one or more poor countries.  This window will also be available to locally registered CSOs in countries where DFID has a country office.  The grants would total £40 million in the first year. In a letter to CSOs, Secretary of State for International Development, Andrew Mitchell, said: a€œThe UK Government is committed to establishing a new results-focused Poverty Impact Fund. This will help support poverty-fighting groups deliver against the Millennium Development Goals. a€œWe know that there are many potential partners with experience and expertise relevant to the Fund. Your insights and views are needed to ensure that the Fund is designed in a way which best meets the needs of poor people.  I would like to hear from as wide a range of organisations and individuals as possible on what you think of the proposals.a€ None Consultation on new third sector fund None [](Public consultation on the design of the Poverty Impact Fund) None None 2010-07-29 37 The public consultation on the reform of CDC, the UK owned development finance institution, announced by the Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell, will begin today. The consultation will enable interested parties to submit evidence based ideas, via an online survey, on which approaches CDC should focus on to maximise its development impact, and how it can best catalyse private investment.  The reformed CDC will resume direct investments and have a wider range of financial tools at its disposal, such as debt, equity and guarantees. CDC will invest in countries, regions and sectors where the private sector is reluctant to go as well as attracting new private investment by demonstrating that profitable and responsible investments can be made in difficult business environments in developing countries. Andrew Mitchell said: "CDC will be the jewel in the crown of the UKa€™s efforts to maximise the private sectora€™s potential to contribute to development. Reforms will allow CDC to put more investment in businesses which would never otherwise have been considered. By breathing new life into private sector led development, it will allow more people in the poorest countries an opportunity to use their own enterprise to create a path out of poverty." The consultation will include two half-day technical roundtable discussions and a number of studies to inform the reform of CDC. None Consultation on CDC reform begins None [](Read the press notice) [](Have your say in the consultationopens in a new window) [](Andrew Mitchell's speech on CDC reforms) [](CDCopens in a new window) None None 2010-11-05 38 Video: watch the Deputy Prime Minister's address to the UN summit ### Introduction It is an honour for me to address the General Assembly today for the first time as Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. And it is a privilege to be here with you to discuss how together we can reach the Millennium Development Goals; To make the necessary commitments towards eradicating the problems that blight the world we share: Poverty, hunger, disease, and the degradation of our natural environment. This week we are reviewing progress, assessing obstacles, and agreeing a framework for action to meet our targets. These are the technocratic terms in which governments must necessarily trade. But let us be clear: behind the officialese of summits lies our single, common purpose: To uphold the dignity and security that is the right of every person in every part of the world.  Development is, in the end, about freedom. It is about freedom from hunger and disease; freedom from ignorance; freedom from poverty. Development means ensuring that every person has the freedom to take their own life into their own hands and determine their own fate. The last decade has seen some important progress. That progress has, however, been uneven, and, on a number of our goals we remain significantly off track. ### Britaina€™s commitment So my message to you today, from the UK government, is this - we will keep our promises; and we expect the rest of the international community to do the same.  For our part, the new coalition government has committed to reaching 0.7% of GNI in aid from 2013 a€“ a pledge we will enshrine in law. That aid will be targeted in the ways we know will make the biggest difference. And I am pleased to announce today that the UK will be stepping up our efforts to combat malaria. In Africa, a child dies from this disease a€“ this easily preventable disease a€“ every 45 seconds. So we will make more money available, and ensure that we get more for our money, with the aim of halving malaria-related deaths in ten of the worst affected countries. The UK government is also proud to be boosting our contribution to the international drive on maternal and infant health. Our new commitments will save the lives of 50,000 mothers and quarter of a million babies by 2015. ### The case for development The UK makes these commitments at a time of significant difficulty time in our domestic economy. The new government has inherited a £156bn budget deficit, so increasing our international aid budget is not an uncontroversial decision. Some critics have questioned that decision, asking why, at a time when people at home are making sacrifices in their pay and their pensions, are we increasing aid for people in other countries? But we make this choice because we recognise that the promises the UK has made hold in the bad times as well as the good a€“ that they are even more important now than they were then. Because we understand that, while we are experiencing hardship on our own shores, it does not compare to the abject pain and destitution of others. Because we take seriously the fact that the new coalition government is now the last UK government able to deliver on our countrya€™s promises in time for the 2015 MDG deadline. And because we know that doing so is in our own, enlightened self-interest. When the world is more prosperous, the UK will be more prosperous. Growth in the developing world means new partners with which to trade and new sources of global growth. And, equally, when the world is less secure, the UK is less secure within it. Climate change does not somehow stop at our borders. When pandemics occur, we are not immune. And when poverty and poor education fuel the growth of global terrorism, our society bears the scars too. Twenty two of the thirty four countries furthest from reaching the MDGs are in the midst of or emerging from violent conflict. Fragile spaces a€“ like Afghanistan a€“ where hate can proliferate and terrorist attacks can be planned, where organised criminals can harvest the drugs that ravage our streets, where families are persecuted, displaced, pushed to seek refuge with us. So we do not see the Millennium Development Goals just as optimistic targets for far away lands; they are not simply charity, nor are they pure altruism. They are also the key to lasting safety and future prosperity for the people of the United Kingdom, and of course, for people right across the globe. ### On what we expect of others We welcome the General Assemblya€™s agreement to annually review progress made against the commitments agreed at this Summit. The UK will stand up to that test. Today I call on others to show equal resolve. The Millennium Development Goals must be a priority for each and every nation present in this room. Developed nations must honour their commitments. And developing nations must understand that they will not receive a blank cheque. Developing countries and donors must work together a€“ as equal partners a€“ towards securing our common interest. They will be expected to administer aid in ways that are accountable, transparent, and responsible - creating the conditions for economic growth and job creation. Prioritising national budgets on health, infrastructure, education and basic services. Managing natural resources, particularly biodiversity, in an environmentally sustainable way. Improving the lives of women and girls: empowering them; educating them; ensuring healthy mothers can raise strong children. There can be no doubt that women and girls hold the key to greater prosperity: for their families, for their communities, and for their nations too. ### Conclusion If we each step up, we can meet the Millennium Development Goals. We can liberate millions of people from daily suffering, and give them the resources to take control of their lives, and their destinies. So let future generations look back and say that they inherited a better world because a€“ at this critical moment, at this difficult moment a€“ we did not shrink from our responsibilities. Let them say that we rose to the challenge, that we kept our promise. Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg addresses the United Nations General Assembly, 22 September 2010. Credit: UN Photo/Ky Chung Nick Clegg addresses the UN General Assembly [](2010 UN Millennium Development Goals Summit) Speech by Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg at the United Nations Millennium Development Goals Summit Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg addresses the United Nations General Assembly, 22 September 2010. Credit: UN Photo/Ky Chung 2010-09-22 39 A pledge to put women at the "front and centre" of aid with a new emphasis on girlsa€™ education and family planning is a key element of a new reform plan to achieve the Coalition Governmenta€™s objectives on international development, the Deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg, announced today. Unveiled by the Deputy Prime Minister and International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell, the plan focuses on the key actions and milestones that DFID will deliver to support the Millennium Development Goals, the global blueprint to improve the lives of the worlda€™s poorest. The Deputy Prime Minister has made it a personal mission to champion the goals both in Government and internationally and will represent the UK at the [United Nations Millennium Development Goals Summit in New York this September 2010](/News/Latest-news/2010/MDG-summit/). The Prime Minister, David Cameron, has already made clear that the Coalition Government will continue to drive forward progress in the fight against poverty. The [DFID Structural Reform Plan](/About-us/How-we-measure-progress/DFID-Business-plan-2011-2015/) sets out key steps the department will take to deliver better value and more effective aid. Falling into six themes, these include: * **Role of Women**: New programmes to get more girls into primary and secondary education; to promote economic empowerment of women and pilot new approaches to eliminate violence against women. * **Value for Money**: Developing more results-based aid and cash on delivery contracts. * **Wealth Creation**: Developing new projects on property rights, investment and microfinance. * **Conflict and Stabilisation**: Revising DFID strategies for Afghanistan and Pakistan. Develop a strategy for more integrated post-conflict reconstruction, building on the Stabilisation Unit. * **Climate Change**: Help poor countries to take part in international climate change negotiations. * **International Commitments**: Honour the UKa€™s commitment to spend 0.7% of national income on overseas aid from 2013 and enshrine this commitment in law. On a visit to DFID, the Deputy Prime Minister, Nick Clegg, said: > a€œWe must stand firm by our commitments to help the poorest people in the world. Economic times are tough, and no-one is suffering more than those already living in poverty. Our decision to ring fence the aid budget is not only morally right but in our national interest a€“ having a knock-on effect on security, migration and trade. > > a€œThis government will be a champion for development. The UK can lead the world in its work to combat poverty.a€ Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell said: > a€œWe will seek to persuade other countries to follow our lead and drive reform of the international aid architecture. These reforms will confront weakness and improve value for money, efficiency and focus throughout the international system.a€ Nick Clegg speaking at DFID. Picture: Marisol Grandon / DFID Clegg outlines vision for development [](DFID Structural Reform Plan) [](Press release) Deputy Prime Minister outlines vision for international development Nick Clegg speaking at DFID. Picture: Marisol Grandon / DFID 2010-07-27 40 Following a meeting with philanthropist Bill Gates today, Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg confirmed that he will be representing the UK at the Millennium Development Goals Summit at the United Nations in September. Mr Clegg said: "Bill and Melinda Gates have proved an inspirational and unstoppable force in the fight against global disease and destitution. Today is the beginning of a close and productive relationship between their Foundation and our government. I am looking forward to working closely with Bill in the run up to this crucial summit. We agree that this would be the worst possible moment for the international community to retreat from our promise to help developing nations. The global economy has undergone a major trauma and the worlda€™s poorest are being hit extremely hard. "The New York talks are a huge opportunity to get the Millennium Development Goals back on track. With the 2015 deadline now around the corner, the time for warm words is over. National leaders have a duty to put in place a concrete plan to bring down the high death tolls of mothers, children and babies that are a blight on developing nations. "The Coalition Government and Gates Foundation are committed to working together to eradicate polio, which is 99% eradicated but on which we need a big push to eradicate the final 1%. I can today confirm that the UK will provide the next phase of its support, vaccinating 15-20m children under 5 this year".   Mr Gates said: "It was a pleasure to meet with Nick Clegg today. I appreciate the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the new governmenta€™s strategy on international development assistance, especially as the world prepares for the MDG Review Summit at the UN General Assembly in September.  I welcome the UKa€™s leadership on international development and its commitment to maintaining the nationa€™s promise to spend 0.7% of its Gross National Income on official development assistance, despite significant challenges to the British economy. I urge other donor nations, particularly those in the G8, to follow its lead. "In the face of such challenging economic times, we must be even smarter about how resources are used and maintain our commitments to the worlda€™s poor. I commend the Deputy Prime Minister and the new governmenta€™s determination to ensure that the resources of the Department for International Development are spent on programmes that focus on solutions and deliver positive results, like their work on the global elimination of polio. "The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation, of which the UK and the Gates Foundation are the largest funders, is a good example of smart investing and effective partnerships. The GAVI Alliance funds vaccine programmes in 72 countries a€“ providing one of the most cost effective innovations in global health.  Because of GAVI and other international organisations dedicated to improving the lives of children, wea€™ve seen a reduction in worldwide mortality in children under the age of five from 11.9 million deaths in 1990 to 7.7 million deaths in 2010. I look forward to working with the UK on these and the many other challenges facing us as we work to help give all people the opportunity to live healthy and productive lives." None Deputy Prime Minister talks development with Bill Gates None [](More information on the MDG summit) [](The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundationopens in a new window) [](Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisationopens in a new window) None None 2010-07-20 41 Young female football coaches visited two DFID-funded education projects aimed at changing childrena€™s lives in South Africa. An 18-strong group from Skillshare Internationala€™s Coaching for Hope (CFH) programme - including 12 Football Association (FA) young leaders aged 15 to 24 a€“ first visited a Soul Buddyz club at the Michael Zulu primary school in Brakpan, near Johannesburg. The clubs bring children together to look at social and health challenges in their communities in a spin-off from South Africaa€™s popular Soul City TV soap opera. At a separate visit to a Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) project they met residents who are getting help with health and social services in Cape Towna€™s largest township, Khayelitsha. One third of its population of 700,000 is HIV positive and many thousands of young children do not attend school. Football coach Alison Spriggs, 17, from Wolverhampton, said: a€œIt is great to see how TAC is giving families support to get their children into school so that they can help give themselves better lives.a€ On the UK-supported 1GOAL campaign to give every African child a primary school place, Alison said: a€œEvery child in Africa should have a school place, like we do in the UK. a€œEducation is the main way to bridge that gap and football is a great way to help turn that aim into real change.a€ Birmingham University student Rachel Shepherd, said: a€œFrom being here and meeting TAC volunteers it is clear that the most important thing is empowering communities to make changes themselves.a€ CFH is funded in part thorough DFIDa€™s Partnership Programme Agreement with Skillshare International and is supported by the British Council. CFH uses football to empower vulnerable young people in the developing world. It is the official FA international charity and already runs successful programmes in Burkina Faso and Mali. It trains local coaches and educators and helps them use the game to spark debate about HIV and AIDS among children in their communities. Programme manager in South Africa, Norman Brook said: a€œOur training covers areas such as HIV / AIDS, substance abuse, gender equality and disability. a€œWe use football to give these young coaches a grass roots perspective on issues such as development and that is where our link with DFID is so valuable.a€ Female coaches from the FA's Coaching for Hope programme with staff from the Treatment Action Campaign in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. Photo credit: DFID DFID and FA team up for better education in South Africa [](1GOAL: Education for All campaign) [](Where we work - South Africa) [](Treatment Action Campaign websiteopens in a new window) [](Soul City websiteopens in a new window) DFID teams up with FA young leaders for better education in South Africa Female coaches from the FA's Coaching for Hope programme with staff from the Treatment Action Campaign in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. 2010-05-18 42 The UK Government's battle against global poverty will be given an injection of private sector expertise following today's appointment of Vivienne Cox to the Department for International Developmenta€™s (DFID) management board. Vivienne Cox is the former CEO and Executive Vice President of BP's Gas, Power and Renewables businesses, and had over 25 years experience with the company. She also serves as a non-executive director at Rio Tinto and Vallourec SA, and is the Chair of Climate Change Capital. Vivienne is the Patron of St. Francis Hospice Charity. Andrew Mitchell, International Development Secretary, said: "I want to usher in a new culture of private sector-led development at DFID, an example for other development bodies to follow. "Vivienne's appointment is a key part of these efforts. Not only will she inject some business-savvy DNA into the department, but her wealth of experience and knowledge will give a valuable boost to our efforts helping the world's poorest people escape from poverty. As well as Vivienne's appointment, Doreen Langston was also reappointed as a DFID non-executive director. Chair of the DFID Audit Committee and non-executive director on the DFID Management Board since 2008, Doreen has formerly served as Finance Director and Head of Operations at Daiwa Investment Bank, Chief Operating Officer at Banco Santander and Chief Accountant at HSBC. DFID's appointments came as part of an unprecedented reform of Whitehall departments to boost its strategic and operational leadership with the appointment of senior leaders from outside Government onto departmental boards. The new departmental boards will help guide departments through a significant period of transformation. They will monitor and assess the effectiveness of decisions, ensuring that inputs are being successfully translated to impacts. None DFID confirms new board appointments None [](Read the full press release) None None 2010-12-16 43 The prospects for improved governance in Indonesiaa€™s oil, gas and mining industries have taken a giant step forward following a Presidential Regulation sanctioning Indonesiaa€™s implementation of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), the global standard for transparency of non-renewable resource revenues. Under EITI, oil, gas and mining firms report the amount of revenues that they have conveyed to government and the government reports how much of these revenues it collects. DFID facilitated the process and worked for many years to help bring Indonesia to the point where it adopted the landmark Presidential Regulation. With Indonesia about to embark on EITI, it is likely that more oil, gas and mineral revenues will be available for economic development and poverty alleviation. Light may finally begin to shine into the last dark corner of Indonesian public finances, and more of the money found there may ultimately begin to make its way to more than half of Indonesian population who continue to live in poverty. Indonesiaa€™s adoption of EITI is important not only for the nation, but also for EITI itself.  Although EITI has made great strides to combat the resource curse worldwide, it suffers from the perception that it is of primary relevance to failed states.  Indonesia is no failed state.  During the global economic crisis, it was the third-fastest growing member of the G20, after China and India.  With Indonesia on track to implement the EITI, the hope is that more middle income states will follow suit. Impact of opencast mining in the Batanghari watershed, Sumatra. Photo: DFID DFID helps Indonesia move toward oil and gas transparency [](Extractive Industries Transparency Initiativeopens in a new window) [](Where we work - Indonesia) Government of Indonesia adopts Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Impact of opencast mining in the Batanghari watershed, Sumatra 2010-06-23 44 The UK government is supporting a new social protection programme in Uganda which will help to lift the country's most vulnerable people out of poverty. More than seven million people live on less than $1.25 a day in Uganda and many more are at risk of falling into poverty due to floods, droughts, illness or unemployment. A key part of the programme is a cash transfer pilot which will provide small but regular monthly grants to over 600,000 vulnerable people in 95,000 households. The grants will guarantee that poor people can buy basic necessities like food, uniforms, and school materials for their children, access health services, and eventually make small scale investments in productive activities. This will help to break the transmission of poverty from one generation to the next and support the country's progress towards the [Millennium Development Goals](/News/Latest-news/2010/MDG-summit/). The programme will enable the Government of Uganda to develop a comprehensive social protection policy and will help to build capacity so that the Government can take over full responsibility for management of the programme once institutional and human resources are in place. Together with financial and technical support from the Irish government and UNICEF, the UK's Department for International Development (DFID) has committed a grant of £33 million over the next five years. The payment of cash transfers will begin in three districts in April 2011 and will expand to 14 districts by October 2011. Map of Uganda. Picture: Vardion from Wikimedia Commons DFID helps Uganda's most vulnerable people [](Where we work | Uganda) [](UNICEFopens in a new window) None Map of Uganda 2010-09-29 45 DFID has responded to a World Food Programme (WFP) Sudan appeal with a contribution which will cover the costs of procurement and delivery of 30,000 metric tonnes of food.  This will provide a montha€™s emergency food distributions to over 1.8 million people. WFP appealed for almost $897 million in order to help approximately 6 million Sudanese people who dona€™t have enough food. People are going hungry in Southern Sudan because of spiralling inter-tribal violence (390,000 were displaced in 2009), poor rains, and high food prices. Almost half of the population in Southern Sudan, 4.3 million people, has been assessed as likely not to have enough food in 2010.  1.6 million of those are likely to be close to starving. In Darfur, some 2.7 million people in Internally Displaced Persons camps remain almost entirely dependant on WFP rations to meet their food needs.  Darfur continues to represent around 70% of the food aid requirements for Sudan. The contribution of £20 million from DFID comes at the peak of the a€œhunger seasona€ in Sudan, the pre-harvest period of heavy rains from May to September, when families are low on food stocks and the risk of malnutrition is highest. None DFID help to the hungry people of Sudan None [](Where we work - Sudan) [](World Food Programmeopens in a new window) None None 2010-07-27 46 DFID is relocating its Overseas Territories Department (OTD) to its other Headquarter site in East Kilbride, Scotland.  Jobs in policy, international and regional divisions will be relocating from London to Abercrombie House.  OTD is part of this move. The growth of Abercrombie House is one way in which DFID is seeking to achieve greater efficiency across its operations. To help ensure minimal disruption to our programmes to the overseas territories, we will be adopting a phased approach to the move. The three distinct milestones for the relocation of teams are as follows: * Caribbean Team a€“ September 2010 * Southern Oceans Team a€“ January 2011 * Advisory Staff a€“ between September 2010 a€“ March 2011 Please be assured that DFID remains committed to meeting its obligations for the Overseas Territories. If you have any questions, please contact Susan Pieri by email ([]( None DFID Overseas Territories Department's relocation to East Kilbride None [](Directions to Abercrombie House) None None 2010-06-24 47 Liverpool football coaches teamed up with African civil society in the drive to cut HIV deaths in Southern Africa at a DFID healthcare event. The event was part of the cluba€™s five-day trip to South Africa with Oxfam to help promote better healthcare and HIV and AIDS treatment through the Fair Play for Africa campaign. Launched at the Africa Cup of Nations in Angola in January, it allies civil society organisations across Africa to push for universal access to HIV and wider health services, particularly those for women, who make up 60% of all those infected. The campaign also aims to ensure governments in 10 African countries including South Africa meet their Millennium Development Goals on health. Fair Play for Africa campaign manager, Wole Olaleye, said: > "2010 is the year the whole world will descend on Africa. > > "African governments have made pledges to deliver quality healthcare and services to all Africans. > > "Fair Play for Africa wants to make sure our governments deliver on these commitments." Forty per cent of the 33 million people living with HIV and AIDS globally live in Southern Africa. DFID supports the South African government with its £25 million programme: Strengthening South Africaa€™s Response to HIV and Health (SARRAH). SARRAH is helping to ensure more people are able to access free quality health services and receive treatment for HIV in South Africa. It also funds civil society organisations to push for and monitor national HIV and AIDS policy. Treatment Action Campaign is one group that has received funds to monitor and push the HIV and AIDS National Strategic Plan. It campaigns for the rights of people living with HIV and AIDS, ensuring equal access to HIV prevention and treatment, tackling stigma and discrimination, and helping victims of gender violence. British High Commissioner to South Africa, Dr Nicola Brewer, said: > "I hope South Africaa€™s first World Cup will harness the magic of football to support campaigns throughout the world, like Fair Play for Africa. > > "They show how important football can be in achieving a better quality of life, particularly for everyone living with HIV and AIDS. > > "I would like to give my support a€“ and that of the new UK government a€“ to the Fair Play campaign and hope the visit of the delegation from Liverpool will help it achieve its goals." Bill Bygroves, of Liverpool FC, said: > "Working with Fair Play for Africa and Oxfam will bring hope to people living every day with poverty and inequality. > > "Seeing HIV on the scale it is here means we must take responsibility." Wole Olaleye from Fair Play for Africa, British High Commissioner Dr Nicola Brewer and Bill Bygroves, of Liverpool FC at the DFID event on healthcare in Africa. Photo credit: DFID DFID and Liverpool FC promote Fair Play for Africa on health [](Where we work - South Africa) [](1GOAL: Education for All campaign) None Wole Olaleye from Fair Play for Africa, British High Commissioner Dr Nicola Brewer and Bill Bygroves, of Liverpool FC at the DFID event on healthcare in Africa. Photo credit: DFID 2010-05-24 48 DFID is committed to improving the transparency of aid flows, both in the UK and across the international system. Greater transparency will help improve value for money, promote greater accountability to citizens in donor and developing countries, and reduce opportunities for corruption and waste. Transparency also leads to better results. In June 2010, the Secretary of State announced the [UKaid Transparency Guarantee](/News/Latest-news/2010/The-UKAid-Transparency-Guarantee/) which will make DFIDa€™s aid fully transparent to citizens in both the UK and recipient countries. DFID invites civil society organisations, think tanks, academia and others working on transparency to join an online discussion to inform the implementation of the UKaid Transparency Guarantee. DFID is seeking feedback on a number of questions ranging from how DFID can improve its own transparency to how DFID should work with its partners to encourage greater transparency. If you are working on transparency and would like to contribute, please send an e-mail to []( None Discussion on implementing UKaid Transparency Guarantee None [](New stories | The UKaid Transparency Guarantee) Online discussion: Implementing the UKaid Transparency Guarantee None 2010-09-02 49 A spokesperson for the Department for International Development said: "We are monitoring the earthquake in Yushu in China and gathering further information about its impact. "We stand ready to provide assistance if needed and requested by the Chinese government." None Earthquake in China None [](Where we work - China) None None 2010-04-14 50 Children with disabilities are much less likely to go to school in the developing world than children who do not have disabilities. The [2010 Education For All Global Monitoring Report]( entitled, a€œReaching the marginalizeda€ highlights the challenges the international community faces in realising the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of universal primary education and gender parity in education. The education and gender Millennium Development Goals will not be achieved without addressing disability.  In response to this DFID has developed a [Guidance Note on Education and Disability](/Documents/publications1/edu-chi-disabil-guid-note.pdf). This note has been developed through consultation with civil society organisations working directly with children with disabilities both in the UK and abroad, the note is intended for use by DFID staff in country, staff from partner governments and other development partners working in this field. ### Guidance Note: Education for children with disabilities - Improving quality and access [Open publication]( The note aims to offer practical advice and tips on how to support children with disabilities to access education.  It provides the following outcomes: * synthesises current thinking * signposts to available resources a€“ research, case studies etc * sets out options for mainstreaming disability and inclusive education including Value for Money options * provides a contextual overview of key issues to consider when evaluating the relative strengths of the various options Deaf girls at a school in Uganda. Picture: Department for International Development Education for children with disabilities None Image of deaf girls at a school in Uganda 2010-10-17 51 The World Food Programme has appealed for $897 million in 2010 to help 6 million people in Sudan who are in need of emergency food aid.  The Department for International Development will contribute £20 million to the World Food Programme's emergency food operation in Sudan. None Emergency food aid for Sudan None None None 2010-04-27 52 The private sector needs to change its relationship with the world's poorest people, International Development Minister Alan Duncan said today. The Minister used a meeting of the UN Global Compact to issue a rallying cry for business to engage further with the developing world. Alan Duncan said that poor people should be viewed as potential consumers, producers and suppliers rather than just as recipients of aid, and that businesses investing in the poorest countries should look to local communities to fill vacancies and supply goods and services. "Private enterprise is an absolutely crucial partner in our battle against global poverty," said Mr Duncan at the UN in New York. "Aid saves millions of lives every year, but it can only ever be a means to an end. Trade and investment are the engines of economic growth, offering the only sustainable way out of the grinding poverty that afflicts nearly a billion people across the globe. "Some fantastic work has been done under the banner of corporate responsibility, but this is only the first step on the road to prosperity. That's why today I want to call on the business community to begin putting development at the very heart of their business strategies. "For companies to make a real difference they need to move beyond a view of the world's poorest people as recipients of charity and towards seeing them as active consumers, producers and suppliers. "This means that a company operating in a developing country should find local workers to fill their vacancies, use local producers and entrepreneurs as their suppliers and create goods and services that can raise local living standards. In return, companies can expect to secure sustainable supply chains and gain a foothold in a new and growing market. "Some businesses have already recognised this potential. Coca-Cola has found a way to bring hundreds of local entrepreneurs into their distribution networks across Africa. In so doing, they have tapped into dynamic new markets and created over 6,000 desperately needed jobs in poor communities. And SABMiller are helping farmers in southern Sudan to move from subsistence to commercial farming, and they're providing a market for their produce. "But this transition won't happen through private sector effort alone. If we as governments call for companies to change their business models to provide opportunities for the poor, then we have to do our part too. "So what do we need to do? I think there are four key things. "First, we must work with governments to support a stable environment that can attract long-term investment. "Second, we can help support initiatives that attract large-scale capital investment to developing countries. "Third, we can help companies manage the risks and share the costs associated with this new business model. For example, my own Department for International Development supported Vodafone to develop the groundbreaking MPESA. "MPESA helped 9 million Kenyans access financial services through their mobile phones. This has made it easier for countless budding entrepreneurs to do business and work towards pulling themselves out of poverty. But without our partnership, Vodafone may not have been willing to take this risk. "Finally, we can provide information and technical assistance to help companies understand what sort of pro-poor business models are possible, practical, and profitable. For example, the new DFID Business Innovation Facility will help 30 companies design new business models that will benefit the poor in five countries in Africa and Asia. "For the sake of the world's poorest we now need international donors to join forces with the private sector through initiatives like these, forming partnerships that can bring real and lasting change to the developing world." None 'Enterprise can fight global poverty' None [](Read the full press release) None None 2010-06-23 53 International Development Secretary Andrew Mitchell has today called on EU nations to maintain their commitment to international aid, despite the financial crisis. Speaking in advance of his first visit to the EU Foreign Affairs Council, Andrew Mitchell said: > a€œFive years ago EU nations made a promise to the worlda€™s poor to work towards spending 0.7% of our income to help ensure people have access to the basics they need to survive such as water, health services and food. > > a€œEU countries are important partners in the fight against poverty and need to show global leadership by meeting this pledge. > > a€œWe mustna€™t balance the books on the backs of the worlda€™s poorest and break this vital promise a€“ doing so will mean more people will die from famine or lack of clean water. We have a moral duty to continue this work despite our own financial problems.a€ Andrew Mitchell also stressed the need to ensure that, in meeting this target, every penny was spent effectively. DFID recently launched a review of all their funding of multilateral institutions, such as the EU, UN and World Bank, to ensure that they are providing value for money. DFID spending will also be subject to an independent aid watchdog and aid transparency initiative to certify that it is having a real impact on reducing poverty across the developing world, particularly on priorities such as maternal health. None EU countries ‘must honour aid promises’ None [](Press release) None None 2010-06-14 54 The Queen's Speech today underlined the government's commitment that 0.7% of gross national income (GNI) will be spent as official development assistance every year from 2013. The government is also committed to enshrining the 0.7% target in law, as set out in the Coalition Agreement. The UK government believes that this commitment on aid is both morally right and in our national interest. It will place Britain in a position of clear international leadership, encourage other countries to live up to their commitments and generate momentum ahead of Septembera€™s UN summit on the Millennium Development Goals.  The government believes that the quality of aid is just as important as the quantity of it. So value for money will be central to everything DFID does: using the power of independent evaluation, transparency and results-focus to maximise the effectiveness of Britain's aid efforts. None International leadership on aid None [](Coalition agreementopens in a new window) [](MDGs in 2010) [](Millennium Development Goals - United Nationsopens in a new window) None None 2010-05-25 55 Around 680,000 people have now been affected by widespread flooding in Benin, West Africa. Over two thirds of the countrya€™s communes have been affected and fears are growing that diseases like cholera could spread across the country. The UK government has been at the forefront in supporting the humanitarian charity Care Internationala€™s vital work in Benin. UKaid support to Care International is helping provide fresh clean drinking water, urgently needed shelter, mosquito nets and food to thousands of people in need of help. Although Benin has suffered the worst this year, across the West Africa region more than 1.6 million people have been affected by torrential rains causing over 300 deaths to date. ![Flood map of West Africa](/Images/Benin_floods_map_468.gif) * * *   **15 October** The current rainy season across West Africa has affected hundreds of thousands of men, women and children in almost every country in the region. The worst flood-affected country is Benin where 43 people have been killed and over 150,000 people's homes have been damaged or lost due to the floods. Farm land and schools have also been badly damaged by the floods. Overall, 360,000 people have been affected by the floods in Benin. The Government of Benin has declared a national emergency and called for international aid in response to the rapidly emerging crisis. Britain has been quick to respond to the flood-stricken nation through emergency support to Care International. Britain will help provide 50,000 people with: * a supply of clean, fresh drinking water and hygiene kits to stop the spread of disease; * shelter, mosquito nets and cooking kits to the most vulnerable families affected by the floods; and  * urgently required food to meet the needs of both adults and children caught up in this disaster. DFID will continue to monitor the situation on the ground to ensure our aid is reaching people as quickly and efficiently as possible. Houses submerged in flood waters. Photocredit: CARE Flooding in Benin and West Africa [](Photo gallery | Flood relief in Benin) [](CARE International UK - Benin: Devastating floodsopens in a new window) 27 October: update Houses submerged in flood waters. Photocredit: CARE 2010-10-27 56 ### The UK Government response to the Pakistan floods The UK Government has committed £134 million in response to the UN Pakistan Floods appeal. In addition, a £10 million bridge project has been brought forward. To find out how UK aid has helped hundreds of thousands of people who were affected by the floods, select a story from our multimedia 'six-months on' report, or scroll down to see a summary and timeline of our response. [![Pakistan floods: six months on: click to visit our interactive multimedia report](/Images/479x230/pakistan-interactive.jpg)](/Stories/Features/2011/Pakistan-six-months-on-recovering-from-the-worlds-worst-floods/) ## **Summary of UKaid to those affected by the floods:** In total the UK government is providing , mainly via aid agencies: * Safe drinking water to 2.5 million people. * Tents and shelter for some 1.3 million people. * Toilets and sanitation for almost 500,000 people. * Food packages for more than one million people in flood affected areas, in addition to nutritional support for half a million malnourished young children and pregnant/breastfeeding women. * Wheat and vegetable seeds, fertiliser, animal stock feed, and veterinary services to more than 115,000 rural families to avoid further loss of animals and dependency on food aid for the next year or more. * Basic health care for around 2.3 million people. * Help for 200,000 children by repairing 1,500 schools damaged by the floods and providing 200 temporary facilities for children whose schools have been destroyed across Sindh and the Punjab, as well as accelerating a project to build forty schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa benefitting another 9,000 boys and girls. * Heath and hygiene education on how to avoid potentially fatal diseases for around one million people. * Help for around one million people in rural areas to earn a living by providing jobs, skills training, as well as farming tools, seeds, and animals so families can restart their farms. * Support to deliver 8,239 metric tonnes of food and other aid by UN helicopter airdrops, serving flood affected people across 160 different locations. * Twelve planes (five Royal Air Force) flown in packed full of emergency aid. * Homes, seeds and tools for more than half-a-million people recovering from the floods * The UK Government also accelerated a project to provide new bridges to replace some of those destroyed by the floods; ten bridges were shipped over from the UK and are now in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. * * * ### 12 April 2011: Homes, seeds and tools for more than half-a-million people recovering from the floods The UK Government today announced it will help more than half-a-million people in Pakistan recovering from last yeara€™s floods by building flood-resistant homes, restoring vital irrigation and drainage systems, creating jobs, replacing animals and fodder, as well as providing seeds, tool, and fertilisers ahead of the upcoming planting season. This latest allocation of UK aid will among other things: * Build 5,000 flood resistant one room brick homes in Sindh, benefitting some 35,000 people; * Provide cereal seeds and tools to hundreds of thousands of people in time for the Kharif planting season; * Provide kitchen gardens with vegetable seeds and tools to more than 50,000 people in Punjab and Sindh, so they can grow food for their family; * Benefit tens of thousands of households and farms by the restoration of irrigation and drainage systems so they can start planting for the main Kharif season; * Pay tens of thousands of men and women cash for working to help rebuild infrastructure; * Give 12 chickens, two goats or fodder to each of 12,110 households; * Provide 7,530 flood resistant seed storage containers, to prevent loss of vital food stores in future flooding; * Restore 10 acres of fish ponds so people can catch their own food. * * * ### 15 December: Helping children get back to school in Pakistan  Secretary of State for International Development Andrew Mitchell today confirmed that the UK will help 200,000 children return to education in Pakistan, by repairing 1,500 schools damaged by the recent floods and providing 200 temporary facilities for children whose schools have been destroyed across Sindh and the Punjab. Nearly five months since the floods first hit Pakistan, and with winter bringing near freezing temperatures at night, the UK has today also announced shelter for 25,000 people; basic health care for more than half a million people over the next six months; and support to help around one million people in rural areas to earn a living by providing jobs, skills training, and farming tools, seeds, animals so families can restart farming. [Read the full press release](/News/Press-releases/2010/Mitchell-helping-200000-chi